Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary

Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary

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This article refers to the 15th century Jagiellon monarch. For his grandfather who founded the dynasty, see Władysław II Jagiełło. For other monarchs with similar names, see Ladislaus Jagiello (disambiguation) or Ladislaus (disambiguation)
Ladislaus (disambiguation)
Ladislaus is a Latin form of the Slavic given name Vladislav / Ladislav and its local varieties in several Slavic languages.It may also refer to non-Slavic versions of this name:* Ladislao , Portuguese* László , Hungarian...

.


Vladislaus II, also known as Ladislaus Jagiellon ; (1 March 1456, Kraków
Kraków
Kraków also Krakow, or Cracow , is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in the Lesser Poland region, the city dates back to the 7th century. Kraków has traditionally been one of the leading centres of Polish academic, cultural, and artistic life...

, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

 – 13 March 1516, Buda
Buda
For detailed information see: History of Buda CastleBuda is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the west bank of the Danube. The name Buda takes its name from the name of Bleda the Hun ruler, whose name is also Buda in Hungarian.Buda comprises about one-third of Budapest's...

, Hungary
Hungary
Hungary , officially the Republic of Hungary , is a landlocked country in Central Europe. It is situated in the Carpathian Basin and is bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine and Romania to the east, Serbia and Croatia to the south, Slovenia to the southwest and Austria to the west. The...

) was King of Bohemia
Bohemia
Bohemia is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western two-thirds of the traditional Czech Lands. It is located in the contemporary Czech Republic with its capital in Prague...

 from 1471 and King of Hungary
King of Hungary
The King of Hungary was the head of state of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1000 to 1918.The style of title "Apostolic King" was confirmed by Pope Clement XIII in 1758 and used afterwards by all the Kings of Hungary, so after this date the kings are referred to as "Apostolic King of...

 from 1490 until his death in 1516. He was also a knight of the Order of the Dragon
Order of the Dragon
The Order of the Dragon was a monarchical chivalric order for selected nobility,founded in 1408 by Sigismund, King of Hungary and later Holy Roman Emperor The Order of the Dragon (Latin Societas Draconistrarum) was a monarchical chivalric order for selected nobility,founded in 1408 by Sigismund,...

.

King of Bohemia


Vladislaus was born on 1 March 1456, the son of King Casimir IV of Poland
Casimir IV Jagiellon
Casimir IV KG of the House of Jagiellon was Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1440, and King of Poland from 1447, until his death.Casimir was the second son of King Władysław II Jagiełło , and the younger brother of Władysław III of Varna....

 and Great Duke
Great Duke
In traditional demonological discourse, Great Duke is a rank, denoting a position of prominence amongst the hierarchy of demons...

 of Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

, the then head of the ruling Jagiellon dynasty
Jagiellon dynasty
The Jagiellonian dynasty was a royal dynasty originating from the Lithuanian House of Gediminas dynasty that reigned in Central European countries between the 14th and 16th century...

 of Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, and of Elizabeth of Hungary
Elisabeth of Austria (d. 1505)
Elisabeth of Austria , , was a Polish-Lithuanian queen...

, daughter of the Duke Albert II of Germany
Albert II of Germany
Albert the Magnanimous KG was King of Hungary from 1438 until his death. He was also King of Bohemia, elected King of Germany as Albert II, duke of Luxembourg and, as Albert V, archduke of Austria from 1404.-Biography:Albert was born in Vienna as the son of Albert IV, Duke of Austria, and Johanna...

, King of Hungary and Bohemia. He was christened as the namesake of his grandfather King Władysław Jagiełło of Poland, maternal uncle King Ladislaus the Posthumous of Bohemia and his late paternal uncle Władysław III of Poland, an earlier king of Hungary.

He was proposed for the Bohemian throne by the widow of the previous king, George of Poděbrady
George of Podebrady
George of Kunštát and Poděbrady , also known as Poděbrad or Podiebrad , was King of Bohemia...

, and was crowned the King of Bohemia (Vladislav) on 22 August 1471. The period after the death of George of Poděbrady was a time of conflict for the Bohemian throne and Vladislaus was unable to confront it. At the time of his arrival in Prague, he was only fifteen years old and significantly dominated by his advisers. The succession conflict was settled in 1479 in the Peace of Olomouc
Peace of Olomouc
The Peace of Olomouc was signed on April 2, 1479 between Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and King Vladislaus II of Bohemia . On July 21, 1479, the agreement was ratified during the course of festivities in Olomouc...

, which allowed both Vladislaus and Matthias Corvinus to use the title "King of Bohemia." Vladislaus would reign in Bohemia proper, while Matthias gained Moravia
Moravia
Moravia is a historical region in Central Europe in the east of the Czech Republic, and one of the former Czech lands, together with Bohemia and Silesia. It takes its name from the Morava River which rises in the northwest of the region...

, Silesia
Silesia
Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe located mostly in Poland, with smaller parts also in the Czech Republic, and Germany.Silesia is rich in mineral and natural resources, and includes several important industrial areas. Silesia's largest city and historical capital is Wrocław...

, and the two Lusatia
Lusatia
Lusatia is a historical region in Central Europe. It stretches from the Bóbr and Kwisa rivers in the east to the Elbe valley in the west, today located within the German states of Saxony and Brandenburg as well as in the Lower Silesian and Lubusz voivodeships of western Poland...

s. The deal also stipulated that in case of Matthias' death, Vladislaus would pay 400,000 gold (contemporary currency, not "gold
Gold
Gold is a chemical element with the symbol Au and an atomic number of 79. Gold is a dense, soft, shiny, malleable and ductile metal. Pure gold has a bright yellow color and luster traditionally considered attractive, which it maintains without oxidizing in air or water. Chemically, gold is a...

") for the entirety of the Bohemian lands. However, this payment was not made once Vladislaus became King of Hungary after the death of Matthias.

The "Kutnohorian deal
Kutná Hora
Kutná Hora is a city in Bohemia, now the Czech Republic in the Central Bohemian Region.-History:The town began in 1142 with the settlement of the first Cistercian Monastery in Bohemia, Kloster Sedlitz, brought from the Imperial immediate Cistercian Waldsassen Abbey...

" in 1485 practically eliminated Vladislaus' power and granted it to the nobles. The deal in its original form would have been in effect for 31 years, but was extended in 1512 to "all times."

King of Hungary


Great chaos overcame in Hungary when the King Matthias Corvinus died without heir in 1490. His illegitime son John Corvin wasn't recognized by the Hungarian nobility, and after being forced to retreat, they called Vladislaus to Hungary, as his mother was the sister of the long ago deceased King Ladislaus V of Hungary, grandson of the legendary King Sigismund of Hungary. Vladislaus then was crowned King of Hungary on 18 September 1490. No regnal number was used by Vladislaus at the time, but works of reference retrospectively assigned him various ordinals for each of his kingdoms. The most usual number is II because before him there was only one Władysław on the Hungarian throne, his paternal uncle. Though counting the Hungarian and Bohemian translations of his name he was also the seventh Ladislas (VII) on the Hungarian throne and the fifth Vladislav (V) on the Bohemian throne.

Vladislaus immediately moved to Hungary, and there he lived the rest of his life, having his court and all his children born in the palace of Buda. The Hungarian nobility reigned and took many important decisions in his name, and, his role as monarch soon passed to be in a second plan. Stephen Zápolya, the archbishop Tamás Bakócz
Tamás Bakócz
Tamás Bakócz was a Hungarian archbishop, cardinal and statesman.In sources in Croatian, Tamás Bakócz is also referred under the name Toma Bakač....

 and George Szatmári continued with the Turkish wars plans, and tried then to maintain the Kingdom that fell in a severe economical crisis after Matthias's death. Vladislaus was a cheerful man, but after his third wife's death, he fell in a severe depression and almost retired from all the official issues. Then he gained the nickname of "Vladislaus Bene" because to almost any request he answered, "Bene" (Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

 for "(It's) well").

During his reign (1490–1516), the Hungarian royal power declined in favour of the Hungarian magnates, who used their power to curtail the peasants’ freedom. His reign in Hungary was largely stable, although Hungary was under consistent border pressure from the Ottoman Empire
Ottoman Empire
The Ottoman EmpireIt was usually referred to as the "Ottoman Empire", the "Turkish Empire", the "Ottoman Caliphate" or more commonly "Turkey" by its contemporaries...

 and went through the revolt of György Dózsa
György Dózsa
György Dózsa was a Székely Hungarian man-at-arms from Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary who led a peasants' revolt against the kingdom's landed nobility...

. On March 11, 1500 Czech Council adopted a new municipal constitution that limited royal power and Vladislav signed it in 1502 (hence it is known as Vladislav municipal constitution). Additionally, he oversaw the construction (1493–1502) of the enormous Vladislav Hall
Vladislav Hall
Vladislav Hall is a large room within the Prague Castle complex in the Czech Republic, used for large public events of the Bohemian monarchy and the modern Czech state...

 atop the palace at the Prague Castle
Prague Castle
Prague Castle is a castle in Prague where the Kings of Bohemia, Holy Roman Emperors and presidents of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic have had their offices. The Czech Crown Jewels are kept here...

.

Vladislaus died two weeks after his 60th birthday on 13th march of 1516 in the city of Buda. His funeral was held 6 days after that in the city of Székesfehérvár's main cathedral, where all the Kings of Hungary were used to be buried. His son was previously crowned as King of Hungary in 1508 and in 1509 as King of Bohemia before his father died, so the succession was assured. Before he died, Vladislaus called Tamás Bakócz, John Bornemissza and George Hohenzollern, and named them the bearers and custodiers of the young prince Louis. The monarch left after his death a Kingdom in political ruins and with a debt of 403,000 Hungarian Florins.

Marriages and issue



He was married three times, first in 1476 at Frankfurt/Oder to Barbara of Brandenburg
Barbara of Brandenburg
Barbara of Brandenburg was born in Ansbach and was the fourth of thirteen children born to Albrecht III, Elector of Brandenburg and his second wife, Anna of Saxony.-Biography:...

, daughter of Albert III Achilles, Elector of Brandenburg, child widow of Silesian Piast Henry XI of Głogów, then to the widow of Matthias, Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples
Beatrice of Naples was the daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples and Isabella of Taranto. She was queen consort to both Matthias Corvinus of Hungary and Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary so she was Queen of Hungary and Bohemia.-Biography:Beatrice received a good education at her father's court in...

, daughter of Ferdinand I of Naples
Ferdinand I of Naples
Ferdinand I , also called Don Ferrante, was the King of Naples from 1458 to 1494. He was the natural son of Alfonso V of Aragon by Giraldona Carlino.-Biography:...

. His third wife, Anne de Foix, was crowned
Coronation
A coronation is a ceremony marking the formal investiture of a monarch and/or their consort with regal power, usually involving the placement of a crown upon their head and the presentation of other items of regalia...

 on September 29, 1502 when she about 18 years of age and he was 46. She gave birth to his only surviving legitimate children, Anna of Bohemia and Hungary
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary
Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, also sometimes known as Anna Jagellonica was, by marriage to Ferdinand I, King of the Romans and later Holy Roman Emperor, Queen of the Romans.-Family:She was the elder child and only daughter of king Vladislaus II of Bohemia and Hungary and his third...

 and Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia
Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia
Louis II was King of Hungary, Bohemia and Croatia from 1516 to 1526.- Early life :Louis was the son of Ladislaus II Jagiellon and his third wife, Anne de Foix....

 and died less than 4 years later in 1506, from complications resulting from the birth of Louis.

After his death, Vladislaus' ten-year-old son Louis succeeded him on the thrones of both Bohemia and Hungary. His daughter Anna was married in 1515 to the future emperor Ferdinand of Austria
Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor
Ferdinand I was Holy Roman Emperor from 1558 and king of Bohemia and Hungary from 1526 until his death. Before his accession, he ruled the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs in the name of his elder brother, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor.The key events during his reign were the contest...

, a grandson of Emperor Maximilian I
Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian I , the son of Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor and Eleanor of Portugal, was King of the Romans from 1486 and Holy Roman Emperor from 1493 until his death, though he was never in fact crowned by the Pope, the journey to Rome always being too risky...

. Therefore, after the death of Louis at the Battle of Mohács
Battle of Mohács
The Battle of Mohács was fought on August 29, 1526 near Mohács, Hungary. In the battle, forces of the Kingdom of Hungary led by King Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia were defeated by forces of the Ottoman Empire led by Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent....

, the succession devolved through Anna to the cadet line
Cadet branch
Cadet branch is a term in genealogy to describe the lineage of the descendants of the younger sons of a monarch or patriarch. In the ruling dynasties and noble families of much of Europe and Asia, the family's major assets – titles, realms, fiefs, property and income – have...

 of eastern Habsburgs.

Titles


His titles according to the laws in 1492: King of Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, Croatia, Slavonia, Rama, Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria, Prince of Silesia and Luxembourg, Margrave of Moravia and Lusatia.

Ancestors