Virtue

Virtue

Overview
Virtue is moral
Morality
Morality is the differentiation among intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good and bad . A moral code is a system of morality and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code...

 excellence
Excellence
Excellence is a talent or quality which is unusually good and so surpasses ordinary standards. It is also an aimed for standard of performance.-History:...

. A virtue is a positive trait or quality subjectively deemed to be morally excellent and thus is valued
Value (ethics)
In ethics, value is a property of objects, including physical objects as well as abstract objects , representing their degree of importance....

 as a foundation of principle
Principle
A principle is a law or rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed...

 and good moral being.
Personal virtues are characteristics valued
Value (personal and cultural)
A personal or cultural value is an absolute or relative ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action. A value system is a set of consistent values and measures. A principle value is a foundation upon which other values and measures of integrity are based...

 as promoting individual and collective well being. The opposite of virtue is vice
Vice
Vice is a practice or a behavior or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity, or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness, and corruption...

.


Virtue is a behavior showing a high moral standard and is a pattern of thought and behavior based on high moral standards.
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Quotations

Virtue consisted in avoiding scandal and venereal disease.

Robert Cecil, Life in Edwardian England (1969)

Only Virtue is sufficient unto herself. She makes us love the living and remember the dead.

Baltasar Gracián. In Maxim 300, The Art of Worldly Wisdom (1647)

To gain a reputation for virtue, grieve over those you injure.

Mason Cooley, American aphorist. City Aphorisms, Fourth Selection (1987)

Virtue is the public face of vice.

Leonid S. Sukhorukov|Leonid S. Sukhorukov, All About Everything (2005)

Villainy wears many masks, none of which so dangerous as virtue.

Ichabod Crane|Ichabod Crane (Johnny Depp) in the film, Sleepy Hollow (movie)|Sleepy Hollow (1999 in film|1999)

To be able to practise five things everywhere under heaven constitutes perfect virtue...gravity, generosity of soul, sincerity, earnestness, and kindness.

Confucius, Analects, fifth century B.C.

Let this great maxim be my virtue’s guide,—In part she is to blame that has been tried: He comes too near that comes to be denied.

Lady Mary Wortley Montagu (1689-1762), The lady’s Resolve (1713) Quotes reported in Josiah Hotchkiss Gilbert, Dictionary of Burning Words of Brilliant Writers (1895).

Virtue consists in doing our duty in the several relations we sustain in respect to ourselves, to our fellow men, and to God, as known from reason, conscience, and revelation.

J. W. Alexander, p. 611.

We cannot have right virtue without right conditions.

Henry Ward Beecher, p. 611.

The paths of virtue, though seldom those of worldly greatness, are always those of pleasantness and peace.

Sir Walter Scott, p. 612.
Encyclopedia
Virtue is moral
Morality
Morality is the differentiation among intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good and bad . A moral code is a system of morality and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code...

 excellence
Excellence
Excellence is a talent or quality which is unusually good and so surpasses ordinary standards. It is also an aimed for standard of performance.-History:...

. A virtue is a positive trait or quality subjectively deemed to be morally excellent and thus is valued
Value (ethics)
In ethics, value is a property of objects, including physical objects as well as abstract objects , representing their degree of importance....

 as a foundation of principle
Principle
A principle is a law or rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed...

 and good moral being.
Personal virtues are characteristics valued
Value (personal and cultural)
A personal or cultural value is an absolute or relative ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action. A value system is a set of consistent values and measures. A principle value is a foundation upon which other values and measures of integrity are based...

 as promoting individual and collective well being. The opposite of virtue is vice
Vice
Vice is a practice or a behavior or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity, or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness, and corruption...

.

Virtues and values



Virtue is a behavior showing a high moral standard and is a pattern of thought and behavior based on high moral standards. Virtues can be placed into a broader context of values. Each individual
Individual
An individual is a person or any specific object or thing in a collection. Individuality is the state or quality of being an individual; a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs, goals, and desires. Being self expressive...

 has a core of underlying values that contribute to his or her system of beliefs, ideas and/or opinions (see value
Value (semiotics)
In semiotics, the value of a sign depends on its position and relations in the system of signification and upon the particular codes being used.-Saussure's Value:Value is the sign as it is determined by the other signs in a semiotic system...

 in semiotics
Semiotics
Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or semiology, is the study of signs and sign processes , indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication...

). Integrity in the application of a value ensures its continuity and this continuity separates a value from beliefs, opinion and ideas. In this context, a value (e.g., Truth or Equality or Creed) is the core from which we operate or react. Societies have values that are shared among many of the participants in that culture. An individual's values typically are largely, but not entirely, in agreement with his or her culture's values.

Individual virtues can be grouped into one of four categories of values:
  • Ethics
    Ethics
    Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime, etc.Major branches of ethics include:...

     (virtue - vice
    Vice
    Vice is a practice or a behavior or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity, or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness, and corruption...

    , good - evil
    Evil
    Evil is the violation of, or intent to violate, some moral code. Evil is usually seen as the dualistic opposite of good. Definitions of evil vary along with analysis of its root motive causes, however general actions commonly considered evil include: conscious and deliberate wrongdoing,...

    , moral
    Morality
    Morality is the differentiation among intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good and bad . A moral code is a system of morality and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code...

     - immoral - amoral
    Amorality
    Amorality is an absence of, indifference towards, or disregard for moral beliefs. Any entity that is not sentient may be considered amoral. In addition, it can be argued that sentient but non-human creatures, like dogs, have no concept of morality and are therefore amoral...

    , right - wrong)
  • Aesthetics
    Aesthetics
    Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste...

     (unbalanced, pleasing)
  • Doctrinal
    Doctrine
    Doctrine is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system...

     (political
    Politics
    Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the...

    , ideological
    Ideology
    An ideology is a set of ideas that constitutes one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things , as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies , or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to...

    , religious
    Religion
    Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

     or social
    Social
    The term social refers to a characteristic of living organisms...

     belief
    Belief
    Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true.-Belief, knowledge and epistemology:The terms belief and knowledge are used differently in philosophy....

    s and values)
  • Innate/inborn


Examples of virtues include:

The four classic Western Cardinal virtues
Cardinal virtues
In Christian traditionthere are 4 cardinal virtues:*Prudence - able to judge between actions with regard to appropriate actions at a given time*Justice - proper moderation between self-interest and the rights and needs of others...

 are:
  • temperance
    Temperance (virtue)
    Temperance has been studied by religious thinkers, philosophers, and more recently, psychologists, particularly in the positive psychology movement. It is considered a virtue, a core value that can be seen consistently across time and cultures...

    : (sōphrosynē)
  • prudence
    Prudence
    Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues .The word comes from Old French prudence , from Latin...

    : (phronēsis)
  • courage
    Courage
    Courage is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation...

    : (andreia)
  • justice
    Justice (virtue)
    Justice is one of the four cardinal virtues in classical European philosophy and Roman Catholicism. It is the moderation between selfishness and selflessness....

    : (dikaiosynē)


This enumeration is traced to Greek philosophy and was listed at least by Plato
Plato
Plato , was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the...

, if not also by Socrates
Socrates
Socrates was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary ...

, from whom no attributable written works exist. Plato also mentions "Holiness".

It is likely that Plato believed that virtue was, in fact, a single thing, and that this enumeration was created by others in order to better define virtue. In Protagoras
Protagoras (dialogue)
Protagoras is a dialogue of Plato. The traditional subtitle is "or the Sophists, probative". The main argument is between the elderly Protagoras, a celebrated sophist, and Socrates...

 and Meno
Meno
Meno is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato. It attempts to determine the definition of virtue, or arete, meaning virtue in general, rather than particular virtues, such as justice or temperance. The first part of the work is written in the Socratic dialectical style and Meno is reduced to...

, he states that the separate virtues can't exist independently and offers as evidence the contradictions of acting with wisdom (prudence), yet in an unjust way, or acting with bravery (fortitude), yet without knowing (prudence).

Aristotle's virtues


In the Nicomachean Ethics
Nicomachean Ethics
The Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle's best known work on ethics. The English version of the title derives from Greek Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια, transliterated Ethika Nikomacheia, which is sometimes also given in the genitive form as Ἠθικῶν Νικομαχείων, Ethikōn Nikomacheiōn...

, Aristotle defined a virtue as a balance point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. The point of greatest virtue lies not in the exact middle, but at a golden mean
Golden mean (philosophy)
In philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency. For example courage, a virtue, if taken to excess would manifest as recklessness and if deficient as cowardice....

 sometimes closer to one extreme than the other. For example, courage is the mean between cowardice and foolhardiness, confidence the mean between self-deprecation and vanity, and generosity the mean between miserliness and extravagance. It requires common-sense smarts, not necessarily extreme intelligence
Intelligence
Intelligence has been defined in different ways, including the abilities for abstract thought, understanding, communication, reasoning, learning, planning, emotional intelligence and problem solving....

, to find this golden mean. In Aristotle's sense, it is excellence at being human, a skill which helps a person survive, thrive, form meaningful relationships and find happiness
Happiness
Happiness is a mental state of well-being characterized by positive emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. A variety of biological, psychological, religious, and philosophical approaches have striven to define happiness and identify its sources....

. Learning virtue is usually difficult at first, but becomes easier with practice over time until it becomes a habit
Habit (psychology)
Habits are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsciously. Habitual behavior often goes unnoticed in persons exhibiting it, because a person does not need to engage in self-analysis when undertaking routine tasks...

.

Prudence and virtue


Seneca
Seneca the Younger
Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero...

, the Roman Stoic
STOIC
STOIC was a variant of Forth.It started out at the MIT and Harvard Biomedical Engineering Centre in Boston, and was written in the mid 1970s by Jonathan Sachs...

, said that perfect prudence
Prudence
Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues .The word comes from Old French prudence , from Latin...

 is indistinguishable from perfect virtue. Thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person.

The same rationale was followed by Plato
Plato
Plato , was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the...

 in Meno
Meno
Meno is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato. It attempts to determine the definition of virtue, or arete, meaning virtue in general, rather than particular virtues, such as justice or temperance. The first part of the work is written in the Socratic dialectical style and Meno is reduced to...

, when he wrote that people only act for what they perceive will maximize the good. It is the lack of wisdom which results in the making of a bad choice, rather than a good one. In this way, wisdom is the central part of virtue. However, Plato realized that if virtue was synonymous with wisdom then it could be taught, a possibility he had earlier discounted. He then added "correct belief" as an alternative to knowledge, proposing that knowledge is merely correct belief that has been thought through and "tethered".

(Please add proper information here.)

Abrahamic religions



The Jewish tradition


Throughout rabbinic literature
Rabbinic literature
Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term...

, there are many lists of the central virtues of the Jewish tradition
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

. Pirkei Avot, for example, gives a list of 48 virtues necessary for acquiring Torah. Other lists of virtues are analyzed in the genre of literature known as Musar literature
Musar literature
Musar literature is the term used for didactic Jewish ethical literature which describes virtues and vices and the path towards perfection in a methodical way.- Definition of Musar literature :...

, a literature which methodically explores the nature of virtue and vice.

"Compassion" is a virtue that is especially important in the Jewish tradition
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

. God
God
God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

 is the Compassionate and is invoked as the Father of Compassion; hence Raḥmana or Compassionate becomes the usual designation for His revealed word. (Compare, below, the frequent use of raḥman in the Qur'an
Qur'an
The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

).

In Biblical Hebrew, sorrow and pity for one in distress, creating a desire to relieve, is a feeling ascribed alike to man and God ("riḥam," from "reḥem," the mother, womb). The Rabbi
Rabbi
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...

s speak of the "thirteen attributes of compassion." The Biblical
Hebrew Bible
The Hebrew Bible is a term used by biblical scholars outside of Judaism to refer to the Tanakh , a canonical collection of Jewish texts, and the common textual antecedent of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament...

 conception of compassion is the feeling of the parent for the child. Hence, the prophet's appeal in confirmation of his trust in God invokes the feeling of a mother for her offspring (Isa. xlix. 15).

Lack of compassion, by contrast, marks a people as cruel (Jer. vi. 23). The repeated injunctions of the Law and the Prophet
Prophet
In religion, a prophet, from the Greek word προφήτης profitis meaning "foreteller", is an individual who is claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine, and serves as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural entity to other people...

s that the widow, the orphan and the stranger should be protected show how deeply, it is argued, the feeling of compassion was rooted in the hearts of the righteous in ancient Israel.

A classic articulation of the Golden Rule (see above) came from the first century Rabbi Hillel the Elder
Hillel the Elder
Hillel was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. He is associated with the development of the Mishnah and the Talmud...

. Renowned in the Jewish tradition as a sage and a scholar, he is associated with the development of the Mishnah
Mishnah
The Mishnah or Mishna is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism. It was redacted c...

 and the Talmud
Talmud
The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history....

 and, as such, one of the most important figures in Jewish history
Jewish history
Jewish history is the history of the Jews, their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Since Jewish history is over 4000 years long and includes hundreds of different populations, any treatment can only be provided in broad strokes...

. Asked for a summary of the Jewish religion in the most concise terms, Hillel replied (reputedly while standing on one leg): "That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah. The rest is the explanation; go and learn."

Post 9/11, the words of Rabbi Hillel are frequently quoted in public lectures and interviews around the world by the prominent writer on comparative religion Karen Armstrong
Karen Armstrong
Karen Armstrong FRSL , is a British author and commentator who is the author of twelve books on comparative religion. A former Roman Catholic nun, she went from a conservative to a more liberal and mystical faith...

.

The Christian tradition


In Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

, the theological virtues are faith
Faith
Faith is confidence or trust in a person or thing, or a belief that is not based on proof. In religion, faith is a belief in a transcendent reality, a religious teacher, a set of teachings or a Supreme Being. Generally speaking, it is offered as a means by which the truth of the proposition,...

, hope
Hope
Hope is the emotional state which promotes the belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in one's life. It is the "feeling that what is wanted can be had or that events will turn out for the best" or the act of "look[ing] forward to with desire and reasonable confidence" or...

 and love
Love
Love is an emotion of strong affection and personal attachment. In philosophical context, love is a virtue representing all of human kindness, compassion, and affection. Love is central to many religions, as in the Christian phrase, "God is love" or Agape in the Canonical gospels...

, a list which comes from 1 Corinthians 13:13 (νυνι δε μενει πιστις ελπις αγαπη τα τρια ταυτα μειζων δε τουτων η αγαπη (pistis, elpis, agape)). The Christian virtue of love is sometimes called charity
Charity (virtue)
In Christian theology charity, or love , means an unlimited loving-kindness toward all others.The term should not be confused with the more restricted modern use of the word charity to mean benevolent giving.- Caritas: altruistic love :...

 and at other times a Greek word agape
Agape
Agape is one of the Greek words translated into English as love, one which became particularly appropriated in Christian theology as the love of God or Christ for mankind. In the New Testament, it refers to the fatherly love of God for humans, as well as the human reciprocal love for God; the term...

 is used to contrast the love for God & family from other types of love such as friendship or physical affection. According to some Christian philosophers
Christian philosophy
Christian philosophy may refer to any development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.- Origins of Christian philosophy :...

, most notably Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas, O.P. , also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino, was an Italian Dominican priest of the Catholic Church, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Communis, or Doctor Universalis...

, the theological virtues are to perfect one's love of God and Man and therefore to harmonize and partake of prudence
Prudence
Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues .The word comes from Old French prudence , from Latin...

.

There are many listings of virtue additional to the traditional Christian virtues (faith, hope and love) in the Christian Bible. One is the "Fruit of the Holy Spirit," found in Galatians 5:22-23: "By contrast, the fruits of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. There is no law against such things." (Ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη χαρὰ εἰρήνη, μακροθυμία χρηστότης ἀγαθωσύνη, πίστις πραΰτης ἐγκράτεια· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος.)

The Muslim tradition


In the Muslim tradition the Qur'an
Qur'an
The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

 is, as the word of God, the great repository of all virtues in earthly form, and the Prophet
Muhammad
Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

, particularly via his hadiths or reported sayings, the exemplar of virtues in human form.

According to Al-Qur'an,Holy book of I-salami,traditional Qur'anic grammar ,"i'rāb (إعراب)", Chapter (5) sūrat l-māidah (The Table spread with Food),"I-salami" meaning "Peace"),

By the way,similar modern Arabic word, I-salama meaning "submission",offenly misunderstand & misuse from the word "I-salami","Peace",

Shalom aleichem , Peace upon you.
Alia al salam , Peace upon you.

Proclaims the virtues is acceptance to the will of God,acception the ways of God,acceptance divine grace of forgiveness,mercy,gracious,true repentance,the redemption,acceptance to the ways of Peace,the acceptance of the way things are. Foremost among God's
Allah
Allah is a word for God used in the context of Islam. In Arabic, the word means simply "God". It is used primarily by Muslims and Bahá'ís, and often, albeit not exclusively, used by Arabic-speaking Eastern Catholic Christians, Maltese Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Mizrahi Jews and...

 attributes are mercy and compassion
Compassion
Compassion is a virtue — one in which the emotional capacities of empathy and sympathy are regarded as a part of love itself, and a cornerstone of greater social interconnection and humanism — foundational to the highest principles in philosophy, society, and personhood.There is an aspect of...

 or, in the canonical language of Arabic, I-rahmani and I-rahimi. Each of the 114 chapters of the Qur'an
Qur'an
The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

, with one exception, begins with the verse, "In the name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful".

The Arabic for compassion is I-rahmani. As a cultural influence, its roots abound in the Qur'an. A good Muslim is to commence each day, each prayer and each significant action by invoking God the Merciful and Compassionate, i.e. by reciting Bi Ism-i-Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim.

The Muslim scriptures urge compassion towards captives as well as to widows, orphans and the poor. Traditionally, Zakat, a toll tax to help the poor and needy, is obligatory upon all Muslims (9:60). One of the practical purposes of fasting or sawm
Sawm
Sawm is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. In the terminology of Islamic law, Sawm means to abstain from eating, drinking , having sex and anything against Islamic law...

 during the month of Ramadan
Ramadan
Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, which lasts 29 or 30 days. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking and sex during daylight hours and is intended to teach Muslims about patience, spirituality, humility and...

 is to help one empathize with the hunger pangs of those less fortunate, to enhance sensitivity to the suffering of others and develop compassion for the poor and destitute.

The Muslim virtues are: prayer, repentance, honesty, loyalty, sincerity, frugality, prudence, moderation, self-restraint, discipline, perseverance, patience, hope, dignity, courage, justice, tolerance, wisdom, good speech, respect, purity, courtesy, kindness, gratitude, generosity, contentment, and others.

About virtues in I-salami tradition,acceptance to the ways of God according to attribute of God & his allgoodness.
God is love,selfless,egoless,modesty & omnibenevolence.

Love of God & God's goodness are eternity,infinite & limitless.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_of_God
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omnibenevolence
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_virtues

Omnimorous infinte love of God unconditionally is all of greatest amoung greatest of all love of all love.
And God's omnibenevolence are infinite,(Latin "omni"meaning all benevolence good).

According to Al-Qur'an,the Holy book of I-salami.
Chapter (1) sūrat l-fātiḥah (The Opening) Verse 1:1:1 to 1:6:3
In name of my “God” ,the most gracious , the most merciful ,all praise and thanks to my “God”,the Lord of universe,the most gracious,the most merciful,Master (of the) day,the judgement,You alone we worships and you alone we ask for help , Guide us,the path,the straight.

Chapter (7) sūrat l-a'rāf (The Heights) Verse 7:37:1 to 7:37:37
7:37:1 to 7:37:15 Then who (is) more unjust than (one) who invented against my “God” , a lie or denies his verses? Those will reach them their portion from the book.
7:37:16 to 7:37:21 Until when they come to the our messengers to take them in death.(To take their souls),they say.
7:37:22 to 7:37:29 "Where are those (whom) you used to invoke from besides my “God”” they say.
7:37:30 to 7:37:37 "They strayed from us," and they (will) testify against themselves that they were disbelievers.

Chapter (5) sūrat l-māidah (The Table spread with Food) Verse 5:15:1 to 5:16:18

5:15:1 to 5:15:5... O People of the book surely has come to you "our messenger". 5:15:6 to 5:15:13 Making clear to you much of what you used from something that had been concealed in the book,(the scriptures) 5:15:14 to 5:15:18 And over looking of much surely has come to you. 5:15:19 to 5:15:22 From my "God","a light" & "a book".

In translation, not adding in the book, The real key words of translation properly, "Old Aramaic transcripts".
Biblical Aramaic 'Elaha "God". אלהי Elahi definition "My god". Elah definition "god". The "i" after Elah in "Elahi" ..."i" after "Elah" in "Elahi" "i" definition "my".

5:15:23 to 5:16:2 Clear guides with it. 5:16:3 to 5:16:8 “God" those who seek his pleasure, (to the ) ways"(of ) I-salami , "peace".

5:16:7 subula to (throught) the way. 5:16:8 l-salāmi (of) the peace 5:16:9 to 5:16:11 And brings them out from the darknessess. 5:16:12 to 5:16:14 To "the light",by "his permission". 5:16:13 "I-nuri" the light. 5:16:14 bi-idh'nihi by his permission. 5:16:15 to 5:16:18 And guides them to the way the straight.

Subula l-salāmi ways peace
ṣirāṭin mus'taqīmin ways straight 5:16:8 I-salami Peace

Chapter (5) sūrat l-māidah (The Table spread with Food) verse 5:54:1 to 5:55:13
5:54:1 to 5:54:8 O you who believe,whoever turn back amoung you from his religions
5:54:9 to 5:54:14 Then soon will be brought by God,the people whom he loves and they love him
5:54:15 to 5:54:20 Humble towards the believers,sterns towards the disbelievers.
5:54:21 to 5:54:28 Striving in way of my God and not fearing the blame,the critic.
5:54:29 to 5:54:32 That's the grace of my God,he grants whom he wills.
5:54:35 to 5:55:13 And God,all encompassion(all guiding),all knowing,only your ally,God and his messengers and those who believe,and those who establish the prayer and give the purification works (I-zakata,) and they those who bow down.

The modesty,humility,selfless & egoless as virtues.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_virtues
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humility

In I-salami tradition.According to Al-Qur'an the holy book of I-salami.Chapter (32) sūrat l-sajdah (The Prostration),the verse "prostration" definition "face-down" to bow down to somebody,someone,somethingelse first ,with modesty,humility,humble,good manners & courtesy,to bow down with respect.

Humility is one of 7 heavenly virtues.

"Doing the pure goodness,the purification works never wrongdoing."

And because God never need insolence.And Pride is one of 7 deadly sins.

"To bow down to somebody,someone,somethingelse first with modesty,with humble,with humility,with good manners,with courtesy,with respect (doing pure goodness) never wrongdoing."

The Bahá'í tradition


In the Bahá'í Faith
Bahá'í Faith
The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

, virtues are direct spiritual qualities that the human soul possesses, inherited from God Himself. The development and manifestation of these virtues is the theme of the Hidden Words
Hidden Words
Kalimát-i-Maknúnih or The Hidden Words is a book written in Baghdad around 1857 by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith...

 of Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh
Bahá'u'lláh , born ' , was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. He claimed to be the prophetic fulfilment of Bábism, a 19th-century outgrowth of Shí‘ism, but in a broader sense claimed to be a messenger from God referring to the fulfilment of the eschatological expectations of Islam, Christianity, and...

 and are discussed in great detail as the underpinnings of a divinely-inspired society by `Abdu'l-Bahá
`Abdu'l-Bahá
‘Abdu’l-Bahá , born ‘Abbás Effendí, was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. In 1892, `Abdu'l-Bahá was appointed in his father's will to be his successor and head of the Bahá'í Faith. `Abdu'l-Bahá was born in Tehran to an aristocratic family of the realm...

 in such texts as The Secret of Divine Civilization.

Many of the virtues are described with special significance in Bahá'í scripture, such as:
  • Truthfulness - the "foundation of all human virtues".
  • Justice - the "best beloved of all things (to God)".
  • Love - the basis for God's creation of mankind.
  • Humility - a condition for being recipient of God's grace.
  • Trustworthiness - the "goodliest vesture in the sight of God".


The Virtues Project
The Virtues Project
'The Virtues Project empowers individuals to live more authentic meaningful lives, families to raise children of compassion and integrity, educators to create safe, caring, and high performing learning communities, and leaders to encourage excellence and ethics in the work place...

 developed by Canadian Bahá'ís Linda Popov, Dan Popov, and John Kavelin, is greatly inspired by the Bahá'í perspective on virtues.

Hindu virtues


Hinduism, or Sanatana Dharma (Dharma means moral duty), has pivotal virtues that everyone keeping their Dharma is asked to follow, for they are distinct qualities of manusya (mankind) that allow one to be in the mode of goodness. There are three modes of material nature (guna
Guna
' means 'string' or 'a single thread or strand of a cord or twine'. In more abstract uses, it may mean 'a subdivision, species, kind, quality', or an operational principle or tendency....

), as described in the Vedas
Vedas
The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism....

 and other Indian Scriptures: Sattva
Sattva
In Hindu philosophy, sattva is the most rarefied of the three gunas in Samkhya, sāttvika "pure", rājasika "dim", and tāmasika "dark". Importantly, no value judgement is entailed as all guna are indivisible and mutually qualifying...

 (goodness,maintenance, stillness, intelligence), Rajas
Rajas
Rajas ) is, in the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, one of the three gunas. Of these, rajas, is responsible for motion, energy and preservation...

 (passion,creation, energy, activity) , and Tamas
Tamas (philosophy)
In the Samkhya school of philosophy, tamas is one of the three gunas , the other two being rajas and sattva or purity). Tamas is the template for inertia or resistance to action...

 (ignorance, restraint, inertia, destruction). Every person harbours a mixture of these modes in varying degrees. A person in the mode of Sattva has that mode in prominence in his nature, which he obtains by following the virtues of the Dharma
Dharma
Dharma means Law or Natural Law and is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion. In the context of Hinduism, it refers to one's personal obligations, calling and duties, and a Hindu's dharma is affected by the person's age, caste, class, occupation, and gender...

 .

The modes of Sattva are as follows:
  • Altruism
    Altruism
    Altruism is a concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures, and a core aspect of various religious traditions, though the concept of 'others' toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. Altruism is the opposite of...

    : Selfless Service to all humanity
  • Restraint
    Self control
    Self control is the ability to control one's emotions, behavior and desires in order to obtain some reward later. In psychology it is sometimes called self-regulation...

     and Moderation
    Moderation
    Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes. It is used to ensure normality throughout the medium on which it is being conducted...

    : This is having restraint and moderation in all things. Sexual relations, eating, and other pleasurable activities should be kept in moderation. Some orthodox followers also believe in sex only in marriage, and being chaste. The degree of restraint and moderation depends on the sect and belief system. Some people believe it means celibacy, while others believe in walking the golden path of moderation, i.e. Not too far to the side of forceful control and total abandon of human pleasures, but also not too far to the side of total indulgence and total abandon for moderation.
  • Honesty
    Honesty
    Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and denotes positive, virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, and straightforwardness along with the absence of lying, cheating, or theft....

    : One is required to be honest with oneself, one's family, one's friends, and to all of humanity.
  • Cleanliness
    Cleanliness
    Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from dirt, and the process of achieving and maintaining that state.Cleanliness may be endowed with a moral quality, as indicated by the aphorism "cleanliness is next to godliness," and may be regarded as contributing to other ideals...

    : Outer cleanliness is to be cultivated for good health and hygiene. Inner cleanliness is cultivated through devotion to God, selflessness, non-violence and all the other virtues. Inner cleanliness is maintained by refraining from intoxicants.
  • Protection and reverence for the Earth.
  • Universality
    Universalism
    Universalism in its primary meaning refers to religious, theological, and philosophical concepts with universal application or applicability...

    : Showing tolerance and respect for everyone, everything and the way of the Universe.
  • Peace
    Peace
    Peace is a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violent conflict. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility, peace also suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the...

    : One must cultivate a peaceful manner in order to benefit oneself and those around one.
  • Non-Violence/Ahimsa
    Ahimsa
    Ahimsa is a term meaning to do no harm . The word is derived from the Sanskrit root hims – to strike; himsa is injury or harm, a-himsa is the opposite of this, i.e. non harming or nonviolence. It is an important tenet of the Indian religions...

    : This means not killing or being violent in any way to any life form or sentient being. This is why those who practice this Dharma are vegetarians, because they see the slaughter of animals for the purpose of food as violent on the grounds that there are less violent ways to maintain a healthy diet.
  • Reverence
    Reverence (emotion)
    Reverence [rev-er-uh ns, rev-ruh ns] is defined by as, "A feeling or attitude of deep respect tinged with awe; veneration.". The word comes from the late 13th century Old French term reverence which derives from the Latin "reverentia 'awe, respect,' from revereri 'to revere,' from re- ,...

     for elders and teachers: The virtue of reverence for those who have wisdom and those who selflessly teach in love is very important to learn. The Guru or spiritual teacher is one of the highest principals in many Vedic based spiritualities and is likened to that of God.

The Buddhist tradition


Buddhist practice as outlined in the Noble Eightfold Path
Noble Eightfold Path
The Noble Eightfold Path , is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering and the achievement of self-awakening. It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion...

 can be regarded as a progressive list of virtues.
  1. Right View - Realizing the Four Noble Truths
    Four Noble Truths
    The Four Noble Truths are an important principle in Buddhism, classically taught by the Buddha in the Dharmacakra Pravartana Sūtra....

     
    {{Other uses}}
    Virtue ({{lang-la|virtus}}, {{lang-gr|ἀρετή}} "arete
    Arete
    Areté is the term meaning "virtue" or "excellence", from Greek ἈρετήArete may also be used:*as a given name of persons or things:**Queen Arete , a character in Homer's Odyssey.***197 Arete, an asteroid....

    ") is moral
    Morality
    Morality is the differentiation among intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good and bad . A moral code is a system of morality and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code...

     excellence
    Excellence
    Excellence is a talent or quality which is unusually good and so surpasses ordinary standards. It is also an aimed for standard of performance.-History:...

    . A virtue is a positive trait or quality subjectively deemed to be morally excellent and thus is valued
    Value (ethics)
    In ethics, value is a property of objects, including physical objects as well as abstract objects , representing their degree of importance....

     as a foundation of principle
    Principle
    A principle is a law or rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed...

     and good moral being.
    Personal virtues are characteristics valued
    Value (personal and cultural)
    A personal or cultural value is an absolute or relative ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action. A value system is a set of consistent values and measures. A principle value is a foundation upon which other values and measures of integrity are based...

     as promoting individual and collective well being. The opposite of virtue is vice
    Vice
    Vice is a practice or a behavior or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity, or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness, and corruption...

    .

    Virtues and values


    {{Unreferenced section|date=July 2010}}
    Virtue is a behavior showing a high moral standard and is a pattern of thought and behavior based on high moral standards. Virtues can be placed into a broader context of values. Each individual
    Individual
    An individual is a person or any specific object or thing in a collection. Individuality is the state or quality of being an individual; a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs, goals, and desires. Being self expressive...

     has a core of underlying values that contribute to his or her system of beliefs, ideas and/or opinions (see value
    Value (semiotics)
    In semiotics, the value of a sign depends on its position and relations in the system of signification and upon the particular codes being used.-Saussure's Value:Value is the sign as it is determined by the other signs in a semiotic system...

     in semiotics
    Semiotics
    Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or semiology, is the study of signs and sign processes , indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication...

    ). Integrity in the application of a value ensures its continuity and this continuity separates a value from beliefs, opinion and ideas. In this context, a value (e.g., Truth or Equality or Creed) is the core from which we operate or react. Societies have values that are shared among many of the participants in that culture. An individual's values typically are largely, but not entirely, in agreement with his or her culture's values.

    Individual virtues can be grouped into one of four categories of values:
    • Ethics
      Ethics
      Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime, etc.Major branches of ethics include:...

       (virtue - vice
      Vice
      Vice is a practice or a behavior or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity, or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness, and corruption...

      , good - evil
      Evil
      Evil is the violation of, or intent to violate, some moral code. Evil is usually seen as the dualistic opposite of good. Definitions of evil vary along with analysis of its root motive causes, however general actions commonly considered evil include: conscious and deliberate wrongdoing,...

      , moral
      Morality
      Morality is the differentiation among intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good and bad . A moral code is a system of morality and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code...

       - immoral - amoral
      Amorality
      Amorality is an absence of, indifference towards, or disregard for moral beliefs. Any entity that is not sentient may be considered amoral. In addition, it can be argued that sentient but non-human creatures, like dogs, have no concept of morality and are therefore amoral...

      , right - wrong)
    • Aesthetics
      Aesthetics
      Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste...

       (unbalanced, pleasing)
    • Doctrinal
      Doctrine
      Doctrine is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system...

       (political
      Politics
      Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the...

      , ideological
      Ideology
      An ideology is a set of ideas that constitutes one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things , as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies , or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to...

      , religious
      Religion
      Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

       or social
      Social
      The term social refers to a characteristic of living organisms...

       belief
      Belief
      Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true.-Belief, knowledge and epistemology:The terms belief and knowledge are used differently in philosophy....

      s and values)
    • Innate/inborn


    Examples of virtues include:
    {{Main|List of virtues}}

    The four classic Western Cardinal virtues
    Cardinal virtues
    In Christian traditionthere are 4 cardinal virtues:*Prudence - able to judge between actions with regard to appropriate actions at a given time*Justice - proper moderation between self-interest and the rights and needs of others...

     are:
    • temperance
      Temperance (virtue)
      Temperance has been studied by religious thinkers, philosophers, and more recently, psychologists, particularly in the positive psychology movement. It is considered a virtue, a core value that can be seen consistently across time and cultures...

      : {{Polytonic|σωφροσύνη}} (sōphrosynē)
    • prudence
      Prudence
      Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues .The word comes from Old French prudence , from Latin...

      : {{Polytonic|φρόνησις}} (phronēsis)
    • courage
      Courage
      Courage is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation...

      : {{Polytonic|ἀνδρεία}} (andreia)
    • justice
      Justice (virtue)
      Justice is one of the four cardinal virtues in classical European philosophy and Roman Catholicism. It is the moderation between selfishness and selflessness....

      : {{Polytonic|δικαιοσύνη}} (dikaiosynē)


    This enumeration is traced to Greek philosophy and was listed at least by Plato
    Plato
    Plato , was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the...

    , if not also by Socrates
    Socrates
    Socrates was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary ...

    , from whom no attributable written works exist. Plato also mentions "Holiness".

    It is likely that Plato believed that virtue was, in fact, a single thing, and that this enumeration was created by others in order to better define virtue. In Protagoras
    Protagoras (dialogue)
    Protagoras is a dialogue of Plato. The traditional subtitle is "or the Sophists, probative". The main argument is between the elderly Protagoras, a celebrated sophist, and Socrates...

     and Meno
    Meno
    Meno is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato. It attempts to determine the definition of virtue, or arete, meaning virtue in general, rather than particular virtues, such as justice or temperance. The first part of the work is written in the Socratic dialectical style and Meno is reduced to...

    , he states that the separate virtues can't exist independently and offers as evidence the contradictions of acting with wisdom (prudence), yet in an unjust way, or acting with bravery (fortitude), yet without knowing (prudence).

    Aristotle's virtues


    In the Nicomachean Ethics
    Nicomachean Ethics
    The Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle's best known work on ethics. The English version of the title derives from Greek Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια, transliterated Ethika Nikomacheia, which is sometimes also given in the genitive form as Ἠθικῶν Νικομαχείων, Ethikōn Nikomacheiōn...

    , Aristotle defined a virtue as a balance point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. The point of greatest virtue lies not in the exact middle, but at a golden mean
    Golden mean (philosophy)
    In philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency. For example courage, a virtue, if taken to excess would manifest as recklessness and if deficient as cowardice....

     sometimes closer to one extreme than the other. For example, courage is the mean between cowardice and foolhardiness, confidence the mean between self-deprecation and vanity, and generosity the mean between miserliness and extravagance. It requires common-sense smarts, not necessarily extreme intelligence
    Intelligence
    Intelligence has been defined in different ways, including the abilities for abstract thought, understanding, communication, reasoning, learning, planning, emotional intelligence and problem solving....

    , to find this golden mean. In Aristotle's sense, it is excellence at being human, a skill which helps a person survive, thrive, form meaningful relationships and find happiness
    Happiness
    Happiness is a mental state of well-being characterized by positive emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. A variety of biological, psychological, religious, and philosophical approaches have striven to define happiness and identify its sources....

    . Learning virtue is usually difficult at first, but becomes easier with practice over time until it becomes a habit
    Habit (psychology)
    Habits are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsciously. Habitual behavior often goes unnoticed in persons exhibiting it, because a person does not need to engage in self-analysis when undertaking routine tasks...

    .

    Prudence and virtue


    Seneca
    Seneca the Younger
    Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero...

    , the Roman Stoic
    STOIC
    STOIC was a variant of Forth.It started out at the MIT and Harvard Biomedical Engineering Centre in Boston, and was written in the mid 1970s by Jonathan Sachs...

    , said that perfect prudence
    Prudence
    Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues .The word comes from Old French prudence , from Latin...

     is indistinguishable from perfect virtue. Thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person.{{Citation needed|date=April 2010}}

    The same rationale was followed by Plato
    Plato
    Plato , was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the...

     in Meno
    Meno
    Meno is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato. It attempts to determine the definition of virtue, or arete, meaning virtue in general, rather than particular virtues, such as justice or temperance. The first part of the work is written in the Socratic dialectical style and Meno is reduced to...

    , when he wrote that people only act for what they perceive will maximize the good. It is the lack of wisdom which results in the making of a bad choice, rather than a good one. In this way, wisdom is the central part of virtue. However, Plato realized that if virtue was synonymous with wisdom then it could be taught, a possibility he had earlier discounted. He then added "correct belief" as an alternative to knowledge, proposing that knowledge is merely correct belief that has been thought through and "tethered".

    (Please add proper information here.)

    Abrahamic religions



    The Jewish tradition


    Throughout rabbinic literature
    Rabbinic literature
    Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term...

    , there are many lists of the central virtues of the Jewish tradition
    Judaism
    Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

    . Pirkei Avot, for example, gives a list of 48 virtues necessary for acquiring Torah. Other lists of virtues are analyzed in the genre of literature known as Musar literature
    Musar literature
    Musar literature is the term used for didactic Jewish ethical literature which describes virtues and vices and the path towards perfection in a methodical way.- Definition of Musar literature :...

    , a literature which methodically explores the nature of virtue and vice.

    "Compassion" is a virtue that is especially important in the Jewish tradition
    Judaism
    Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

    . God
    God
    God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

     is the Compassionate and is invoked as the Father of Compassion; hence Raḥmana or Compassionate becomes the usual designation for His revealed word. (Compare, below, the frequent use of raḥman in the Qur'an
    Qur'an
    The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

    ).

    In Biblical Hebrew, sorrow and pity for one in distress, creating a desire to relieve, is a feeling ascribed alike to man and God ("riḥam," from "reḥem," the mother, womb). The Rabbi
    Rabbi
    In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...

    s speak of the "thirteen attributes of compassion." The Biblical
    Hebrew Bible
    The Hebrew Bible is a term used by biblical scholars outside of Judaism to refer to the Tanakh , a canonical collection of Jewish texts, and the common textual antecedent of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament...

     conception of compassion is the feeling of the parent for the child. Hence, the prophet's appeal in confirmation of his trust in God invokes the feeling of a mother for her offspring (Isa. xlix. 15).

    Lack of compassion, by contrast, marks a people as cruel (Jer. vi. 23). The repeated injunctions of the Law and the Prophet
    Prophet
    In religion, a prophet, from the Greek word προφήτης profitis meaning "foreteller", is an individual who is claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine, and serves as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural entity to other people...

    s that the widow, the orphan and the stranger should be protected show how deeply, it is argued, the feeling of compassion was rooted in the hearts of the righteous in ancient Israel.

    A classic articulation of the Golden Rule (see above) came from the first century Rabbi Hillel the Elder
    Hillel the Elder
    Hillel was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. He is associated with the development of the Mishnah and the Talmud...

    . Renowned in the Jewish tradition as a sage and a scholar, he is associated with the development of the Mishnah
    Mishnah
    The Mishnah or Mishna is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism. It was redacted c...

     and the Talmud
    Talmud
    The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history....

     and, as such, one of the most important figures in Jewish history
    Jewish history
    Jewish history is the history of the Jews, their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Since Jewish history is over 4000 years long and includes hundreds of different populations, any treatment can only be provided in broad strokes...

    . Asked for a summary of the Jewish religion in the most concise terms, Hillel replied (reputedly while standing on one leg): "That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah. The rest is the explanation; go and learn."

    Post 9/11, the words of Rabbi Hillel are frequently quoted in public lectures and interviews around the world by the prominent writer on comparative religion Karen Armstrong
    Karen Armstrong
    Karen Armstrong FRSL , is a British author and commentator who is the author of twelve books on comparative religion. A former Roman Catholic nun, she went from a conservative to a more liberal and mystical faith...

    .

    The Christian tradition


    {{main|Christian ethics}}
    {{See also|Seven virtues}}

    In Christianity
    Christianity
    Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

    , the theological virtues are faith
    Faith
    Faith is confidence or trust in a person or thing, or a belief that is not based on proof. In religion, faith is a belief in a transcendent reality, a religious teacher, a set of teachings or a Supreme Being. Generally speaking, it is offered as a means by which the truth of the proposition,...

    , hope
    Hope
    Hope is the emotional state which promotes the belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in one's life. It is the "feeling that what is wanted can be had or that events will turn out for the best" or the act of "look[ing] forward to with desire and reasonable confidence" or...

     and love
    Love
    Love is an emotion of strong affection and personal attachment. In philosophical context, love is a virtue representing all of human kindness, compassion, and affection. Love is central to many religions, as in the Christian phrase, "God is love" or Agape in the Canonical gospels...

    , a list which comes from 1 Corinthians 13:13 (νυνι δε μενει πιστις ελπις αγαπη τα τρια ταυτα μειζων δε τουτων η αγαπη (pistis, elpis, agape)). The Christian virtue of love is sometimes called charity
    Charity (virtue)
    In Christian theology charity, or love , means an unlimited loving-kindness toward all others.The term should not be confused with the more restricted modern use of the word charity to mean benevolent giving.- Caritas: altruistic love :...

     and at other times a Greek word agape
    Agape
    Agape is one of the Greek words translated into English as love, one which became particularly appropriated in Christian theology as the love of God or Christ for mankind. In the New Testament, it refers to the fatherly love of God for humans, as well as the human reciprocal love for God; the term...

     is used to contrast the love for God & family from other types of love such as friendship or physical affection. According to some Christian philosophers
    Christian philosophy
    Christian philosophy may refer to any development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.- Origins of Christian philosophy :...

    , most notably Thomas Aquinas
    Thomas Aquinas
    Thomas Aquinas, O.P. , also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino, was an Italian Dominican priest of the Catholic Church, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Communis, or Doctor Universalis...

    , the theological virtues are to perfect one's love of God and Man and therefore to harmonize and partake of prudence
    Prudence
    Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues .The word comes from Old French prudence , from Latin...

    .

    There are many listings of virtue additional to the traditional Christian virtues (faith, hope and love) in the Christian Bible. One is the "Fruit of the Holy Spirit," found in Galatians 5:22-23: "By contrast, the fruits of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. There is no law against such things." (Ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη χαρὰ εἰρήνη, μακροθυμία χρηστότης ἀγαθωσύνη, πίστις πραΰτης ἐγκράτεια· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος.)

    The Muslim tradition


    {{essay-like|date=November 2011}}

    In the Muslim tradition the Qur'an
    Qur'an
    The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

     is, as the word of God, the great repository of all virtues in earthly form, and the Prophet
    Muhammad
    Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

    , particularly via his hadiths or reported sayings, the exemplar of virtues in human form.

    According to Al-Qur'an,Holy book of I-salami,traditional Qur'anic grammar ,"i'rāb (إعراب)", Chapter (5) sūrat l-māidah (The Table spread with Food),"I-salami" meaning "Peace"),

    By the way,similar modern Arabic word, I-salama meaning "submission",offenly misunderstand & misuse from the word "I-salami","Peace",

    Shalom aleichem , Peace upon you.
    Alia al salam , Peace upon you.

    Proclaims the virtues is acceptance to the will of God,acception the ways of God,acceptance divine grace of forgiveness,mercy,gracious,true repentance,the redemption,acceptance to the ways of Peace,the acceptance of the way things are. Foremost among God's
    Allah
    Allah is a word for God used in the context of Islam. In Arabic, the word means simply "God". It is used primarily by Muslims and Bahá'ís, and often, albeit not exclusively, used by Arabic-speaking Eastern Catholic Christians, Maltese Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Mizrahi Jews and...

     attributes are mercy and compassion
    Compassion
    Compassion is a virtue — one in which the emotional capacities of empathy and sympathy are regarded as a part of love itself, and a cornerstone of greater social interconnection and humanism — foundational to the highest principles in philosophy, society, and personhood.There is an aspect of...

     or, in the canonical language of Arabic, I-rahmani and I-rahimi. Each of the 114 chapters of the Qur'an
    Qur'an
    The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

    , with one exception, begins with the verse, "In the name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful".

    The Arabic for compassion is I-rahmani. As a cultural influence, its roots abound in the Qur'an. A good Muslim is to commence each day, each prayer and each significant action by invoking God the Merciful and Compassionate, i.e. by reciting Bi Ism-i-Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim.

    The Muslim scriptures urge compassion towards captives as well as to widows, orphans and the poor. Traditionally, Zakat, a toll tax to help the poor and needy, is obligatory upon all Muslims (9:60). One of the practical purposes of fasting or sawm
    Sawm
    Sawm is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. In the terminology of Islamic law, Sawm means to abstain from eating, drinking , having sex and anything against Islamic law...

     during the month of Ramadan
    Ramadan
    Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, which lasts 29 or 30 days. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking and sex during daylight hours and is intended to teach Muslims about patience, spirituality, humility and...

     is to help one empathize with the hunger pangs of those less fortunate, to enhance sensitivity to the suffering of others and develop compassion for the poor and destitute.

    The Muslim virtues are: prayer, repentance, honesty, loyalty, sincerity, frugality, prudence, moderation, self-restraint, discipline, perseverance, patience, hope, dignity, courage, justice, tolerance, wisdom, good speech, respect, purity, courtesy, kindness, gratitude, generosity, contentment, and others.

    About virtues in I-salami tradition,acceptance to the ways of God according to attribute of God & his allgoodness.
    God is love,selfless,egoless,modesty & omnibenevolence.

    Love of God & God's goodness are eternity,infinite & limitless.
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_of_God
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omnibenevolence
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_virtues

    Omnimorous infinte love of God unconditionally is all of greatest amoung greatest of all love of all love.
    And God's omnibenevolence are infinite,(Latin "omni"meaning all benevolence good).

    According to Al-Qur'an,the Holy book of I-salami.
    Chapter (1) sūrat l-fātiḥah (The Opening) Verse 1:1:1 to 1:6:3
    In name of my “God” ,the most gracious , the most merciful ,all praise and thanks to my “God”,the Lord of universe,the most gracious,the most merciful,Master (of the) day,the judgement,You alone we worships and you alone we ask for help , Guide us,the path,the straight.

    Chapter (7) sūrat l-a'rāf (The Heights) Verse 7:37:1 to 7:37:37
    7:37:1 to 7:37:15 Then who (is) more unjust than (one) who invented against my “God” , a lie or denies his verses? Those will reach them their portion from the book.
    7:37:16 to 7:37:21 Until when they come to the our messengers to take them in death.(To take their souls),they say.
    7:37:22 to 7:37:29 "Where are those (whom) you used to invoke from besides my “God”” they say.
    7:37:30 to 7:37:37 "They strayed from us," and they (will) testify against themselves that they were disbelievers.

    Chapter (5) sūrat l-māidah (The Table spread with Food) Verse 5:15:1 to 5:16:18

    5:15:1 to 5:15:5... O People of the book surely has come to you "our messenger". 5:15:6 to 5:15:13 Making clear to you much of what you used from something that had been concealed in the book,(the scriptures) 5:15:14 to 5:15:18 And over looking of much surely has come to you. 5:15:19 to 5:15:22 From my "God","a light" & "a book".

    In translation, not adding in the book, The real key words of translation properly, "Old Aramaic transcripts".
    Biblical Aramaic 'Elaha "God". אלהי Elahi definition "My god". Elah definition "god". The "i" after Elah in "Elahi" ..."i" after "Elah" in "Elahi" "i" definition "my".

    5:15:23 to 5:16:2 Clear guides with it. 5:16:3 to 5:16:8 “God" those who seek his pleasure, (to the ) ways"(of ) I-salami , "peace".

    5:16:7 subula to (throught) the way. 5:16:8 l-salāmi (of) the peace 5:16:9 to 5:16:11 And brings them out from the darknessess. 5:16:12 to 5:16:14 To "the light",by "his permission". 5:16:13 "I-nuri" the light. 5:16:14 bi-idh'nihi by his permission. 5:16:15 to 5:16:18 And guides them to the way the straight.

    Subula l-salāmi ways peace
    ṣirāṭin mus'taqīmin ways straight 5:16:8 I-salami Peace

    Chapter (5) sūrat l-māidah (The Table spread with Food) verse 5:54:1 to 5:55:13
    5:54:1 to 5:54:8 O you who believe,whoever turn back amoung you from his religions
    5:54:9 to 5:54:14 Then soon will be brought by God,the people whom he loves and they love him
    5:54:15 to 5:54:20 Humble towards the believers,sterns towards the disbelievers.
    5:54:21 to 5:54:28 Striving in way of my God and not fearing the blame,the critic.
    5:54:29 to 5:54:32 That's the grace of my God,he grants whom he wills.
    5:54:35 to 5:55:13 And God,all encompassion(all guiding),all knowing,only your ally,God and his messengers and those who believe,and those who establish the prayer and give the purification works (I-zakata,) and they those who bow down.

    The modesty,humility,selfless & egoless as virtues.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_virtues
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humility

    In I-salami tradition.According to Al-Qur'an the holy book of I-salami.Chapter (32) sūrat l-sajdah (The Prostration),the verse "prostration" definition "face-down" to bow down to somebody,someone,somethingelse first ,with modesty,humility,humble,good manners & courtesy,to bow down with respect.

    Humility is one of 7 heavenly virtues.

    "Doing the pure goodness,the purification works never wrongdoing."

    And because God never need insolence.And Pride is one of 7 deadly sins.

    "To bow down to somebody,someone,somethingelse first with modesty,with humble,with humility,with good manners,with courtesy,with respect (doing pure goodness) never wrongdoing."

    The Bahá'í tradition


    In the Bahá'í Faith
    Bahá'í Faith
    The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

    , virtues are direct spiritual qualities that the human soul possesses, inherited from God Himself. The development and manifestation of these virtues is the theme of the Hidden Words
    Hidden Words
    Kalimát-i-Maknúnih or The Hidden Words is a book written in Baghdad around 1857 by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith...

     of Bahá'u'lláh
    Bahá'u'lláh
    Bahá'u'lláh , born ' , was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. He claimed to be the prophetic fulfilment of Bábism, a 19th-century outgrowth of Shí‘ism, but in a broader sense claimed to be a messenger from God referring to the fulfilment of the eschatological expectations of Islam, Christianity, and...

     and are discussed in great detail as the underpinnings of a divinely-inspired society by `Abdu'l-Bahá
    `Abdu'l-Bahá
    ‘Abdu’l-Bahá , born ‘Abbás Effendí, was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. In 1892, `Abdu'l-Bahá was appointed in his father's will to be his successor and head of the Bahá'í Faith. `Abdu'l-Bahá was born in Tehran to an aristocratic family of the realm...

     in such texts as The Secret of Divine Civilization.

    Many of the virtues are described with special significance in Bahá'í scripture, such as:
    • Truthfulness - the "foundation of all human virtues".
    • Justice - the "best beloved of all things (to God)".
    • Love - the basis for God's creation of mankind.
    • Humility - a condition for being recipient of God's grace.
    • Trustworthiness - the "goodliest vesture in the sight of God".


    The Virtues Project
    The Virtues Project
    'The Virtues Project empowers individuals to live more authentic meaningful lives, families to raise children of compassion and integrity, educators to create safe, caring, and high performing learning communities, and leaders to encourage excellence and ethics in the work place...

     developed by Canadian Bahá'ís Linda Popov, Dan Popov, and John Kavelin, is greatly inspired by the Bahá'í perspective on virtues.

    Hindu virtues


    Hinduism, or Sanatana Dharma (Dharma means moral duty), has pivotal virtues that everyone keeping their Dharma is asked to follow, for they are distinct qualities of manusya (mankind) that allow one to be in the mode of goodness. There are three modes of material nature (guna
    Guna
    ' means 'string' or 'a single thread or strand of a cord or twine'. In more abstract uses, it may mean 'a subdivision, species, kind, quality', or an operational principle or tendency....

    ), as described in the Vedas
    Vedas
    The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism....

     and other Indian Scriptures: Sattva
    Sattva
    In Hindu philosophy, sattva is the most rarefied of the three gunas in Samkhya, sāttvika "pure", rājasika "dim", and tāmasika "dark". Importantly, no value judgement is entailed as all guna are indivisible and mutually qualifying...

     (goodness,maintenance, stillness, intelligence), Rajas
    Rajas
    Rajas ) is, in the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, one of the three gunas. Of these, rajas, is responsible for motion, energy and preservation...

     (passion,creation, energy, activity) , and Tamas
    Tamas (philosophy)
    In the Samkhya school of philosophy, tamas is one of the three gunas , the other two being rajas and sattva or purity). Tamas is the template for inertia or resistance to action...

     (ignorance, restraint, inertia, destruction). Every person harbours a mixture of these modes in varying degrees. A person in the mode of Sattva has that mode in prominence in his nature, which he obtains by following the virtues of the Dharma
    Dharma
    Dharma means Law or Natural Law and is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion. In the context of Hinduism, it refers to one's personal obligations, calling and duties, and a Hindu's dharma is affected by the person's age, caste, class, occupation, and gender...

     .

    The modes of Sattva are as follows: {{Citation needed|date=November 2009}}
    • Altruism
      Altruism
      Altruism is a concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures, and a core aspect of various religious traditions, though the concept of 'others' toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. Altruism is the opposite of...

      : Selfless Service to all humanity
    • Restraint
      Self control
      Self control is the ability to control one's emotions, behavior and desires in order to obtain some reward later. In psychology it is sometimes called self-regulation...

       and Moderation
      Moderation
      Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes. It is used to ensure normality throughout the medium on which it is being conducted...

      : This is having restraint and moderation in all things. Sexual relations, eating, and other pleasurable activities should be kept in moderation. Some orthodox followers also believe in sex only in marriage, and being chaste. The degree of restraint and moderation depends on the sect and belief system. Some people believe it means celibacy, while others believe in walking the golden path of moderation, i.e. Not too far to the side of forceful control and total abandon of human pleasures, but also not too far to the side of total indulgence and total abandon for moderation.
    • Honesty
      Honesty
      Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and denotes positive, virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, and straightforwardness along with the absence of lying, cheating, or theft....

      : One is required to be honest with oneself, one's family, one's friends, and to all of humanity.
    • Cleanliness
      Cleanliness
      Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from dirt, and the process of achieving and maintaining that state.Cleanliness may be endowed with a moral quality, as indicated by the aphorism "cleanliness is next to godliness," and may be regarded as contributing to other ideals...

      : Outer cleanliness is to be cultivated for good health and hygiene. Inner cleanliness is cultivated through devotion to God, selflessness, non-violence and all the other virtues. Inner cleanliness is maintained by refraining from intoxicants.
    • Protection and reverence for the Earth.
    • Universality
      Universalism
      Universalism in its primary meaning refers to religious, theological, and philosophical concepts with universal application or applicability...

      : Showing tolerance and respect for everyone, everything and the way of the Universe.
    • Peace
      Peace
      Peace is a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violent conflict. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility, peace also suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the...

      : One must cultivate a peaceful manner in order to benefit oneself and those around one.
    • Non-Violence/Ahimsa
      Ahimsa
      Ahimsa is a term meaning to do no harm . The word is derived from the Sanskrit root hims – to strike; himsa is injury or harm, a-himsa is the opposite of this, i.e. non harming or nonviolence. It is an important tenet of the Indian religions...

      : This means not killing or being violent in any way to any life form or sentient being. This is why those who practice this Dharma are vegetarians, because they see the slaughter of animals for the purpose of food as violent on the grounds that there are less violent ways to maintain a healthy diet.
    • Reverence
      Reverence (emotion)
      Reverence [rev-er-uh ns, rev-ruh ns] is defined by as, "A feeling or attitude of deep respect tinged with awe; veneration.". The word comes from the late 13th century Old French term reverence which derives from the Latin "reverentia 'awe, respect,' from revereri 'to revere,' from re- ,...

       for elders and teachers: The virtue of reverence for those who have wisdom and those who selflessly teach in love is very important to learn. The Guru or spiritual teacher is one of the highest principals in many Vedic based spiritualities and is likened to that of God.

    The Buddhist tradition


    Buddhist practice as outlined in the Noble Eightfold Path
    Noble Eightfold Path
    The Noble Eightfold Path , is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering and the achievement of self-awakening. It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion...

     can be regarded as a progressive list of virtues.
    1. Right View - Realizing the Four Noble Truths
      Four Noble Truths
      The Four Noble Truths are an important principle in Buddhism, classically taught by the Buddha in the Dharmacakra Pravartana Sūtra....

       
      {{Other uses}}
      Virtue ({{lang-la|virtus}}, {{lang-gr|ἀρετή}} "arete
      Arete
      Areté is the term meaning "virtue" or "excellence", from Greek ἈρετήArete may also be used:*as a given name of persons or things:**Queen Arete , a character in Homer's Odyssey.***197 Arete, an asteroid....

      ") is moral
      Morality
      Morality is the differentiation among intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good and bad . A moral code is a system of morality and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code...

       excellence
      Excellence
      Excellence is a talent or quality which is unusually good and so surpasses ordinary standards. It is also an aimed for standard of performance.-History:...

      . A virtue is a positive trait or quality subjectively deemed to be morally excellent and thus is valued
      Value (ethics)
      In ethics, value is a property of objects, including physical objects as well as abstract objects , representing their degree of importance....

       as a foundation of principle
      Principle
      A principle is a law or rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something, such as the laws observed in nature or the way that a system is constructed...

       and good moral being.
      Personal virtues are characteristics valued
      Value (personal and cultural)
      A personal or cultural value is an absolute or relative ethical value, the assumption of which can be the basis for ethical action. A value system is a set of consistent values and measures. A principle value is a foundation upon which other values and measures of integrity are based...

       as promoting individual and collective well being. The opposite of virtue is vice
      Vice
      Vice is a practice or a behavior or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity, or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness, and corruption...

      .

      Virtues and values


      {{Unreferenced section|date=July 2010}}
      Virtue is a behavior showing a high moral standard and is a pattern of thought and behavior based on high moral standards. Virtues can be placed into a broader context of values. Each individual
      Individual
      An individual is a person or any specific object or thing in a collection. Individuality is the state or quality of being an individual; a person separate from other persons and possessing his or her own needs, goals, and desires. Being self expressive...

       has a core of underlying values that contribute to his or her system of beliefs, ideas and/or opinions (see value
      Value (semiotics)
      In semiotics, the value of a sign depends on its position and relations in the system of signification and upon the particular codes being used.-Saussure's Value:Value is the sign as it is determined by the other signs in a semiotic system...

       in semiotics
      Semiotics
      Semiotics, also called semiotic studies or semiology, is the study of signs and sign processes , indication, designation, likeness, analogy, metaphor, symbolism, signification, and communication...

      ). Integrity in the application of a value ensures its continuity and this continuity separates a value from beliefs, opinion and ideas. In this context, a value (e.g., Truth or Equality or Creed) is the core from which we operate or react. Societies have values that are shared among many of the participants in that culture. An individual's values typically are largely, but not entirely, in agreement with his or her culture's values.

      Individual virtues can be grouped into one of four categories of values:
      • Ethics
        Ethics
        Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime, etc.Major branches of ethics include:...

         (virtue - vice
        Vice
        Vice is a practice or a behavior or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity, or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness, and corruption...

        , good - evil
        Evil
        Evil is the violation of, or intent to violate, some moral code. Evil is usually seen as the dualistic opposite of good. Definitions of evil vary along with analysis of its root motive causes, however general actions commonly considered evil include: conscious and deliberate wrongdoing,...

        , moral
        Morality
        Morality is the differentiation among intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good and bad . A moral code is a system of morality and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code...

         - immoral - amoral
        Amorality
        Amorality is an absence of, indifference towards, or disregard for moral beliefs. Any entity that is not sentient may be considered amoral. In addition, it can be argued that sentient but non-human creatures, like dogs, have no concept of morality and are therefore amoral...

        , right - wrong)
      • Aesthetics
        Aesthetics
        Aesthetics is a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of beauty, art, and taste, and with the creation and appreciation of beauty. It is more scientifically defined as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste...

         (unbalanced, pleasing)
      • Doctrinal
        Doctrine
        Doctrine is a codification of beliefs or a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system...

         (political
        Politics
        Politics is a process by which groups of people make collective decisions. The term is generally applied to the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil governments, but also applies to institutions, fields, and special interest groups such as the...

        , ideological
        Ideology
        An ideology is a set of ideas that constitutes one's goals, expectations, and actions. An ideology can be thought of as a comprehensive vision, as a way of looking at things , as in common sense and several philosophical tendencies , or a set of ideas proposed by the dominant class of a society to...

        , religious
        Religion
        Religion is a collection of cultural systems, belief systems, and worldviews that establishes symbols that relate humanity to spirituality and, sometimes, to moral values. Many religions have narratives, symbols, traditions and sacred histories that are intended to give meaning to life or to...

         or social
        Social
        The term social refers to a characteristic of living organisms...

         belief
        Belief
        Belief is the psychological state in which an individual holds a proposition or premise to be true.-Belief, knowledge and epistemology:The terms belief and knowledge are used differently in philosophy....

        s and values)
      • Innate/inborn


      Examples of virtues include:
      {{Main|List of virtues}}

      The four classic Western Cardinal virtues
      Cardinal virtues
      In Christian traditionthere are 4 cardinal virtues:*Prudence - able to judge between actions with regard to appropriate actions at a given time*Justice - proper moderation between self-interest and the rights and needs of others...

       are:
      • temperance
        Temperance (virtue)
        Temperance has been studied by religious thinkers, philosophers, and more recently, psychologists, particularly in the positive psychology movement. It is considered a virtue, a core value that can be seen consistently across time and cultures...

        : {{Polytonic|σωφροσύνη}} (sōphrosynē)
      • prudence
        Prudence
        Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues .The word comes from Old French prudence , from Latin...

        : {{Polytonic|φρόνησις}} (phronēsis)
      • courage
        Courage
        Courage is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation...

        : {{Polytonic|ἀνδρεία}} (andreia)
      • justice
        Justice (virtue)
        Justice is one of the four cardinal virtues in classical European philosophy and Roman Catholicism. It is the moderation between selfishness and selflessness....

        : {{Polytonic|δικαιοσύνη}} (dikaiosynē)


      This enumeration is traced to Greek philosophy and was listed at least by Plato
      Plato
      Plato , was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the...

      , if not also by Socrates
      Socrates
      Socrates was a classical Greek Athenian philosopher. Credited as one of the founders of Western philosophy, he is an enigmatic figure known chiefly through the accounts of later classical writers, especially the writings of his students Plato and Xenophon, and the plays of his contemporary ...

      , from whom no attributable written works exist. Plato also mentions "Holiness".

      It is likely that Plato believed that virtue was, in fact, a single thing, and that this enumeration was created by others in order to better define virtue. In Protagoras
      Protagoras (dialogue)
      Protagoras is a dialogue of Plato. The traditional subtitle is "or the Sophists, probative". The main argument is between the elderly Protagoras, a celebrated sophist, and Socrates...

       and Meno
      Meno
      Meno is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato. It attempts to determine the definition of virtue, or arete, meaning virtue in general, rather than particular virtues, such as justice or temperance. The first part of the work is written in the Socratic dialectical style and Meno is reduced to...

      , he states that the separate virtues can't exist independently and offers as evidence the contradictions of acting with wisdom (prudence), yet in an unjust way, or acting with bravery (fortitude), yet without knowing (prudence).

      Aristotle's virtues


      In the Nicomachean Ethics
      Nicomachean Ethics
      The Nicomachean Ethics is the name normally given to Aristotle's best known work on ethics. The English version of the title derives from Greek Ἠθικὰ Νικομάχεια, transliterated Ethika Nikomacheia, which is sometimes also given in the genitive form as Ἠθικῶν Νικομαχείων, Ethikōn Nikomacheiōn...

      , Aristotle defined a virtue as a balance point between a deficiency and an excess of a trait. The point of greatest virtue lies not in the exact middle, but at a golden mean
      Golden mean (philosophy)
      In philosophy, especially that of Aristotle, the golden mean is the desirable middle between two extremes, one of excess and the other of deficiency. For example courage, a virtue, if taken to excess would manifest as recklessness and if deficient as cowardice....

       sometimes closer to one extreme than the other. For example, courage is the mean between cowardice and foolhardiness, confidence the mean between self-deprecation and vanity, and generosity the mean between miserliness and extravagance. It requires common-sense smarts, not necessarily extreme intelligence
      Intelligence
      Intelligence has been defined in different ways, including the abilities for abstract thought, understanding, communication, reasoning, learning, planning, emotional intelligence and problem solving....

      , to find this golden mean. In Aristotle's sense, it is excellence at being human, a skill which helps a person survive, thrive, form meaningful relationships and find happiness
      Happiness
      Happiness is a mental state of well-being characterized by positive emotions ranging from contentment to intense joy. A variety of biological, psychological, religious, and philosophical approaches have striven to define happiness and identify its sources....

      . Learning virtue is usually difficult at first, but becomes easier with practice over time until it becomes a habit
      Habit (psychology)
      Habits are routines of behavior that are repeated regularly and tend to occur subconsciously. Habitual behavior often goes unnoticed in persons exhibiting it, because a person does not need to engage in self-analysis when undertaking routine tasks...

      .

      Prudence and virtue


      Seneca
      Seneca the Younger
      Lucius Annaeus Seneca was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature. He was tutor and later advisor to emperor Nero...

      , the Roman Stoic
      STOIC
      STOIC was a variant of Forth.It started out at the MIT and Harvard Biomedical Engineering Centre in Boston, and was written in the mid 1970s by Jonathan Sachs...

      , said that perfect prudence
      Prudence
      Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues .The word comes from Old French prudence , from Latin...

       is indistinguishable from perfect virtue. Thus, in considering all consequences, a prudent person would act in the same way as a virtuous person.{{Citation needed|date=April 2010}}

      The same rationale was followed by Plato
      Plato
      Plato , was a Classical Greek philosopher, mathematician, student of Socrates, writer of philosophical dialogues, and founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. Along with his mentor, Socrates, and his student, Aristotle, Plato helped to lay the...

       in Meno
      Meno
      Meno is a Socratic dialogue written by Plato. It attempts to determine the definition of virtue, or arete, meaning virtue in general, rather than particular virtues, such as justice or temperance. The first part of the work is written in the Socratic dialectical style and Meno is reduced to...

      , when he wrote that people only act for what they perceive will maximize the good. It is the lack of wisdom which results in the making of a bad choice, rather than a good one. In this way, wisdom is the central part of virtue. However, Plato realized that if virtue was synonymous with wisdom then it could be taught, a possibility he had earlier discounted. He then added "correct belief" as an alternative to knowledge, proposing that knowledge is merely correct belief that has been thought through and "tethered".

      (Please add proper information here.)

      Abrahamic religions



      The Jewish tradition


      Throughout rabbinic literature
      Rabbinic literature
      Rabbinic literature, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic writings throughout Jewish history. However, the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era, as opposed to medieval and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew term...

      , there are many lists of the central virtues of the Jewish tradition
      Judaism
      Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

      . Pirkei Avot, for example, gives a list of 48 virtues necessary for acquiring Torah. Other lists of virtues are analyzed in the genre of literature known as Musar literature
      Musar literature
      Musar literature is the term used for didactic Jewish ethical literature which describes virtues and vices and the path towards perfection in a methodical way.- Definition of Musar literature :...

      , a literature which methodically explores the nature of virtue and vice.

      "Compassion" is a virtue that is especially important in the Jewish tradition
      Judaism
      Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

      . God
      God
      God is the English name given to a singular being in theistic and deistic religions who is either the sole deity in monotheism, or a single deity in polytheism....

       is the Compassionate and is invoked as the Father of Compassion; hence Raḥmana or Compassionate becomes the usual designation for His revealed word. (Compare, below, the frequent use of raḥman in the Qur'an
      Qur'an
      The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

      ).

      In Biblical Hebrew, sorrow and pity for one in distress, creating a desire to relieve, is a feeling ascribed alike to man and God ("riḥam," from "reḥem," the mother, womb). The Rabbi
      Rabbi
      In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah. This title derives from the Hebrew word רבי , meaning "My Master" , which is the way a student would address a master of Torah...

      s speak of the "thirteen attributes of compassion." The Biblical
      Hebrew Bible
      The Hebrew Bible is a term used by biblical scholars outside of Judaism to refer to the Tanakh , a canonical collection of Jewish texts, and the common textual antecedent of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament...

       conception of compassion is the feeling of the parent for the child. Hence, the prophet's appeal in confirmation of his trust in God invokes the feeling of a mother for her offspring (Isa. xlix. 15).

      Lack of compassion, by contrast, marks a people as cruel (Jer. vi. 23). The repeated injunctions of the Law and the Prophet
      Prophet
      In religion, a prophet, from the Greek word προφήτης profitis meaning "foreteller", is an individual who is claimed to have been contacted by the supernatural or the divine, and serves as an intermediary with humanity, delivering this newfound knowledge from the supernatural entity to other people...

      s that the widow, the orphan and the stranger should be protected show how deeply, it is argued, the feeling of compassion was rooted in the hearts of the righteous in ancient Israel.

      A classic articulation of the Golden Rule (see above) came from the first century Rabbi Hillel the Elder
      Hillel the Elder
      Hillel was a famous Jewish religious leader, one of the most important figures in Jewish history. He is associated with the development of the Mishnah and the Talmud...

      . Renowned in the Jewish tradition as a sage and a scholar, he is associated with the development of the Mishnah
      Mishnah
      The Mishnah or Mishna is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions called the "Oral Torah". It is also the first major work of Rabbinic Judaism. It was redacted c...

       and the Talmud
      Talmud
      The Talmud is a central text of mainstream Judaism. It takes the form of a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, philosophy, customs and history....

       and, as such, one of the most important figures in Jewish history
      Jewish history
      Jewish history is the history of the Jews, their religion and culture, as it developed and interacted with other peoples, religions and cultures. Since Jewish history is over 4000 years long and includes hundreds of different populations, any treatment can only be provided in broad strokes...

      . Asked for a summary of the Jewish religion in the most concise terms, Hillel replied (reputedly while standing on one leg): "That which is hateful to you, do not do to your fellow. That is the whole Torah. The rest is the explanation; go and learn."

      Post 9/11, the words of Rabbi Hillel are frequently quoted in public lectures and interviews around the world by the prominent writer on comparative religion Karen Armstrong
      Karen Armstrong
      Karen Armstrong FRSL , is a British author and commentator who is the author of twelve books on comparative religion. A former Roman Catholic nun, she went from a conservative to a more liberal and mystical faith...

      .

      The Christian tradition


      {{main|Christian ethics}}
      {{See also|Seven virtues}}

      In Christianity
      Christianity
      Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

      , the theological virtues are faith
      Faith
      Faith is confidence or trust in a person or thing, or a belief that is not based on proof. In religion, faith is a belief in a transcendent reality, a religious teacher, a set of teachings or a Supreme Being. Generally speaking, it is offered as a means by which the truth of the proposition,...

      , hope
      Hope
      Hope is the emotional state which promotes the belief in a positive outcome related to events and circumstances in one's life. It is the "feeling that what is wanted can be had or that events will turn out for the best" or the act of "look[ing] forward to with desire and reasonable confidence" or...

       and love
      Love
      Love is an emotion of strong affection and personal attachment. In philosophical context, love is a virtue representing all of human kindness, compassion, and affection. Love is central to many religions, as in the Christian phrase, "God is love" or Agape in the Canonical gospels...

      , a list which comes from 1 Corinthians 13:13 (νυνι δε μενει πιστις ελπις αγαπη τα τρια ταυτα μειζων δε τουτων η αγαπη (pistis, elpis, agape)). The Christian virtue of love is sometimes called charity
      Charity (virtue)
      In Christian theology charity, or love , means an unlimited loving-kindness toward all others.The term should not be confused with the more restricted modern use of the word charity to mean benevolent giving.- Caritas: altruistic love :...

       and at other times a Greek word agape
      Agape
      Agape is one of the Greek words translated into English as love, one which became particularly appropriated in Christian theology as the love of God or Christ for mankind. In the New Testament, it refers to the fatherly love of God for humans, as well as the human reciprocal love for God; the term...

       is used to contrast the love for God & family from other types of love such as friendship or physical affection. According to some Christian philosophers
      Christian philosophy
      Christian philosophy may refer to any development in philosophy that is characterised by coming from a Christian tradition.- Origins of Christian philosophy :...

      , most notably Thomas Aquinas
      Thomas Aquinas
      Thomas Aquinas, O.P. , also Thomas of Aquin or Aquino, was an Italian Dominican priest of the Catholic Church, and an immensely influential philosopher and theologian in the tradition of scholasticism, known as Doctor Angelicus, Doctor Communis, or Doctor Universalis...

      , the theological virtues are to perfect one's love of God and Man and therefore to harmonize and partake of prudence
      Prudence
      Prudence is the ability to govern and discipline oneself by the use of reason. It is classically considered to be a virtue, and in particular one of the four Cardinal virtues .The word comes from Old French prudence , from Latin...

      .

      There are many listings of virtue additional to the traditional Christian virtues (faith, hope and love) in the Christian Bible. One is the "Fruit of the Holy Spirit," found in Galatians 5:22-23: "By contrast, the fruits of the Spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, generosity, faithfulness, gentleness, and self-control. There is no law against such things." (Ὁ δὲ καρπὸς τοῦ πνεύματός ἐστιν ἀγάπη χαρὰ εἰρήνη, μακροθυμία χρηστότης ἀγαθωσύνη, πίστις πραΰτης ἐγκράτεια· κατὰ τῶν τοιούτων οὐκ ἔστιν νόμος.)

      The Muslim tradition


      {{essay-like|date=November 2011}}

      In the Muslim tradition the Qur'an
      Qur'an
      The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

       is, as the word of God, the great repository of all virtues in earthly form, and the Prophet
      Muhammad
      Muhammad |ligature]] at U+FDF4 ;Arabic pronunciation varies regionally; the first vowel ranges from ~~; the second and the last vowel: ~~~. There are dialects which have no stress. In Egypt, it is pronounced not in religious contexts...

      , particularly via his hadiths or reported sayings, the exemplar of virtues in human form.

      According to Al-Qur'an,Holy book of I-salami,traditional Qur'anic grammar ,"i'rāb (إعراب)", Chapter (5) sūrat l-māidah (The Table spread with Food),"I-salami" meaning "Peace"),

      By the way,similar modern Arabic word, I-salama meaning "submission",offenly misunderstand & misuse from the word "I-salami","Peace",

      Shalom aleichem , Peace upon you.
      Alia al salam , Peace upon you.

      Proclaims the virtues is acceptance to the will of God,acception the ways of God,acceptance divine grace of forgiveness,mercy,gracious,true repentance,the redemption,acceptance to the ways of Peace,the acceptance of the way things are. Foremost among God's
      Allah
      Allah is a word for God used in the context of Islam. In Arabic, the word means simply "God". It is used primarily by Muslims and Bahá'ís, and often, albeit not exclusively, used by Arabic-speaking Eastern Catholic Christians, Maltese Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox Christians, Mizrahi Jews and...

       attributes are mercy and compassion
      Compassion
      Compassion is a virtue — one in which the emotional capacities of empathy and sympathy are regarded as a part of love itself, and a cornerstone of greater social interconnection and humanism — foundational to the highest principles in philosophy, society, and personhood.There is an aspect of...

       or, in the canonical language of Arabic, I-rahmani and I-rahimi. Each of the 114 chapters of the Qur'an
      Qur'an
      The Quran , also transliterated Qur'an, Koran, Alcoran, Qur’ān, Coran, Kuran, and al-Qur’ān, is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims consider the verbatim word of God . It is regarded widely as the finest piece of literature in the Arabic language...

      , with one exception, begins with the verse, "In the name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful".

      The Arabic for compassion is I-rahmani. As a cultural influence, its roots abound in the Qur'an. A good Muslim is to commence each day, each prayer and each significant action by invoking God the Merciful and Compassionate, i.e. by reciting Bi Ism-i-Allah al-Rahman al-Rahim.

      The Muslim scriptures urge compassion towards captives as well as to widows, orphans and the poor. Traditionally, Zakat, a toll tax to help the poor and needy, is obligatory upon all Muslims (9:60). One of the practical purposes of fasting or sawm
      Sawm
      Sawm is an Arabic word for fasting regulated by Islamic jurisprudence. In the terminology of Islamic law, Sawm means to abstain from eating, drinking , having sex and anything against Islamic law...

       during the month of Ramadan
      Ramadan
      Ramadan is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, which lasts 29 or 30 days. It is the Islamic month of fasting, in which participating Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking and sex during daylight hours and is intended to teach Muslims about patience, spirituality, humility and...

       is to help one empathize with the hunger pangs of those less fortunate, to enhance sensitivity to the suffering of others and develop compassion for the poor and destitute.

      The Muslim virtues are: prayer, repentance, honesty, loyalty, sincerity, frugality, prudence, moderation, self-restraint, discipline, perseverance, patience, hope, dignity, courage, justice, tolerance, wisdom, good speech, respect, purity, courtesy, kindness, gratitude, generosity, contentment, and others.

      About virtues in I-salami tradition,acceptance to the ways of God according to attribute of God & his allgoodness.
      God is love,selfless,egoless,modesty & omnibenevolence.

      Love of God & God's goodness are eternity,infinite & limitless.
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Love_of_God
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omnibenevolence
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_virtues

      Omnimorous infinte love of God unconditionally is all of greatest amoung greatest of all love of all love.
      And God's omnibenevolence are infinite,(Latin "omni"meaning all benevolence good).

      According to Al-Qur'an,the Holy book of I-salami.
      Chapter (1) sūrat l-fātiḥah (The Opening) Verse 1:1:1 to 1:6:3
      In name of my “God” ,the most gracious , the most merciful ,all praise and thanks to my “God”,the Lord of universe,the most gracious,the most merciful,Master (of the) day,the judgement,You alone we worships and you alone we ask for help , Guide us,the path,the straight.

      Chapter (7) sūrat l-a'rāf (The Heights) Verse 7:37:1 to 7:37:37
      7:37:1 to 7:37:15 Then who (is) more unjust than (one) who invented against my “God” , a lie or denies his verses? Those will reach them their portion from the book.
      7:37:16 to 7:37:21 Until when they come to the our messengers to take them in death.(To take their souls),they say.
      7:37:22 to 7:37:29 "Where are those (whom) you used to invoke from besides my “God”” they say.
      7:37:30 to 7:37:37 "They strayed from us," and they (will) testify against themselves that they were disbelievers.

      Chapter (5) sūrat l-māidah (The Table spread with Food) Verse 5:15:1 to 5:16:18

      5:15:1 to 5:15:5... O People of the book surely has come to you "our messenger". 5:15:6 to 5:15:13 Making clear to you much of what you used from something that had been concealed in the book,(the scriptures) 5:15:14 to 5:15:18 And over looking of much surely has come to you. 5:15:19 to 5:15:22 From my "God","a light" & "a book".

      In translation, not adding in the book, The real key words of translation properly, "Old Aramaic transcripts".
      Biblical Aramaic 'Elaha "God". אלהי Elahi definition "My god". Elah definition "god". The "i" after Elah in "Elahi" ..."i" after "Elah" in "Elahi" "i" definition "my".

      5:15:23 to 5:16:2 Clear guides with it. 5:16:3 to 5:16:8 “God" those who seek his pleasure, (to the ) ways"(of ) I-salami , "peace".

      5:16:7 subula to (throught) the way. 5:16:8 l-salāmi (of) the peace 5:16:9 to 5:16:11 And brings them out from the darknessess. 5:16:12 to 5:16:14 To "the light",by "his permission". 5:16:13 "I-nuri" the light. 5:16:14 bi-idh'nihi by his permission. 5:16:15 to 5:16:18 And guides them to the way the straight.

      Subula l-salāmi ways peace
      ṣirāṭin mus'taqīmin ways straight 5:16:8 I-salami Peace

      Chapter (5) sūrat l-māidah (The Table spread with Food) verse 5:54:1 to 5:55:13
      5:54:1 to 5:54:8 O you who believe,whoever turn back amoung you from his religions
      5:54:9 to 5:54:14 Then soon will be brought by God,the people whom he loves and they love him
      5:54:15 to 5:54:20 Humble towards the believers,sterns towards the disbelievers.
      5:54:21 to 5:54:28 Striving in way of my God and not fearing the blame,the critic.
      5:54:29 to 5:54:32 That's the grace of my God,he grants whom he wills.
      5:54:35 to 5:55:13 And God,all encompassion(all guiding),all knowing,only your ally,God and his messengers and those who believe,and those who establish the prayer and give the purification works (I-zakata,) and they those who bow down.

      The modesty,humility,selfless & egoless as virtues.

      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_virtues
      http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humility

      In I-salami tradition.According to Al-Qur'an the holy book of I-salami.Chapter (32) sūrat l-sajdah (The Prostration),the verse "prostration" definition "face-down" to bow down to somebody,someone,somethingelse first ,with modesty,humility,humble,good manners & courtesy,to bow down with respect.

      Humility is one of 7 heavenly virtues.

      "Doing the pure goodness,the purification works never wrongdoing."

      And because God never need insolence.And Pride is one of 7 deadly sins.

      "To bow down to somebody,someone,somethingelse first with modesty,with humble,with humility,with good manners,with courtesy,with respect (doing pure goodness) never wrongdoing."

      The Bahá'í tradition


      In the Bahá'í Faith
      Bahá'í Faith
      The Bahá'í Faith is a monotheistic religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in 19th-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind. There are an estimated five to six million Bahá'ís around the world in more than 200 countries and territories....

      , virtues are direct spiritual qualities that the human soul possesses, inherited from God Himself. The development and manifestation of these virtues is the theme of the Hidden Words
      Hidden Words
      Kalimát-i-Maknúnih or The Hidden Words is a book written in Baghdad around 1857 by Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith...

       of Bahá'u'lláh
      Bahá'u'lláh
      Bahá'u'lláh , born ' , was the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. He claimed to be the prophetic fulfilment of Bábism, a 19th-century outgrowth of Shí‘ism, but in a broader sense claimed to be a messenger from God referring to the fulfilment of the eschatological expectations of Islam, Christianity, and...

       and are discussed in great detail as the underpinnings of a divinely-inspired society by `Abdu'l-Bahá
      `Abdu'l-Bahá
      ‘Abdu’l-Bahá , born ‘Abbás Effendí, was the eldest son of Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith. In 1892, `Abdu'l-Bahá was appointed in his father's will to be his successor and head of the Bahá'í Faith. `Abdu'l-Bahá was born in Tehran to an aristocratic family of the realm...

       in such texts as The Secret of Divine Civilization.

      Many of the virtues are described with special significance in Bahá'í scripture, such as:
      • Truthfulness - the "foundation of all human virtues".
      • Justice - the "best beloved of all things (to God)".
      • Love - the basis for God's creation of mankind.
      • Humility - a condition for being recipient of God's grace.
      • Trustworthiness - the "goodliest vesture in the sight of God".


      The Virtues Project
      The Virtues Project
      'The Virtues Project empowers individuals to live more authentic meaningful lives, families to raise children of compassion and integrity, educators to create safe, caring, and high performing learning communities, and leaders to encourage excellence and ethics in the work place...

       developed by Canadian Bahá'ís Linda Popov, Dan Popov, and John Kavelin, is greatly inspired by the Bahá'í perspective on virtues.

      Hindu virtues


      Hinduism, or Sanatana Dharma (Dharma means moral duty), has pivotal virtues that everyone keeping their Dharma is asked to follow, for they are distinct qualities of manusya (mankind) that allow one to be in the mode of goodness. There are three modes of material nature (guna
      Guna
      ' means 'string' or 'a single thread or strand of a cord or twine'. In more abstract uses, it may mean 'a subdivision, species, kind, quality', or an operational principle or tendency....

      ), as described in the Vedas
      Vedas
      The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism....

       and other Indian Scriptures: Sattva
      Sattva
      In Hindu philosophy, sattva is the most rarefied of the three gunas in Samkhya, sāttvika "pure", rājasika "dim", and tāmasika "dark". Importantly, no value judgement is entailed as all guna are indivisible and mutually qualifying...

       (goodness,maintenance, stillness, intelligence), Rajas
      Rajas
      Rajas ) is, in the Samkhya school of Hindu philosophy, one of the three gunas. Of these, rajas, is responsible for motion, energy and preservation...

       (passion,creation, energy, activity) , and Tamas
      Tamas (philosophy)
      In the Samkhya school of philosophy, tamas is one of the three gunas , the other two being rajas and sattva or purity). Tamas is the template for inertia or resistance to action...

       (ignorance, restraint, inertia, destruction). Every person harbours a mixture of these modes in varying degrees. A person in the mode of Sattva has that mode in prominence in his nature, which he obtains by following the virtues of the Dharma
      Dharma
      Dharma means Law or Natural Law and is a concept of central importance in Indian philosophy and religion. In the context of Hinduism, it refers to one's personal obligations, calling and duties, and a Hindu's dharma is affected by the person's age, caste, class, occupation, and gender...

       .

      The modes of Sattva are as follows: {{Citation needed|date=November 2009}}
      • Altruism
        Altruism
        Altruism is a concern for the welfare of others. It is a traditional virtue in many cultures, and a core aspect of various religious traditions, though the concept of 'others' toward whom concern should be directed can vary among cultures and religions. Altruism is the opposite of...

        : Selfless Service to all humanity
      • Restraint
        Self control
        Self control is the ability to control one's emotions, behavior and desires in order to obtain some reward later. In psychology it is sometimes called self-regulation...

         and Moderation
        Moderation
        Moderation is the process of eliminating or lessening extremes. It is used to ensure normality throughout the medium on which it is being conducted...

        : This is having restraint and moderation in all things. Sexual relations, eating, and other pleasurable activities should be kept in moderation. Some orthodox followers also believe in sex only in marriage, and being chaste. The degree of restraint and moderation depends on the sect and belief system. Some people believe it means celibacy, while others believe in walking the golden path of moderation, i.e. Not too far to the side of forceful control and total abandon of human pleasures, but also not too far to the side of total indulgence and total abandon for moderation.
      • Honesty
        Honesty
        Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and denotes positive, virtuous attributes such as integrity, truthfulness, and straightforwardness along with the absence of lying, cheating, or theft....

        : One is required to be honest with oneself, one's family, one's friends, and to all of humanity.
      • Cleanliness
        Cleanliness
        Cleanliness is both the abstract state of being clean and free from dirt, and the process of achieving and maintaining that state.Cleanliness may be endowed with a moral quality, as indicated by the aphorism "cleanliness is next to godliness," and may be regarded as contributing to other ideals...

        : Outer cleanliness is to be cultivated for good health and hygiene. Inner cleanliness is cultivated through devotion to God, selflessness, non-violence and all the other virtues. Inner cleanliness is maintained by refraining from intoxicants.
      • Protection and reverence for the Earth.
      • Universality
        Universalism
        Universalism in its primary meaning refers to religious, theological, and philosophical concepts with universal application or applicability...

        : Showing tolerance and respect for everyone, everything and the way of the Universe.
      • Peace
        Peace
        Peace is a state of harmony characterized by the lack of violent conflict. Commonly understood as the absence of hostility, peace also suggests the existence of healthy or newly healed interpersonal or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the...

        : One must cultivate a peaceful manner in order to benefit oneself and those around one.
      • Non-Violence/Ahimsa
        Ahimsa
        Ahimsa is a term meaning to do no harm . The word is derived from the Sanskrit root hims – to strike; himsa is injury or harm, a-himsa is the opposite of this, i.e. non harming or nonviolence. It is an important tenet of the Indian religions...

        : This means not killing or being violent in any way to any life form or sentient being. This is why those who practice this Dharma are vegetarians, because they see the slaughter of animals for the purpose of food as violent on the grounds that there are less violent ways to maintain a healthy diet.
      • Reverence
        Reverence (emotion)
        Reverence [rev-er-uh ns, rev-ruh ns] is defined by as, "A feeling or attitude of deep respect tinged with awe; veneration.". The word comes from the late 13th century Old French term reverence which derives from the Latin "reverentia 'awe, respect,' from revereri 'to revere,' from re- ,...

         for elders and teachers: The virtue of reverence for those who have wisdom and those who selflessly teach in love is very important to learn. The Guru or spiritual teacher is one of the highest principals in many Vedic based spiritualities and is likened to that of God.

      The Buddhist tradition


      Buddhist practice as outlined in the Noble Eightfold Path
      Noble Eightfold Path
      The Noble Eightfold Path , is one of the principal teachings of the Buddha, who described it as the way leading to the cessation of suffering and the achievement of self-awakening. It is used to develop insight into the true nature of phenomena and to eradicate greed, hatred, and delusion...

       can be regarded as a progressive list of virtues.
      1. Right View - Realizing the Four Noble Truths
        Four Noble Truths
        The Four Noble Truths are an important principle in Buddhism, classically taught by the Buddha in the Dharmacakra Pravartana Sūtra....

         {{unicode|(samyag-dṛṣṭi, to improve {{unicode|(samyag-vyāyāma, sammā-vāyāma)}}.
      2. Right Mindfulness - Mental ability to see things for what they are with clear consciousness {{unicode|(samyak-smṛti, sammā-sati)}}.
      3. Right Concentration - Wholesome one-pointedness of mind {{unicode|(samyak-samādhi, sammā-samādhi)}}.


      Buddhism's four brahmavihara
      Brahmavihara
      The brahmavihāras are a series of four Buddhist virtues and the meditation practices made to cultivate them. They are also known as the four immeasurables...

       ("Divine States") can be more properly regarded as virtues in the European sense. They are:
      1. Metta
        Metta
        Mettā or maitrī is loving-kindness, friendliness, benevolence, amity, friendship, good will, kindness, love, sympathy, close mental union , and active interest in others. It is one of the ten pāramīs of the Theravāda school of Buddhism, and the first of the four sublime states...

        /Maitri: loving-kindness towards all; the hope that a person will be well; loving kindness is "the wish that all sentient beings, without any exception, be happy."
      2. Karuṇā
        Karuna
        Karuā is generally translated as "compassion" or "pity". It is part of the spiritual path of both Buddhism and Jainism.-Buddhism:...

        : compassion; the hope that a person's sufferings will diminish; compassion is the "wish for all sentient beings to be free from suffering."
      3. Mudita
        Mudita
        Mudita in Buddhism is joy. It is especially sympathetic or vicarious joy, the pleasure that comes from delighting in other people's well-being rather than begrudging it...

        : altruistic joy in the accomplishments of a person, oneself or other; sympathetic joy - "the wholesome attitude of rejoicing in the happiness and virtues of all sentient beings."
      4. Upekkha/Upeksha: equanimity, or learning to accept both loss and gain, praise
        Praise
        Praise is the act of making positive statements about a person, object or idea, either in public or privately. Praise is typically, but not exclusively, earned relative to achievement and accomplishment...

         and blame
        Blame
        Blame is the act of censuring, holding responsible, making negative statements about an individual or group that their action or actions are socially or morally irresponsible, the opposite of praise. When someone is morally responsible for doing something wrong their action is blameworthy...

        , success and failure with detachment, equally, for oneself and for others. Equanimity means "not to distinguish between friend, enemy or stranger, but to regard every sentient being as equal. It is a clear-minded tranquil state of mind - not being overpowered by delusions, mental dullness or agitation."


      There are also the Paramitas ("perfections").

      In Theravada
      Theravada
      Theravada ; literally, "the Teaching of the Elders" or "the Ancient Teaching", is the oldest surviving Buddhist school. It was founded in India...

       Buddhism
      Buddhism
      Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

      's canonical
      Pāli Canon
      The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language. It is the only completely surviving early Buddhist canon, and one of the first to be written down...

       Buddhavamsa
      Buddhavamsa
      The Buddhavamsa is a Buddhist scripture, part of the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism. It is included there in the Sutta Pitaka's Khuddaka Nikaya. It is a fairly short work in verse, in 28 chapters, detailing aspects of the life of Gautama Buddha and the twenty-four preceding Buddhas...

       the Ten Perfections (dasa pāramiyo) are (original terms in Pali):
      1. Dāna
        Dana
        -Singers:Some singers are popularly known only by the name, Dana:* Dana Rosemary Scallon , Irish-American singer and politician* Dana , Korean pop singer* Dana International , Israeli pop singer-In fiction:...

         parami : generosity, giving of oneself.
      2. Sīla
        Sila
        Śīla or sīla in Buddhism and its non-sectarian offshoots, is a code of conduct that embraces self-restraint with a value on non-harming. It has been variously described as virtue, good conduct, morality, moral discipline and precept. It is an action that is an intentional effort...

         parami : virtue, morality, proper conduct.
      3. Nekkhamma
        Nekkhamma
        Nekkhamma is a Pali word generally translated as "renunciation" or "the pleasure of renunciation" while also conveying more specifically "giving up the world and leading a holy life" or "freedom from lust, craving and desires." In Buddhism's Noble Eightfold Path, nekkhamma is the first practice...

         parami : renunciation.
      4. Paññā
        Panna
        Panna can refer to:* Aam panna, an Indian drink made from mangoes* Panna, Madhya Pradesh, a city in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India* Panna district, a district in Sagar Division of Madhya Pradesh, India* Panna National Park, in Madhya Pradesh, India...

         parami : transcendental wisdom, insight.
      5. Viriya (also spelt vīriya) parami : energy, diligence, vigour, effort.
      6. Khanti parami : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance.
      7. Sacca
        Sacca
        Sacca is a Pāli word meaning "real" or "true." In early Buddhist literature, sacca is often found in the context of the "Four Noble Truths," a crystallization of Buddhist wisdom...

         parami : truthfulness, honesty.
      8. {{IAST (adhitthana) parami : determination, resolution.
      9. Mettā
        Metta
        Mettā or maitrī is loving-kindness, friendliness, benevolence, amity, friendship, good will, kindness, love, sympathy, close mental union , and active interest in others. It is one of the ten pāramīs of the Theravāda school of Buddhism, and the first of the four sublime states...

         parami : loving-kindness.
      10. Upekkhā
        Upekkha
        Upekkhā , is the Buddhist concept of equanimity. As one of the Brahma Vihara , it is a pure mental state cultivated on the Buddhist path to nirvāna.-Pali literary contexts:...

         (also spelt upekhā) parami : equanimity, serenity.


      In Mahayana
      Mahayana
      Mahāyāna is one of the two main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice...

       Buddhism, the Lotus Sutra
      Lotus Sutra
      The Lotus Sūtra is one of the most popular and influential Mahāyāna sūtras, and the basis on which the Tiantai and Nichiren sects of Buddhism were established.-Title:...

       (Saddharmapundarika), lists the Six Perfections as (original terms in Sanskrit):
      1. Dāna
        Dana
        -Singers:Some singers are popularly known only by the name, Dana:* Dana Rosemary Scallon , Irish-American singer and politician* Dana , Korean pop singer* Dana International , Israeli pop singer-In fiction:...

         paramita: generosity, giving of oneself (in Chinese, 布施波羅蜜).
      2. Śīla
        Sila
        Śīla or sīla in Buddhism and its non-sectarian offshoots, is a code of conduct that embraces self-restraint with a value on non-harming. It has been variously described as virtue, good conduct, morality, moral discipline and precept. It is an action that is an intentional effort...

         paramita : virtue, morality, discipline, proper conduct (持戒波羅蜜).
      3. {{IAST
        Kshanti
        Kshanti or khanti is patience, forbearance and forgiveness. It is one of the practices of perfection of both Theravāda and Mahāyāna Buddhism....

         (kshanti) paramita : patience, tolerance, forbearance, acceptance, endurance (忍辱波羅蜜).
      4. Vīrya
        Virya
        Vīrya literally means "state of a strong man" or "manliness." In Vedic literature, the term is often associated with heroism and virility...

         paramita : energy, diligence, vigour, effort, perseverance (精進波羅蜜).
      5. Dhyāna
        Dhyāna in Buddhism
        Dhyāna in Sanskrit or jhāna in Pāli can refer to either meditation or meditative states. Equivalent terms are "Chán" in modern Chinese, "Zen" in Japanese, "Seon" in Korean, "Thien" in Vietnamese, and "Samten" in Tibetan....

         paramita : one-pointed concentration, contemplation (禪定波羅蜜).
      6. Prajñā
        Prajña
        Prajñā or paññā is wisdom, understanding, discernment or cognitive acuity. Such wisdom is understood to exist in the universal flux of being and can be intuitively experienced through meditation...

         paramita : wisdom, insight (智慧波羅蜜).


      In the Ten Stages (Dasabhumika) Sutra, four more Paramitas are listed:
      7. Upāya
      Upaya
      Upaya is a term in Mahayana Buddhism which is derived from the root upa√i and refers to a means that goes or brings one up to some goal, often the goal of Enlightenment. The term is often used with kaushalya ; upaya-kaushalya means roughly "skill in means"...

       paramita: skillful means.
      8. {{IAST (pranidhana) paramita: vow, resolution, aspiration, determination.
      9. Bala paramita: spiritual power.
      10. Jñāna
      Jnana
      Jñāna or gñāna is a Sanskrit and Pali word that means knowledge. It has various nuances of meaning depending on the context. The idea of jnana centers around a cognitive event which is recognized when experienced...

       paramita: knowledge.

      In Chinese philosophy


      "Virtue", translated from Chinese de
      De (Chinese)
      De is a key concept in Chinese philosophy, usually translated "inherent character; inner power; integrity" in Taoism, "moral character; virtue; morality" in Confucianism and other contexts, and "quality; virtue" or "merit; virtuous deeds" in Chinese Buddhism.-The word:Chinese de 德 is an ancient...

       (德), is also an important concept in Chinese philosophy
      Chinese philosophy
      Chinese philosophy is philosophy written in the Chinese tradition of thought. The majority of traditional Chinese philosophy originates in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States era, during a period known as the "Hundred Schools of Thought", which was characterized by significant intellectual and...

      , particularly Daoism. De ({{zh|c=德|p=dé| w=te}}) originally meant normative "virtue" in the sense of "personal character; inner strength; integrity", but semantically changed to moral "virtue; kindness; morality". Note the semantic parallel for English virtue, with an archaic meaning of "inner potency; divine power" (as in "by virtue of") and a modern one of "moral excellence; goodness".

      Confucian moral manifestations of "virtue" include ren ("humanity
      Human nature
      Human nature refers to the distinguishing characteristics, including ways of thinking, feeling and acting, that humans tend to have naturally....

      "), xiao ("filial piety
      Filial piety
      In Confucian ideals, filial piety is one of the virtues to be held above all else: a respect for the parents and ancestors. The Confucian classic Xiao Jing or Classic of Xiào, thought to be written around 470 BCE, has historically been the authoritative source on the Confucian tenet of xiào /...

      "), and li ("proper behavior, performance of rituals"). In Confucianism
      Confucianism
      Confucianism is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system developed from the teachings of the Chinese philosopher Confucius . Confucianism originated as an "ethical-sociopolitical teaching" during the Spring and Autumn Period, but later developed metaphysical and cosmological elements in the Han...

      , the notion of ren - according to Simon Leys - means "humanity" and "goodness". Ren originally had the archaic meaning in the Confucian Book of Poems of "virility", but progressively took on shades of ethical meaning. (On the origins and transformations of this concept see Lin Yu-sheng: "The evolution of the pre-Confucian meaning of jen and the Confucian concept of moral autonomy," Monumenta Serica, vol31, 1974-75.)

      The Daoist concept of De, however, is more subtle, pertaining to the "virtue" or ability that an individual realizes by following the Dao
      Tao
      Dao or Tao is a Chinese word meaning 'way', 'path', 'route', or sometimes more loosely, 'doctrine' or 'principle'...

       ("the Way"). One important normative value in much of Chinese thinking is that one's social status should result from the amount of virtue that one demonstrates, rather than from one's birth. In the Analects, Confucius
      Confucius
      Confucius , literally "Master Kong", was a Chinese thinker and social philosopher of the Spring and Autumn Period....

       explains de as follows: "He who exercises government by means of his virtue may be compared to the north polar star, which keeps its place and all the stars turn towards it."

      Chinese martial morality


      {{Unreferenced section|date=July 2010}}
      • Morality of deed
        • Humility
          Humility
          Humility is the quality of being modest, and respectful. Humility, in various interpretations, is widely seen as a virtue in many religious and philosophical traditions, being connected with notions of transcendent unity with the universe or the divine, and of egolessness.-Term:The term "humility"...

           (Qian Xu; 謙虛)
        • Loyalty
          Loyalty
          Loyalty is faithfulness or a devotion to a person, country, group, or cause There are many aspects to...

           (Zhong Cheng; 忠誠)
        • Respect
          Respect
          Respect denotes both a positive feeling of esteem for a person or other entity , and also specific actions and conduct representative of that esteem. Respect can be a specific feeling of regard for the actual qualities of the one respected...

           (Zun Jing; 尊敬)
        • Righteousness
          Righteousness
          Righteousness is an important theological concept in Zoroastrianism, Hinduism , Judaism, Christianity and Islam...

           (Zheng Yi; 正義)
        • Trust (Xin Yong; 信用)
      • Morality of mind
        • Courage
          Courage
          Courage is the ability to confront fear, pain, danger, uncertainty, or intimidation...

           (Yong Gan; 勇敢)
        • Endurance
          Endurance
          Endurance is the ability for a human or animal to exert itself and remain active for a long period of time, as well as its ability to resist, withstand, recover from, and have immunity to trauma, wounds, or fatigue. In humans, it is usually used in aerobic or anaerobic exercise...

           (Ren Nai; 忍耐)
        • Patience
          Patience
          Patience is the state of endurance under difficult circumstances, which can mean persevering in the face of delay or provocation without acting on annoyance/anger in a negative way; or exhibiting forbearance when under strain, especially when faced with longer-term difficulties. Patience is the...

           (Heng Xin; 恆心)
        • Perseverance (Yi Li; 毅力)
        • Will
          Will (philosophy)
          Will, in philosophical discussions, consonant with a common English usage, refers to a property of the mind, and an attribute of acts intentionally performed. Actions made according to a person's will are called "willing" or "voluntary" and sometimes pejoratively "willful"...

           (Yi Zhi; 意志)

      Samurai values


      In Hagakure
      Hagakure
      Hagakure , or is a practical and spiritual guide for a warrior, drawn from a collection of commentaries by the samurai Yamamoto Tsunetomo, former retainer to Nabeshima Mitsushige, the third ruler of what is now the Saga prefecture in Japan...

      , the quintessential book of the samurai
      Samurai
      is the term for the military nobility of pre-industrial Japan. According to translator William Scott Wilson: "In Chinese, the character 侍 was originally a verb meaning to wait upon or accompany a person in the upper ranks of society, and this is also true of the original term in Japanese, saburau...

      , Yamamoto Tsunetomo encapsulates his views on 'virtue' in the four vows he makes daily:
      1. Never to be outdone in the way of the samurai or Bushidō
        Bushido
        , meaning "Way of the Warrior-Knight", is a Japanese word which is used to describe a uniquely Japanese code of conduct and a way of the samurai life, loosely analogous to the concept of chivalry. It originates from the samurai moral code and stresses frugality, loyalty, martial arts mastery, and...

        .
      2. To be of good use to the master.
      3. To be filial to my parents.
      4. To manifest great compassion and act for the sake of Man.


      Tsunetomo goes on to say:
      If one dedicates these four vows to the gods and Buddhas every morning, he will have the strength of two men and never slip backward. One must edge forward like the inchworm, bit by bit. The gods and Buddhas, too, first started with a vow.


      The Bushidō code is typified by seven virtues{{note|Translations from: Random House's Japanese-English, English-Japanese Dictionary}}:
      • Rectitude (義 ,gi)
      • Courage (勇 ,yuu)
      • Benevolence (仁 ,jin)
      • Respect (礼 ,rei)
      • Honesty (誠 ,sei)
      • Honor (誉 ,yo)
      • Loyalty (忠 ,chuu)


      Others that are sometimes added to these:
      • Filial piety (孝 ,kō)
      • Wisdom (智 ,chi)
      • Care for the aged (悌 ,tei)

      View of Nietzsche


      Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche
      Friedrich Nietzsche
      Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche was a 19th-century German philosopher, poet, composer and classical philologist...

       often took a more cynical view on virtue. A few of his key thoughts were as follows:
      • "One virtue is more of a virtue than two, because it is more of a knot for one's destiny to cling to."{{Citation needed|date=July 2010}}
      • "Virtue itself is offensive."{{Citation needed|date=July 2010}}
      • "When virtue has slept, it will arise all the more vigorous."{{Citation needed|date=July 2010}}
      • "Genuine honesty, assuming that this is our virtue and we cannot get rid of it, we free spirits – well then, we will want to work on it with all the love and malice at our disposal and not get tired of ‘perfecting’ ourselves in our virtue, the only one we have left: may its glory come to rest like a gilded, blue evening glow of mockery over this aging culture and its dull and dismal seriousness!" (Beyond Good and Evil
        Beyond Good and Evil
        Beyond Good and Evil is a book by the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, first published in 1886.It takes up and expands on the ideas of his previous work, Thus Spoke Zarathustra, but approached from a more critical, polemical direction....

        , §227)

      Virtues according to Benjamin Franklin


      These are the virtues that Benjamin Franklin
      Benjamin Franklin
      Dr. Benjamin Franklin was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States. A noted polymath, Franklin was a leading author, printer, political theorist, politician, postmaster, scientist, musician, inventor, satirist, civic activist, statesman, and diplomat...

       used to develop what he called 'moral perfection'. He had a checklist in a notebook to measure each day how he lived up to his virtues.

      They became known through Benjamin Franklin's autobiography
      The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin
      The Autobiography of Benjamin Franklin is the traditional name for the unfinished record of his own life written by Benjamin Franklin from 1771 to 1790; however, Franklin himself appears to have called the work his Memoirs...

      .
      1. Temperance: Eat not to Dullness. Drink not to Elevation.
      2. Silence: Speak not but what may benefit others or yourself. Avoid trifling Conversation.
      3. Order: Let all your Things have their Places. Let each Part of your Business have its Time.
      4. Resolution: Resolve to perform what you ought. Perform without fail what you resolve.
      5. Frugality: Make no Expense but to do good to others or yourself; i.e. Waste nothing.
      6. Industry: Lose no Time. Be always employed in something useful. Cut off all unnecessary Actions.
      7. Sincerity: Use no hurtful Deceit. Think innocently and justly; and, if you speak, speak accordingly.
      8. Justice: Wrong none, by doing Injuries or omitting the Benefits that are your Duty.
      9. Moderation: Avoid Extremes. Forbear resenting Injuries so much as you think they deserve.
      10. Cleanliness: Tolerate no Uncleanness in Body, Clothes or Habitation.
      11. Tranquility: Be not disturbed at Trifles, or at Accidents common or unavoidable.
      12. Chastity: Rarely use Venery but for Health or Offspring; Never to Dullness, Weakness, or the Injury of your own or another's Peace or Reputation.
      13. Humility: Imitate Jesus and Socrates.

      Virtues as emotions


      Marc Jackson in his book Emotion and Psyche puts forward a new development of the virtues. He identifies the virtues as what he calls the good emotions "The first group consisting of love, kindness, joy, faith, awe and pity is good" These virtues differ from older accounts of the virtues because they are not character traits expressed by action, but emotions that are to be felt and developed by feeling not acting.

      In Objectivism


      Ayn Rand
      Ayn Rand
      Ayn Rand was a Russian-American novelist, philosopher, playwright, and screenwriter. She is known for her two best-selling novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged and for developing a philosophical system she called Objectivism....

       held that her morality, the morality of reason, is contained in a single axiom: existence exists—and in a single choice: to live. That the rest proceeds from these. That to live, man must hold three fundamental values that one develops and achieves in life: Reason, Purpose and Self-Esteem. A value is "that which one acts to gain and/or keep ... and the virtue[s] [are] the act[ions] by which one gains and/or keeps it." The primary virtue in Objectivist ethics is rationality, as Rand meant it "the recognition and acceptance of reason as one's only source of knowledge, one's only judge of values and one's only guide to action." These values are achieved by passionate and consistent action and the virtues are the policies for achieving those fundamental values. Ayn Rand describes seven virtues: rationality, productiveness, pride, independence, integrity, honesty and justice. The first three represent the three primary virtues that correspond to the three fundamental values, whereas the final four are derived from the virtue of rationality. She claims that virtue is not an end in itself, that virtue is not its own reward or sacrificial fodder for the reward of evil, that life is the reward of virtue—and happiness is the goal and the reward of life. Man has a single basic choice: to think or not, and that is the gauge of his virtue. Moral perfection is an unbreached rationality—not the degree of your intelligence, but the full and relentless use of your mind, not the extent of your knowledge, but the acceptance of reason as an absolute.

      Vice as opposite


      {{Unreferenced section|date=July 2010}}
      {{Main|Vice}}
      The opposite of a virtue is a vice
      Vice
      Vice is a practice or a behavior or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity, or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness, and corruption...

      . One way of organizing the vices is as the corruption of the virtues.

      As Aristotle
      Aristotle
      Aristotle was a Greek philosopher and polymath, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, linguistics, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology...

       noted, however, the virtues can have several opposites. Virtues can be considered the mean between two extremes, as the Latin maxim dictates in medio stat virtus - in the centre lies virtue. For instance, both cowardice and rashness are opposites of courage; contrary to prudence are both over-caution and insufficient caution; the opposites of humility are shame and pride. A more "modern" virtue, tolerance
      Toleration
      Toleration is "the practice of deliberately allowing or permitting a thing of which one disapproves. One can meaningfully speak of tolerating, ie of allowing or permitting, only if one is in a position to disallow”. It has also been defined as "to bear or endure" or "to nourish, sustain or preserve"...

      , can be considered the mean between the two extremes of narrow-mindedness on the one hand and over-acceptance on the other. Vices can therefore be identified as the opposites of virtues - but with the caveat that each virtue could have many different opposites, all distinct from each other.

      In modern psychology


      Christopher Peterson and Martin Seligman
      Martin Seligman
      Martin E. P. "Marty" Seligman is an American psychologist, educator, and author of self-help books. His theory of "learned helplessness" is widely respected among scientific psychologists....

      , two leading researchers in positive psychology
      Positive psychology
      Positive psychology is a recent branch of psychology whose purpose was summed up in 1998 by Martin Seligman and Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi: "We believe that a psychology of positive human functioning will arise, which achieves a scientific understanding and effective interventions to build thriving in...

      , recognizing the deficiency inherent in psychology
      Psychology
      Psychology is the study of the mind and behavior. Its immediate goal is to understand individuals and groups by both establishing general principles and researching specific cases. For many, the ultimate goal of psychology is to benefit society...

      's tendency to focus on dysfunction rather than on what makes a healthy and stable personality, set out to develop a list of "Character Strengths and Virtues". After three years of study, 24 traits (classified into six broad areas of virtue) were identified, having "a surprising amount of similarity across cultures and strongly indicat[ing] a historical and cross-cultural convergence." These six categories of virtue are courage, justice, humanity, temperance, transcendence, and wisdom. It is also worth noting that some psychologists suggest that these virtues are adequately grouped into fewer categories; for example, the same 24 traits have been grouped into simply: Cognitive Strengths, Temperance Strengths, and Social Strengths.

      See also


      {{multicol}}
      • Arete
        Arete
        Areté is the term meaning "virtue" or "excellence", from Greek ἈρετήArete may also be used:*as a given name of persons or things:**Queen Arete , a character in Homer's Odyssey.***197 Arete, an asteroid....

      • Aretology
        Aretology
        Aretology is that part of moral philosophy which deals with virtue , its nature, and the means of arriving at it.It is also a genre or form of literature, a narrative showing the "virtues," i.e. powers of the main character. Examples are found in antiquity of famous heroes.-References: -External...

      • Bushido
        Bushido
        , meaning "Way of the Warrior-Knight", is a Japanese word which is used to describe a uniquely Japanese code of conduct and a way of the samurai life, loosely analogous to the concept of chivalry. It originates from the samurai moral code and stresses frugality, loyalty, martial arts mastery, and...

      • Chivalry
        Chivalry
        Chivalry is a term related to the medieval institution of knighthood which has an aristocratic military origin of individual training and service to others. Chivalry was also the term used to refer to a group of mounted men-at-arms as well as to martial valour...

      • Common good
        Common good
        The common good is a term that can refer to several different concepts. In the popular meaning, the common good describes a specific "good" that is shared and beneficial for all members of a given community...

      • Consequentialism
        Consequentialism
        Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness of that conduct...

      • Epistemic virtue
        Epistemic virtue
        The epistemic virtues, as identified by virtue epistemologists, reflect their contention that belief is an ethical process, and thus susceptible to the intellectual virtue or vice of one's own life and personal experiences. Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the question "How...

      • Ethics
        Ethics
        Ethics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime, etc.Major branches of ethics include:...

      • Evolution of morality
        Evolution of morality
        The evolution of morality refers to the emergence of human moral behavior over the course of human evolution. Morality can be defined as a system of ideas about right and wrong conduct. In everyday life, morality is typically associated with human behavior and not much thought is given to the...

      • Five Virtues
        Five Virtues
        In Sikhism, the Five Virtues are fundamental qualities which one should develop in order to reach Mukti, or to reunite or merge with God. The Sikh Gurus taught that these positive human qualities were Sat , Daya , Santokh , Nimrata , and Pyar .-Sat:Sat is the virtue of truthful living, which means...

         (Sikh)

      {{multicol-break}}
      • Good and Evil
      • Health
        Health
        Health is the level of functional or metabolic efficiency of a living being. In humans, it is the general condition of a person's mind, body and spirit, usually meaning to be free from illness, injury or pain...

      • Intellectual virtues
      • Knightly Virtues
        Knightly Virtues
        Knightly Virtues were part of a medieval chivalric code of honor. The virtues were a set of 'standards' that Knights of the High Middle Ages tried to adhere to in their daily living and interactions with others. Today, this term still carries similar meanings.Some organizations attempt to continue...

      • Morality
        Morality
        Morality is the differentiation among intentions, decisions, and actions between those that are good and bad . A moral code is a system of morality and a moral is any one practice or teaching within a moral code...

      • Paideia
        Paideia
        In ancient Greek, the word n. paedeia or paideia [ to educate + - -IA suffix1] means child-rearing, education. It was a system of instruction in Classical Athens in which students were given a well-rounded cultural education. Subjects included rhetoric, grammar, mathematics, music, philosophy,...

      • Prussian virtues
        Prussian virtues
        The term Prussian virtues refers to an unfixed canon of several Lutheran virtues dating from the Enlightenment. Prussian virtues and the Prussian value system have influenced aspects of wider German culture.- Historical Development :...

      • Seven Deadly Sins
        Seven deadly sins
        The 7 Deadly Sins, also known as the Capital Vices or Cardinal Sins, is a classification of objectionable vices that have been used since early Christian times to educate and instruct followers concerning fallen humanity's tendency to sin...

      • Seven Heavenly Virtues
        Seven virtues
        In the Catholic catechism, the seven catholic virtues refer to the combination of two lists of virtues, the 4 cardinal virtues of prudence, justice, restraint or temperance, and courage or fortitude, and the 3 theological virtues of faith, hope, and love or charity ; these were adopted by the...

      • Sin
        Sin
        In religion, sin is the violation or deviation of an eternal divine law or standard. The term sin may also refer to the state of having committed such a violation. Christians believe the moral code of conduct is decreed by God In religion, sin (also called peccancy) is the violation or deviation...


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      • Social justice
        Social justice
        Social justice generally refers to the idea of creating a society or institution that is based on the principles of equality and solidarity, that understands and values human rights, and that recognizes the dignity of every human being. The term and modern concept of "social justice" was coined by...

      • Three Jewels of the Tao
        Three Jewels of the Tao
        The Three Treasures or Three Jewels are basic virtues in Taoism. They first appear in Tao Te Ching chapter 67, which Lin Yutang says contains Laozi's "most beautiful teachings":...

      • Three theological virtues
      • Tree of virtues
        Tree of virtues
        Trees of virtues were a metaphorical method employed by medieval Christian monks to assess the relationships between virtues. In a tree of virtues, some virtues are designated as the most heavenly while other virtues are considered aspects, or branches, of those virtues...

      • Value theory
        Value theory
        Value theory encompasses a range of approaches to understanding how, why and to what degree people should value things; whether the thing is a person, idea, object, or anything else. This investigation began in ancient philosophy, where it is called axiology or ethics. Early philosophical...

      • Vice
        Vice
        Vice is a practice or a behavior or habit considered immoral, depraved, or degrading in the associated society. In more minor usage, vice can refer to a fault, a defect, an infirmity, or merely a bad habit. Synonyms for vice include fault, depravity, sin, iniquity, wickedness, and corruption...

      • Virtue ethics
        Virtue ethics
        Virtue ethics describes the character of a moral agent as a driving force for ethical behavior, rather than rules , consequentialism , or social context .The difference between these four approaches to morality tends to lie more in the way moral dilemmas are...

      • Virtus (deity)

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