is a brand
The American Marketing Association defines a brand as a "Name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers."...
A cigarette is a small roll of finely cut tobacco leaves wrapped in a cylinder of thin paper for smoking. The cigarette is ignited at one end and allowed to smoulder; its smoke is inhaled from the other end, which is held in or to the mouth and in some cases a cigarette holder may be used as well...
manufactured by Altria Group
Altria Group, Inc. is based in Henrico County, Virginia, and is the parent company of Philip Morris USA, John Middleton, Inc., U.S. Smokeless Tobacco Company, Inc., Philip Morris Capital Corporation, and Chateau Ste. Michelle Wine Estates. It is one of the world's largest tobacco corporations...
(formerly Phillip Morris Companies). The brand was introduced in 1968 and marketed to young professional women using the slogan "You've come a long way, baby." Some media watch groups considered this campaign to be responsible for a rapid increase in smoking among teenage girls. Later campaigns have used the slogans, "It's a woman thing," in the 1990s, and "Find your voice." A report by the Surgeon General of the United States
The Surgeon General of the United States is the operational head of the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and thus the leading spokesperson on matters of public health in the federal government...
has interpreted these marketing strategies as attempting to link smoking "to women's freedom, emancipation, and empowerment." This report also tied the increase of smoking among teenage girls to rises in sales of Virginia Slims and other "niche" brands marketed directly to women.
Virginia Slims are much narrower (23mm circumference) than ordinary cigarettes (hence, "Slims"), and are also longer than normal "king-sized" cigarettes (which are 85mm), sold only in longer 100mm and 120mm lengths, to give the cigarettes a more "elegant" appearance and ostensibly to reduce the amount of smoke they produce. They are also sold in "Superslims", "light," "ultra-light," and menthol
Menthol is an organic compound made synthetically or obtained from peppermint or other mint oils. It is a waxy, crystalline substance, clear or white in color, which is solid at room temperature and melts slightly above. The main form of menthol occurring in nature is -menthol, which is assigned...
varieties. The packaging, designed by Walter Landor
Walter Landor , born Walter Landauer in 1913 in Munich, Germany, was a brand design legend and the founder of Landor Associates. He was an acclaimed designer and a pioneer of branding and consumer research techniques widely used to this day...
, is white with colored stripes running lengthwise along the left side.
Virginia Slims were introduced on July 22, 1968, by Philip Morris, and marketed as a female-oriented spinoff to their Benson and Hedges brand. The blends, flavorings, color scheme, and overall marketing concepts closely followed the Benson and Hedges model. Early packs (1968-1978) read "Benson and Hedges Park Avenue New York", near the bottom.
The first test market was San Francisco, California. Originally scheduled for six months, it was cut short after seven weeks due to the success of the introduction - a nearly 3% market penetration. Distribution and marketing was implemented nationwide, and by September 30, 1968, the entire U.S. was covered.
- In 1976, a 120-mm full-flavor packing was test-marketed in Fresno, California. Designed to compete with RJ Reynolds 'More' brand, the test ultimately failed and this entry was withdrawn.
- In 1978, Virginia Slims Lights were introduced, with good success. Although early marketing concepts included soft pack, Philip Morris decided to use a box-pack design only.
Throughout the 70s and early 80s, growth and market penetration was significant, drawing the attention of competitors who introduced their own slim, female-oriented brands (such as American Tobacco Company's Misty
, Brown and Williamson's Capri
Capri is a brand of cigarette manufactured by R.J. Reynolds. Introduced in 1987, it is the first widely-available cigarette having an extremely slim shape, at 17 mm in circumference and 100 mm in length, specifically marketed towards women as a way to increase or enhance their sexual...
, Liggett's Eve, and R.J Reynolds' Dawn).
- In 1984, Virginia Slims Ovals were test marketed, but were unsuccessful and withdrawn. Ovals were light, and had an oval-shaped cross section.
- In 1985, Virginia Slims Luxury Light 120s were introduced - a 120 mm length packing again intended to better compete with RJ Reynolds 'More' brand, as well as other 120s on the market. The introduction was successful. This packing has since become a mainstay of the smoking glamour community. It is arguable as to whether VS120s are truly 'light', since their rating numbers compare more closely to full-flavor.
- In 1987, Ultra-Light 100s were introduced, in keeping with changing consumer tastes, other competitive entries, and the Benson and Hedges model. Marginally successful, this packing remains on the market today.
- In 1990, Ultra-Light SuperSlim 100s were introduced, in response to ultra-thin (21mm circumference) competition and consumer demand for a 'low-smoke' product entry. These were also marginally successful, and remain on the market.
- In 1993, a 10-Pack version of Light 100s were introduced, with 10 cigarettes per pack, costing approximately half the price of a 20-pack. This entry had limited success and came under attack from critics. It was ultimately withdrawn.
- In 1994, Virginia Slims Kings (85mm length) were designed as a discount entry and possibly to compete with other king-size entries such as RJ Reynolds' Camel brand. It is not clear whether Kings were ever test marketed, but they were never introduced on a nationwide basis.
- In 2003, a box-pack was introduced for full-flavor 100s, in response to consumer demand. This packing is steadily displacing the classic soft-pack.
- In 2004, Ultra-Light 120s were introduced with marginal success. It is likely that this packing will continue to be supported.
- In 2008, Virginia Slims Superslims introduced a smaller size "Purse Pack."
All packings were simultaneously introduced in both Menthol and Non-menthol (e.g., Regular
) varieties. Unlike most other brands, Menthol represents 40%-55% of the total sales of a particular packing (vs. 25%-35%).
In all, there have been 11 packings introduced or test marketed in the US, of which 7 are still on the market. There are other varieties marketed in the Asian-Pacific region, Russia, and South Africa. Virginia Slims has never had a significant European or South American presence.
From inception, Virginia Slims have been designed and marketed as a female-oriented fashion brand, generally targeted towards a younger demographic (18-35 year olds). While various themes have emerged in the marketing campaigns over the years, the basic threads have been independence, liberation, slimness, attractiveness, glamour, style, taste, and a contrast to men's cigarettes
In the 1960s and 1970s, the themes of feminism
Feminism is a collection of movements aimed at defining, establishing, and defending equal political, economic, and social rights and equal opportunities for women. Its concepts overlap with those of women's rights...
and women's liberation, with the slogan "You've Come A Long Way, Baby" were often used in the ads, and often featured anecdotes about women in the early 20th century who were punished for being caught smoking, usually by their husbands or other men, as compared to the time of the ads when more women had equal rights, usually comparing smoking to things like the right to vote.
Television and print ads often featured well-known models and designer fashions. Print ads were generally placed in women's magazines, and formed the mainstay of the marketing campaign, supplemented with billboards and point-of-purchase displays. From 1969 until 1971 (when cigarette advertising on television became prohibited), television advertising was an important component.
Virginia Slims also sponsored the Women's Tennis Association
The Women's Tennis Association , founded in 1973 by Billie Jean King, is the principal organizing body of Women's Professional Tennis. It governs the WTA Tour which is the worldwide professional tennis tour for women. Its counterpart organization in the men's professional game is the Association of...
Tour. This sponsorship is sometimes credited for the growth and success of women's tennis during the 1970s and early 1980s.
Several other, less important, marketing vehicles were employed, such as the Virginia Slims Book of Days (a day timer/calendar book), fashion shows, and an extensive line of products, apparel, and accessories.
The Leo Burnett advertising agency handled the Virginia Slims account throughout most of the product lifetime.
From its inception until 1978, Virginia Slims saw a steady increase in market share to 1.75% (3.9% of all female smokers). With the introduction of Lights in 1978, the market share increased to 2.5%. Other packings, including 120s, Ultra Lights, and Superslims helped push the market share to a peak of 3.1% (nearly 7% of female smokers) in 1989. With increased competition from other brands, notably Capri and Misty, the brand lost ground but stabilized at around 2.4% though 2003. Since then, it has lost about .1% per year, and was 2.0% in 2007 and 1.8% in 2009. This slow but steady decline is expected to continue, since the brand is no longer heavily promoted. Despite this, brand loyalty is well above average, and is still one of the highest in the industry.
Virginia Slims are 23mm in circumference and are not available in king-size (85mm).
- Virginia Slims 100's - Soft and Box
- Virginia Slims Gold Pack (Lights) 100's - Box
- Virginia Slims Gold Pack (Lights) 120's - Box
- Virginia Slims Silver Pack (Ultra Lights) 100's - Box
- Virginia Slims Silver Pack (Ultra Lights) 120's - Box
- Virginia Slims Menthol 100's - Soft and Box
- Virginia Slims Menthol Gold Pack (Lights) 100's - Box
- Virginia Slims Menthol Gold Pack (Lights) 120's - Box
- Virginia Slims Menthol Silver Pack (Ultra Lights) 100's - Box
- Virginia Slims Menthol Silver Pack (Ultra Lights) 120's - Box
Superslims are 21mm in circmference and half the diameter of regular Virginia Slims. They are also known as "purse packs."
- Virginia Slims Superslims - Box
- Virginia Slims Superslims Gold Pack (Lights) - Box
- Virginia Slims Superslims Menthol - Box
- Virginia Slims Superslims Menthol Gold Pack (Lights) - Box