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Venice Biennale

Venice Biennale

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[[Image:Venice biennale.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Biennalist Giardini Main Entrance]] [[Image:Venezzia biennial jn 3.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Detail of exhibition.]] [[Image:Balazs kicsiny-pump room.jpg|right|thumb|200px|View of "Pump Room", a work by the Hungarian artist [[Balázs Kicsiny]] at the Venice Biennale in 2005.]] The '''Venice Biennale''' ({{lang-it|Biennale di Venezia}}; also called in English the "Venice ''Biennial''") is a major [[contemporary art]] exhibition that takes place once every two years (in odd years) in [[Venice]], Italy.
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[[Image:Venice biennale.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Biennalist Giardini Main Entrance]] [[Image:Venezzia biennial jn 3.jpg|right|thumb|200px|Detail of exhibition.]] [[Image:Balazs kicsiny-pump room.jpg|right|thumb|200px|View of "Pump Room", a work by the Hungarian artist [[Balázs Kicsiny]] at the Venice Biennale in 2005.]] The '''Venice Biennale''' ({{lang-it|Biennale di Venezia}}; also called in English the "Venice ''Biennial''") is a major [[contemporary art]] exhibition that takes place once every two years (in odd years) in [[Venice]], Italy. The [[Venice Film Festival]] is part of it. So too is the [[Venice Biennale of Architecture]], which is held in even years. A dance section, the "International Festival of Contemporary Dance", was established in 1999. == History == The first [[wikt:biennale|Biennale]] was held in 1895; during the first editions, decorative arts played an important role. The event became more and more international in the first decades of the 20th century: from 1907 on, several countries started installing national pavilions at the exhibition. After World War I, the Biennale showed increasing interest in innovative traditions in modern art. Between the two World Wars, many important [[List of modern artists|modern artists]] had their work exhibited there. In 1930, control of the Biennale passed from the Venice city council to the national [[Fascism|Fascist]] government. In the 1930s, several new sections of the event were established: the Music Festival in 1930, the International Film Festival in 1932 and the Theatre Festival in 1934. From 1938, Grand Prizes were awarded in the art exhibition section. After a six-year break during World War II, the Biennale was resumed in 1948 with renewed attention to [[avant-garde]] movements in European, and later worldwide, movements in contemporary art. [[Abstract expressionism]] was introduced in the 1950s, and the Biennale is credited with importing [[Pop Art]] into the canon of art history by awarding the top prize to [[Robert Rauschenberg]] in 1964. From 1948 to 1972, Italian architect [[Carlo Scarpa]] did a series of remarkable interventions in the Biennales exhibition spaces. The protests of 1968 marked a crisis for the Biennale; the Grand Prizes were abandoned and more emphasis went to thematic exhibitions instead of monographic ones. In 1972, for the first time the Biennale adopted a theme: 'work and behaviour'. The 1974 edition was entirely dedicated to [[Chile]], as a major cultural protest against the dictatorship of [[Augusto Pinochet]]. New prizes - [[Golden Lion]]s, like the awards for the [[Venice Film Festival]] - were installed; [[postmodernism|postmodern]] art entered the scene with increasingly varied and popular exhibitions. In 1980, [[Achille Bonito Oliva]] and [[Harald Szeemann]] introduced "Aperto", a section of the exhibition designed to explore emerging art. Italian art historian Giovanni Carandente directed the 1988 and 1990 editions. A three-year gap was left afterwards to make sure that the 1995 edition would coincide with the 100th anniversary of the Biennale. The 1993 edition was directed by Achille Bonito Oliva. In 1995, [[Jean Clair]] was appointed to be the Biennale's first non-Italian director of visual arts while [[Germano Celant]] served as director in 1997. In 1999 and 2001, Harald Szeemann directed two editions in a row (48th & 49th) bringing in a larger representation of artists from Asia and Eastern Europe and more young artist than usual and expanded the show into several newly restored spaces of the Arsenale. The 50th edition, directed by Francesco Bonami, had a record number of seven co-curators involved, including [[Hans Ulrich Obrist]], Catherine David, Igor Zabel, Hou Hanru and Massimiliano Gioni. The 51st edition of the Biennale opened in June 2005, curated, for the first time by two women, Maria de Corral and [[Rosa Martinez]]. De Corral organized "The Experience of Art" which included 41 artists, from past masters to younger figures. [[Rosa Martinez]] took over the Arsenale with "Always a Little Further." Drawing on "the myth of the romantic traveler" her exhibition involved 49 artists, ranging from the elegant to the profane. In 2007, [[Robert Storr]] became the first director from the United States to curate the 52nd edition of the Biennale entitled ''Think with the Senses – Feel with the Mind. Art in the Present Tense''. Swedish curator [[Daniel Birnbaum]] was artistic director of the 2009 edition, followed by Bice Curiger in 2011. The Biennale has an attendance today of over 300,000 visitors. == Format == The formal Biennale is based at a park, the [[Venice giardini|Giardini]], that houses 30 permanent national pavilions. The number of countries represented is still growing. In 2005, China was showing for the first time, followed by the African Pavilion and Mexico ( 2007), the United Arab Emirates (2009), and India (2011). The assignment of the permanent pavilions was largely dictated by the international politics of the 1930s and the Cold War. There is no single format to how each country manages their pavilion. The pavilion for Great Britain is always managed by the [[British Council]] while the United States assigns the responsibility to a public gallery chosen by the [[United States Department of State|Department of State]]. The Giardini includes a large exhibition hall that houses a themed exhibition curated by the Biennale's director. Countries not owning a pavilion in the Giardini are exhibited in other venues across Venice. In 2011, the countries are Albania, Andorra, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China(PR), Congo(DR), Costa Rica, Croatia, Cuba, Cyprus, Czech and Slovak Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Estonia, Finland, France, Georgia, Germany, Greece, Haiti, Hungary, Iceland, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Mexico, Moldova, Montenegro, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, San Marino, Saudi Arabia, Serbia, Singapore, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Syrian Arab Republic, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United States of America, Uruguay, Venezuela, and Zimbabwe. In addition to this there are two collective pavilions: Central Asia Pavilion and Istituto Italo-Latino Americano. Initiated in 1980, the Aperto began as a fringe event for younger artists and artists of a national origin not represented by the permanent national pavilions. This is usually staged in the [[Venetian Arsenal|Arsenale]] and has become part of the formal biennale programme. In 1995 there was no Aperto so a number of participating countries hired venues to show exhibitions of emerging artists. ==Role in the art market== When the Venice Biennale was founded in 1895, one of its main goals was to establish a new market for contemporary art. Between 1942 and 1968 a sales office assisted artists in finding clients and selling their work, a service for which it charged 10% commission. Sales remained an intrinsic part of the biennale until 1968, when a sales ban was enacted. An important practical reason why the focus on non-commodities has failed to decouple Venice from the market is that the biennale itself lacks the funds to produce, ship and install these large-scale works. Therefore the financial involvement of dealers is indispensable. Furthermore, every other year the Venice Biennale coincides with nearby [[Art Basel]], the world's prime commercial fair for modern and contemporary art. ===Argentina=== In 1901, Argentina was the first Latin American nation to participate in the Biennale. In 2011, it was granted a pavilion in the Sale d'Armi, which it will restore. List of exhibitors in the Argentinian Pavilion: * 1954 - [[Lucio Fontana]] * 1958 - [[Lucio Fontana]] * 1966 - [[Lucio Fontana]] * 1968 - [[Lucio Fontana]], Nicolás García Uriburu * 1970 - Luis Fernando Benedit * 1972 - [[Lucio Fontana]] * 1978 - [[Lucio Fontana]] * 1984 - Antonio Seguí * 1986 - Marta Minujin * 1995 - Jorge Orta * 1997 - Ana Eckell * 2001 - Leandro Erlich, Graciela Sacco (Curator: Irma Arestizábal) * 2007 - Jorge Macchi, Edgardo Rudnitzky (Commissioner: Adriana Rosenberg) * 2011 - Adrián Villar Rojas (Curator: Rodrigo Alonso) ===Australia=== The Australian Pavilion, designed by [[Philip Cox]], was opened in 1988. Australia's participation at the Venice Biennale is managed by the [[Australia Council for the Arts]]. List of exhibitors in the Australian Pavilion: * 1954 - Sidney Nolan, Russell Drysdale, William Dobell * 1956 - Albert Tucker * 1958 - Arthur Streeton, Arthur Boyd * 1978 - Ken Unsworth, John Davis, Robert Owen * 1980 - Mike Parr, Tony Coleing, Kevin Mortensen * 1982 - Peter Booth, Rosalie Gascoigne * 1986 - Imants Tillers * 1988 - Arthur Boyd (Australian Pavilion opens) * 1990 - Trevor Nickolls, Rover Thomas * 1993 - Jenny Watson * 1995 - Bill Henson * 1997 - Judy Watson, Yvonne Koolmatrie, Emily Kame Kngwarreye * 1999 - Howard Arkley * 2001 - Lyndal Jones * 2003 - Patricia Piccinini * 2005 - Ricky Swallow * 2007 - Callum Morton, Susan Norrie, Daniel von Sturmer * 2009 - Shaun Gladwell, Vernon Ah Kee, Ken Yonetani, Claire Healy & Sean Cordeiro * 2011 - [[Hany Armanious]] (Curator: Anne Ellegood) ===Austria=== Designed by [[Joseph Hoffmann]] with the collaboration of [[Robert Kramreiter]], 1934 (restored by [[Hans Hollein]], 1984). The clear symmetrical building, conceived as a white cube from the outset, was the first Venice pavilion to have been designed by a leading Classical Modern architect. The Hoffmann pavilion was not used following the annexation of Austria by the Third Reich in 1938, nor in the subsequent Biennale years of 1940 and 1942. Austrian artists with close ties to the Nazi regime were shown in the German Pavilion. List of exhibitors in the Austrian Pavilion: * 1978 - [[Arnulf Rainer]] (Commissioner: Hans Hollein) * 1980 - [[Valie Export]], [[Maria Lassnig]] (Commissioner: Hans Hollein) * 1982 - [[Walter Pichler (Künstler)|Walter Pichler]] (Commissioner: Hans Hollein) * 1984 - [[Christian Ludwig Attersee]] (Commissioner: Hans Hollein) * 1986 - [[Max Peintner]], [[Karl Prantl]] (Commissioner: Hans Hollein) * 1988 - [[Siegfried Anzinger]] (Commissioner: Hans Hollein) * 1990 - [[Franz West]] (Commissioner: Hans Hollein) * 1993 - [[Gerwald Rockenschaub]], [[Andrea Fraser]], [[Christian Philipp Müller]] (Commissioner: Peter Weibel) * 1995 - [[Coop Himmelb(l)au]], Peter Kogler, [[Richard Kriesche]], [[Peter Sandbichler]] / Constanze Ruhm, [[Eva Schlegel]], [[Ruth Schnell]] (Commissioner: Peter Weibel) * 1997 - Die [[Wiener Gruppe]] ([[Friedrich Achleitner]], [[Konrad Bayer]], [[Gerhard Rühm]], [[Oswald Wiener]]) (Commissioner: Peter Weibel) * 1999 - [[Peter Friedl]], [[Rainer Ganahl]], Christine and Irene Hohenbüchler, Wochenklausur (Commissioner: Peter Weibel) * 2001 - [[Granular Synthesis]], [[Gelatin]] (Commissioner: Elisabeth Schweeger) * 2003 - [[Bruno Gironcoli]] (Commissioner: Kasper König) * 2005 - Hans Schabus (Commissioner: Max Hollein) * 2007 - Herbert Brandl (Commissioner: Robert Fleck) * 2009 - [[Elke Krystufek]], Dorit Margreiter, Lois & Franziska Weinberger (Commissioners: [[Valie Export]] und Silvia Eiblmayr) * 2011 - Markus Schinwald (Commissioner: Eva Schlegel) ===Belgium === Designed by [[Leon Sneyers]], 1907 (totally restored by [[Virgilio Vallot]], 1948). List of exhibitors in the Belgian Pavilion: * 1997 - Thierry de Cordier * 2007 - Éric Duyckaerts * 2009 - Jef Geys * 2011 - Angel Vergara, [[Luc Tuymans]] ===Brazil=== Designed by [[Amerigo Marchesin]], 1964. List of exhibitors in the Brazilian Pavilion: * 1958 - Lasar Segall * 1966 - [[Sergio Camargo]] * 1968 - [[Lygia Clark]] * 1982 - Tunga * 1990 - Frida Baranek, Daniel Senise * 1993 - Angelo Venosa * 1999 - Mauricio Dias, Walter Riedweg * 2001 - [[Vik Muniz]], [[Ernesto Neto]] (Curator: [[Germano Celant]]) * 2003 - Beatriz Milhazes, Rosângela Rennó (Curator: Alfons Hug) * 2005 - Chelpa Ferro, Caio Reisewitz (Curator: Alfons Hug) * 2007 - José Damasceno, Detanico & Lain (Curator: Jacopo Crivelli Visconti) * 2009 - Luiz Braga and Delson Uchôa (Curator: Ivo Mesquita) * 2011 - [[Artur Barrio]] (Curators: Moacir dos Anjos, Agnaldo Farias) === Canada === [[File:Venice Biennale pavillion-Canada.JPG|thumb|upright|Canadian Pavilion.]] The Canadian pavilion was designed by the [[Milan]]-based architecture firm [[BBPR]] ([[Gian Luigi Banfi]], [[Ludovico Barbiano di Belgiojoso]], [[Enrico Peressutti]], [[Ernesto Nathan Roger]]s) and was first used at the 1958 biennale. The nation has been participating in the international exhibition since 1952. List of exhibitors in the Canadian Pavilion: *1952 - [[Emily Carr]], David Milne, Goodridge Roberts, Alfred Pellan *1954 - Bertram Charles Binning, [[Paul-Emile Borduas]], [[Jean-Paul Riopelle]] *1956 - Jack Leonard Shadbolt, Louis Archambault, Harold Town *1958 - James Wilson Morrice, Jacques de Tonnancour, Anne Kahane, Jack Nicols *1960 - Edmund Alleyne, Graham Coughtry, Jean-Paul Lemieux, Frances Loring, Albert Dumouchel *1962 - Jean-Paul Riopelle *1964 - [[Harold Town]], Elza Mayhew *1966 - Alex Colville, Yves Gaucher, [[Sorel Etrog]] *1968 - Ulysse Comtois, Guido Molinari *1970 - [[Michael Snow]] *1972 - Gershon Iskowitz,Walter Redinger *1976 - [[Greg Curnoe]] *1978 - Ron Martin, Henry Saxe *1980 - Collin Campbell, Pierre Falardeau & Julien Poulin, [[General Idea]], Tom Sherman, Lisa Steele *1982 - Paterson Ewen *1984 - [[Ian Carr-Harris]], Liz Magor *1986 - Melvin Charney, [[Krzysztof Wodiczko]] *1988 - Roland Brerner, Michel Goulet *1990 - [[Geneviève Cadieux]] *1993 - Robin Collyer *1995 - [[Edward Poitras]] *1997 - [[Rodney Graham]] *1999 - Tom Dean *2001 - [[Janet Cardiff]] & [[George Bures Miller]] *2003 - [[Jana Sterbak]] *2005 - [[Rebecca Belmore]] *2007 - [[David Altmejd]] *2009 - [[Mark Lewis]] *2011 - [[Steven Shearer]] ===Central Asia=== List of exhibitors in the Central Asia Pavilion: * 51st Biennale, 2005. Art from Central Asia a Contemporary Archive. Curators: Viktor Misiano Commissioner: Churek Djamgerchinova The first Central Asian Pavilion was an initiative of Victor Miziano in 2005. In the following years the second pavilion was organized by Yulia Sorokina (Almaty) and the third by Beral Madra (Istanbul). Each of these exhibitions was different in format and approach. The first one – Art from Central Asia. A Contemporary Archive – aimed at placing Central Asia on the ‘map’ of international art. Along the works of invited artists, there were many video compilations of films, performance and happenings presented by Central Asian artists from the end of 90s and beginning of 2000. Artists: Said Atabekov, Vyacheslav Akhunov & Sergey Tychina, Maksim Boronilov & Roman Maskalev, Elena Vorobyeva & Viktor Vorobyev, Muratbek Djumaliev & Gulnara Kasmalieva, Sergey Maslov, Almagul Menlibaeva, Erbossyn Meldibekov, Alexander Nikolaev, Rustam Khalfin & Yulia Tikhonova. * 52nd Biennale, 2007. Muzykstan/ Media generation of contemporary artists from Central Asia Commissioner and curator: Yulia Sorokina Artists: Roman Maskalev, Almagul Menlibaeva & German Popov, Gulnur Mukazhanova, Alexander Nikolaev, Aleksey Rumyantsev, Alexander Ugay Mediateka: Аsia Animation, Said Atabekov, Vyacheslav Akhunov, Alla Girik & Oksana Shatalova, Digsys, Natalia Dyu, Zadarnovsky Brothers, Gaukhar Kiyekbayeva, Vyacheslav Useinov, Jamol Usmanov, Aytegin Muratbek Uulu, Jamshed Kholikov, ZITABL Muzykstan, which was curated by Yulia Sorokina, also included a ‘media library’ of various art productions that had not been shown on the international art scene yet. On the contrary, Making Interstices by Beral Madra had already focused on the exhibition of selected individual projects. * 53rd Biennale, 2009. Making Interstices Curator: Beral Madra Commissioner: Vittorio Urbani Artists: Ermek Jaenish, Jamshed Kholikov, Anzor Salidjanov, Oksana Shatalova, Elena Vorobyeva & Viktor Vorobyev Official website: www.centralasiaart.org * 54th Biennale, 2011. Lingua Franca / Франк тили The exhibition of the Central Asia Pavilion, Lingua Franca / Франк тили presents the works of contemporary artists from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan as well as a video-retrospective of Central Asian avant-garde. Artists: Natalia Andrianova, Said Atabekov, Artyom Ernst, Galim Madanov and Zauresh Terekbay, Yerbossyn Meldibekov, Alexander Nikolaev, Marat Raiymkulov, Aleksey Rumyantsev and Alla Rumyantseva, Adis Seitaliev Curators: Boris Chukhovich, Georgy Mamedov, Oksana Shatalova Commissioners: Asel Akmatova, Andris Brinkmanis ===Czechoslovakia=== [[File:Venice Biennale pavillion-Czechoslovakia.JPG|thumb|upright|Czechoslovakian Pavilion.]] Designed by [[Otakar Novotný]], 1926 (annex built by [[Boguslav Rychlinch]], 1970). List of exhibitors in the Czech and Slovak Pavilion: * 1993 - Jiří Surůvka, Ilona Németh, [[František Skála]] (Curator: Katarína Rusnáková) * 2001 - Viera Levitt * 2007 - Irena Jůzová * 2009 - [[Roman Ondák]] * 2011 - [[Dominik Lang]] (Curator: Yvona Ferencová) ===Denmark=== Designed by [[Carl Brummer]], 1932 (annex designed by [[Peter Koch]], 1958). The Danish Arts Council Committee for International Visual Arts serves as commissioner for the Danish Pavilion at the Biennale, where Denmark has taken part since 1895. List of exhibitors in the Danish Pavilion: * 1999 - [[Jason Rhoades]], [[Peter Bonde]] * 2003 - [[Olafur Eliasson]] * 2005 - Eva Koch, Joachim Koester, Peter Land, Ann Lislegaard, Gitte Villesen * 2007 - Troels Wörsel, Commissioner: Holger Reenberg. Assistant Commissioner: Stinna Toft Christensen * 2009 - [[Elmgreen and Dragset]] * 2011 - [[Taryn Simon]] and others (Curator: Katerina Gregos) ===Egypt=== Egypt was assigned a pavilion in 1952. List of exhibitors in the Egyptian Pavilion: * 1960 - [[Kamal Amin]] * 1976 - [[Kamal Amin]] * 1995 - [[Akram El Magdoub]] - [[Hamdi Attia]] - [[Medhat Shafik]] - [[Khaled Shokry]] ===Finland=== Designed by [[Alvar Aalto]] to be a temporary construction for the architecture biennale in 1956, the pavilion was later restored by [[Fredrik Fogh]] with the collaboration of [[Elsa Makiniemi]], 1976–1982. Also used by [[Iceland]]. ===France=== [[File:Venice Biennale pavillion-France.JPG|thumb|upright|French Pavilion.]] France will be celebrating nearly a century in its pavilion at the 2011 Venice Biennale, which was designed by Faust Finzi in 1912. List of exhibitors in the French Pavilion: * 1976 - [[Herve Fisher]], [[Fred Forest]], [[Raymond Hains]], [[Alain Jacquet]], [[Bertrand Lavier]], [[Jean-Pierre Raynaud]], [[Sanejouand|Jean-Michel Sanejouand]], [[Jean-Paul Thenot]] (Commissioner: [[Pierre Restany]]) * 1986 - [[Daniel Buren]] * 1991 - [[Jean Nouvel]], [[Christian de Portzamparc]], [[Philippe Starck]] * 1993 - [[Jean-Pierre Raynaud]] * 1995 - [[César Baldaccini|César]] * 1997 - [[Fabrice Hyber]] * 1999 - [[Huang Yong Ping]], [[Jean-Pierre Bertrand]] * 2001 - [[Pierre Huyghe]] * 2003 - [[Jean-Marc Bustamante]] * 2005 - [[Annette Messager]] * 2007 - [[Sophie Calle]] * 2009 - [[Claude Lévêque]] * 2011 - [[Christian Boltanski]] (Curator: Jean-Hubert Martin) ===Germany=== [[File:Venice Biennale pavillion-Germany.JPG|thumb|upright|German Pavilion.]] The commissioner for the German contribution to Biennial is the German Foreign Ministry. On the suggestion of an advisory committee, comprising museum directors and art experts as members, the ministry appoints a curator (formerly: commissioner) who is responsible for the selection of the artists and the organisation of the contribution. This appointment is usually for two years in succession. From 1982 until 1990 the [[German Democratic Republic]] organized its own exhibitions in the former Pavilion of Decorative Art. Germany's pavilion was redesigned by [[Ernst Haiger]] and inaugurated in 1938 by the ruling Nazi government, a fact that has inspired artistic responses from some presenters. It was originally designed by [[Daniele Donghi]] in 1909. List of exhibitors in the German Pavilion: * 1950 - [[Der Blaue Reiter]] (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl) * 1952 - [[Die Brücke]] (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl) * 1954 - Heinz Battke, Leo Cremer, [[Edgar Ende]], [[Paul Klee]], Karl Kunz, [[Oskar Schlemmer]], [[Rudolf Schlichter]], Hans Uhlmann, Mac Zimmermann (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl) * 1958 - [[Karl Otto Götz]], Fred Thieler, Julius Bissier, Rolf Cavael, Werner Gilles, [[Otto Herbert Hajek]], [[Wassily Kandinsky]], Heinrich Kirchner, [[Fritz Koenig]], Hans Mettel, [[Otto Pankok]], Hans Platschek, E. Andreas Rauch, [[Karl Schmidt-Rottluff]], Johanna Schütz-Wolff, [[Emil Schumacher]], K. R. H. Sonderborg, Wilhelm Wessel, Hans Wimmer (Curator: Eberhard Hanfstaengl) * 1960 - [[Willi Baumeister]], Julius Bissier, Emil Cimiotti, [[Karl Schmidt-Rottluff]], Rupert Stöckl, Werner Schreib, Ernst Weiers (Kurator Konrad Röthel) * 1962 - [[Werner Gilles]], [[HAP Grieshaber]], [[Erich Heckel]], Alfred Lörcher, Brigitte Meier-Denninghoff, [[Emil Schumacher]] (Curator: Konrad Röthel) * 1964 - [[Joseph Faßbender]], Norbert Kricke (Commissioner: Eduard Trier) * 1966 - [[Horst Antes]], Günter Haese, Ferdinand Ris (Commissioner: Eduard Trier) * 1968 - [[Horst Janssen]], [[Richard Oelze]] (Commissioner: Alfred Hentzen) * 1970 - Kaspar-Thomas Lenk, [[Heinz Mack]], [[Georg Karl Pfahler]], [[Günther Uecker]] (Commissioner: Dieter Honisch) * 1972 - [[Gerhard Richter]] (Commissioner: Dieter Honisch) * 1976 - [[Joseph Beuys]], Jochen Gertz, [[Reiner Ruthenbeck]] (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz) * 1978 - Dieter Krieg, Ulrich Rückriem (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz) * 1980 - [[Georg Baselitz]], [[Anselm Kiefer]] (Commissioner: Klaus Gallwitz) * 1982 - [[Hanne Darboven]], [[Gotthard Graubner]], [[Wolfgang Laib]] (Commissioner: Johannes Cladders) * 1984 - [[Lothar Baumgarten]], [[A. R. Penck]] (Commissioner: Johannes Cladders) * 1986 - [[Sigmar Polke]] (Commissioner: Dierk Stemmler) * 1988 - [[Felix Droese]] (Commissioner: Dierk Stemmler) * 1990 - [[Bernd and Hilla Becher]], [[Reinhard Mucha]] (Commissioner: Klaus Bußmann) * 1993 - [[Hans Haacke]], [[Nam June Paik]] (Commissioner: Klaus Bußmann) * 1995 - [[Katharina Fritsch]], [[Martin Honert]], [[Thomas Ruff]] (Commissioner: Jean-Christophe Ammann) * 1997 - [[Gerhard Merz]], [[Katharina Sieverding]] (Commissioner: Gudrun Inboden) * 1999 - [[Rosemarie Trockel]] (Commissioner: Gudrun Inboden) * 2001 - [[Gregor Schneider]] (Commissioner: Udo Kittelmann) * 2003 - [[Candida Höfer]], [[Martin Kippenberger]] (Curator: Julian Heynen) * 2005 - [[Thomas Scheibitz]], [[Tino Sehgal]] (Curator: Julian Heynen) * 2007 - [[Isa Genzken]] (Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen) * 2009 - [[Liam Gillick]] (Curator: Nicolaus Schafhausen) * 2011 - [[Christoph Schlingensief]] (Curator: Susanne Gaensheimer) === Great Britain === [[File:Venice Biennale pavillion-Great Britain.JPG|thumb|upright| British Pavilion.]] Designed by [[Edwin Alfred Rickards]], 1909. Since 1938 the [[British Council]] has been responsible for the British Pavilion in Venice, showing British artists at the Venice Biennale. List of exhibitors in the British Pavilion: * 1948 - Sculptures by [[Henry Moore]]. Paintings by [[J. M. W. Turner]]. Works by [[Ben Nicholson]] and [[John Tunnard]]. * 1950 - Paintings by [[Matthew Smith (artist)|Matthew Smith]] and [[John Constable]]. Sculptures by [[Barbara Hepworth]]. * 1952 - Paintings by [[Graham Sutherland]] and [[Edward Wadsworth]]. Sculptures by the New Aspects of British Sculpture group (Robert Adams, [[Kenneth Armitage]], [[Reg Butler]], Lynn Chadwick, Geoffrey Clarke, [[Bernard Meadows]], [[Henry Moore]], [[Eduardo Paolozzi]], and William Turnbull). * 1954 - Paintings by [[Francis Bacon (artist)|Francis Bacon]], [[Lucian Freud]], and [[Ben Nicholson]]. Sculptures by [[Reg Butler]] relating to his Unknown Political Prisoner monument. Lithographs by [[Allin Braund]], Geoffrey Clarke, Henry Cliffe, [[Robert Colquhoun]], [[William Gear]], [[Henry Moore]], [[Eduardo Paolozzi]], [[Ceri Richards]], [[William Scott]], and [[Graham Sutherland]]. * 1956 - Paintings by [[Ivon Hitchens]], [[John Bratby]], Derrick Greaves, Edward Middleditch, and [[Jack Smith (artist)|Jack Smith]]. Sculptures by Lynn Chadwick. * 1958 - Paintings by William Scott and [[S. W. Hayter]]. Sculptures by [[Kenneth Armitage]], Sezione Giovani, [[Sandra Blow]], [[Anthony Caro]], and [[Alan Davie]]. * 1960 - Mixed media works by [[Victor Pasmore]]. Paintings by Merlyn Evans, Geoffrey Clarke, Henry Cliffe. * 1962 - Paintings by [[Ceri Richards]]. Sculptures by Robert Adams and Hubert Dalwood. * 1964 - Mixed media works by Joe Tilson. Paintings by [[Roger Hilton]], [[Gwyther Irwin]]. Sculptures by [[Bernard Meadows]]. * 1966 - Paintings by [[Bernard Cohen]], Harold Cohen, and [[Robyn Denny]]. Sculptures by [[Anthony Caro]] and Richard Smith. * 1968 - Paintings by [[Bridget Riley]] and [[Francis Bacon (artist)|Francis Bacon]]. Sculptures by [[Phillip King (artist)|Philip King]]. 'Ways of Contemporary Research' exhibition with works by [[Anthony Caro]], [[David Hockney]], [[Ben Nicholson]], [[Eduardo Paolozzi]], [[Victor Pasmore]], [[Graham Sutherland]]. * 1970 - Sculptures by Richard Smith. * 1972 - Paintings by [[John Walker (painter)|John Walker]]. Sculptures by [[William G. Tucker]]. 'Grafica sperimentale per la stampa' exhibition with works by Pentagram ([[Alan Fletcher (graphic designer)|Alan Fletcher]], Colin Forbes, Mervyn Kurlansky), Michael English, [[John Gorham]], F. H. K. Henrion, Lou Klein, [[Enzo Ragazzini]]. 'Il Libro come luogo di ricerca' exhibition with works by [[Gilbert and George]] and [[Victor Burgin]]. * 1976 - Works by [[Richard Long (artist)|Richard Long]], [[Richard Hamilton (artist)|Richard Hamilton]], [[Victor Pasmore]], [[David Mackay (architect)|David Mackay]], [[Alison and Peter Smithson]], [[James Stirling (architect)|James Stirling]], John Davies, Phillip Hyde, Anne Rawcliffe-King, Yolanda Teuten. * 1978 - Photography by Mark Boyle. 'Six Stations for Art-Nature. The Nature of Art' exhibition with works by [[Gilbert and George]], [[Francis Bacon (artist)|Francis Bacon]], [[David Hockney]], [[Richard Long (artist)|Richard Long]], and [[Malcolm Morley]]. 'Art and Cinema' by [[Anthony McCall]]. * 1980 - Works by [[Tim Head]] and Nicholas Pope. 'Art in the Seventies' exhibition with works by [[Bruce McLean]], [[Kenneth Martin]], Television Exhibitions, [[Barry Flanagan]], [[Gilbert and George]], Hamish Fulton, and [[Richard Long (artist)|Richard Long]]. 'Art in the Seventies. Open 80' exhibition with works by Roger Ackling, [[Tony Cragg]], and Leonard McComb. * 1982 - Works by [[Barry Flanagan]]. 'Aperto 82' exhibition with works by Catherine Blacker, Stephen Cox, [[Antony Gormley]], [[Tim Head]], [[Shirazeh Houshiary]], [[Anish Kapoor]], Christopher Le Brun, [[Judy Pfaff]], [[Stephen Willats]], and [[Bill Woodrow]]. 'Arte come arte: persistenza dell’opera - Mostra internazionale' exhibition with works by [[Frank Auerbach]], [[Lucian Freud]], Ronald Kitaj, and [[Raymond Mason (sculptor)|Raymond Mason]]. * 1984 - Works by [[Howard Hodgkin]]. 'Arte allo Specchio' exhibition with works by [[Peter Greenaway]] and Christopher Le Brun. 'Arte, Ambiente, Scena' exhibition with works by [[Judy Pfaff]]. 'Aperto 84' exhibition with works by [[Terry Atkinson]], [[Helen Chadwick]], [[Rose Garrard]], Glenys Johnson, Paul Richards, Amikam Toren, and Kerry Treng. * 1986 - Works by [[Frank Auerbach]]. 'Aperto 86' exhibition with works by [[Lisa Milroy]], John Murphy, Avis Newman, Jacqueline Poncelet, Boyd Webb, and [[Richard Wilson (sculptor)|Richard Wilson]]. 'Art e Scienza' exhibition with works by Eric Bainbridge, Alastair Brotchie, [[Anthony Caro]], [[Leonora Carrington]], [[Ithell Colquhoun]], Stephen Cox, [[Tony Cragg]], Neil Cummings, [[Brian Eno]], [[Barry Flanagan]], [[Jeremy Gardiner]], Eric Gidney, Jocelyn Godwin, [[Anthony Gormley]], Paul Hayward, [[Allen Jones (sculptor)|Allen Jones]], Liliane Lijn, [[Peter Lowe]], Kyeran Lyons, [[Conroy Maddox]], Thomas Major, [[Kenneth Martin]], [[Mary Martin (artist)|Mary Martin]], Alastair Morton, Hugh O'Donnell, Andrew Owens, Digital Pictures, Mike Punt, [[Bridget Riley]], [[Kurt Schwitters]], Peter Sedgley, Jeffrey Steele, Paul Thomas, Philip West, and [[Alison Wilding]]. * 1988 - Sculptures by [[Tony Cragg]]. 'Aperto 88' exhibition with works by Tony Bevan, Hannah Collins, [[Grenville Davey]], [[Andy Goldsworthy]], Simon Linke, Peter Nadin, and Thoms William Puckey. 'Scultori ai Giardini' exhibition with works by Lynn Chadwick, Anthony Core, [[Phillip King (artist)|Philip King]], and Joe Tilson. * 1990 - Works by [[Anish Kapoor]]. 'Three Scottish Sculptors' exhibition with works by [[David Mach]], Arthur Watson, and Kate Whiteford. 'Aperto 90' with works by Eric Bainbridge, David Leapman, Patrick Joseph McBride, [[Therese Oulton]], [[Fiona Rae]], and [[Anthony Wilson]]. 'Fluxus' exhibition with works by [[Braco Dimitrijevic]], [[Brion Gysin]], [[Dick Higgins]], and [[Robin Page]]. * 1993 - Works by [[Richard Hamilton (artist)|Richard Hamilton]]. 'Aperto 93' exhibition with works by [[Henry Bond]], [[Christine Borland]], [[Angela Bulloch]], [[Mat Collishaw]], [[Damien Hirst]], [[Simon Patterson (artist)|Simon Patterson]], [[Vong Phaophanit]], [[Steven Pippin]], Julie Roberts, and [[Georgina Starr]]. 'Punti dell'arte' exhibition with works by Anish Kapoor. 'Slittamenti' exhibition with works by [[Peter Greenaway]] and [[Derek Jarman]]. 'Macchine della pace' exhibition with works by [[Tony Cragg]], [[Shirazeh Houshiary]], and [[Julian Opie]]. 'La coesistenza dell'arte' exhibition with works by [[Braco Dimitrijevic]]. 'Art against Aids. Venezia 93' exhibition with works by [[Gilbert and George]], [[Frank Auerbach]], [[Tony Cragg]], [[Richard Deacon (sculptor)|Richard Deacon]], [[Shirazeh Houshiary]], [[Anish Kapoor]], Ronald Kitaj, [[Malcolm Morley]], Ray Smith, and [[Rachel Whiteread]]. 'Tresors de Voyage' exhibition with works by [[Braco Dimitrijevic]], [[Shirazeh Houshiary]], and [[Anish Kapoor]]. * 1995 - Works by [[Leon Kossoff]]. 'General Release: Young British Artists' exhibition with works by [[Fiona Banner]], [[Dinos Chapman]], [[Jake Chapman]], [[Adam Chodzko]], [[Dalziel + Scullion|Matthew Dalziel]], and [[Dalziel + Scullion|Louise Scullion]], [[Cerith Wyn Evans]], Elizabeth Wright, [[Tacita Dean]], Lucy Gunning, [[Sam Taylor-Wood]], [[Jane and Louise Wilson]], Jaki Irvine, [[Gary Hume]], Douglas Gordan, Tom Gidley, and Ceal Floyer. * 1997 - Sculptures by [[Rachel Whiteread]]. * 1999 - Paintings by [[Gary Hume]]. * 2001 - Works by [[Mark Wallinger]]. * 2003 - Paintings by [[Chris Ofili]]. * 2005 - [[Gilbert and George]] * 2007 - Painting and sculpture by [[Tracey Emin]] * 2009 - Video installation by [[Steve McQueen (artist)]] * 2011 - [[Mike Nelson (artist)|Mike Nelson]] ===Greece=== Designed by Brenno Del Giudice, M. Papandre, 1934. In 1934, after the Biennale had organised a second exhibition in Athens (1993) - Greece officially took part for the first time in the Venice exhibition. The exhibitions at the pavilion are commissioned by the Hellenic Ministry of Culture and Tourism. List of exhibitors in the Greek Pavilion: * 1950 - [[Bouzianis Giorgos]] * 1982 - Diamantis Diamantopoulos, Costas Coulentianos * 1984 - Christos Caras, George Georgiadis * 1986 - Costas Tsoclis * 1988 - Vlassis Caniaris, Nikos Kessanlis * 1990 - Georges Lappas, Yannis Bouteas * 1993 - George Zongolopoulos * 1995 - Takis (Commissioner: Maria Marangou) * 1997 - Dimitri Alithinos, Stephen Antonakos, Totsikas, Alexandros Psychoulis * 1999 - Costas Varotsos, Danae Stratou, Evanthia Tsantila * 2001 - Nikos Navridis, Ilias Papailiakis, Ersi Chatziargyrou * 2003 - Athanasia Kyriakakos, Dimitris Rotsios * 2005 - George Hadjimichalis * 2007 - Nikos Alexiou (Commissioner: Yorgos Tzirtzilakis) * 2009 - Lucas Samaras (Curator: Matthew Higgs) * 2011 - [[Diohandi]] ===Hungary=== Designed by [[Géza Rintel Maróti]], 1909 (restored by [[Agost Benkhard]], 1958). List of exhibitors in the Hungarian Pavilion: * 1968 - Ignác Kokas, Béla Kondor, Tibor Vilt * 1982 - Erzsébet Scháar (Commissioner: Géza Csorba) * 1984 - Imre Varga, György Vadász (Commissioner: Géza Csorba) * 1986 - Imre Bak, Ákos Birkás, Károly Kelemen, István Nádler (Commissioner: Katalin Néray) * 1988 - Imre Bukta, Sándor Pinczehelyi, Géza Samu (Commissioner: Katalin Néray) * 1990 - László Fehér (Commissioner: Katalin Néray) * 1993 - Joseph Kosuth, Viktor Lois (Commissioner: Katalin Keserü) * 1995 - György Jovánovics (Commissioner: Márta Kovalovszky) * 1997 - Róza El-Hassan, Judit Herskó, Éva Köves (Commissioner: Katalin Néray) * 1999 - Imre Bukta, Emese Benczúr, Attila Csörgö, Gábor Erdélyi, Mariann Imre (Curator: János Sturcz) * 2001 - Antal Lakner, Tamás Komoróczky (Curator: Júlia Fabényi, Barnabás Bencsik) * 2003 - Little Warsaw (András Gálik, Bálint Havas) (Curator: Zsolt Petrányi) * 2005 - Balázs Kicsiny (Curator: Péter Fitz) * 2007 - Andreas Fogarasi (Curator: Katalin Timár) * 2009 - Péter Forgács (Curator: András Rényi) * 2011 - Hajnal Németh (Curator: Miklós Peternák) ===Iceland=== In 1984, as Finland had joined Norway and Sweden in the Nordic Pavilion, Iceland was given the opportunity to rent the Finnish pavilion until 2006. List of exhibitors in the Icelandish Pavilion: * 1984 - Kristján Davidsson * 1986 - [[Erró]] * 1988 - Gunnar Örn * 1990 - Helgi Thorgils Frídjónsson * 1995 - Birgir Andrésson * 1997 - Steina Vasulka * 1999 - Sigurdur Árni Sigurdsson * 2001 - Finnbogi Pétursson * 2003 - Rúrí * 2005 - Gabríela Fridriksdóttir * 2007 - Steingrimur Eyfjörd * 2009 - Ragnar Kjartansson ===India=== In 2011, India was featured for the first time after 116 years, with the support of the culture ministry and the organizational participation of the Lalit Kala Akademi. Biennale organizers have reportedly invited the country to participate in past years, but the government has declined until now — a decision attributed to a lack of communication between the culture ministry and the country's National Gallery of Modern Art. * 2011 - Mriganka Madhukaliya, Sonal Jain, Zarina Hashmi, Gigi Scaria, Praneet Soi (Curator: [[Ranjit Hoskote]]) ===Iraq=== In 2011, Iraq returned to the Biennale for the first time after a 35-year absence. The title of the Iraq Pavilion was "Acqua Ferita" (translated as "Wounded Water"). Six important Iraqi artists from two generations interpreted the theme of water in their works, which made up the exhibition: Adel Abidin, Halim Al Karim, Ahmed Alsoudani, Ali Assaf, Azad Nanakeli, and Walid Siti. ===Ireland=== List of exhibitors in the Irish Pavilion: * 1950 - Norah McGuinness, Nano Reid * 1956 - Louis le Brocquy, Hilary Heron * 1960 - Patrick Scott * 1993 - Dorothy Cross, Willie Doherty * 1995 - Kathy Prendergast * 1997 - [[Jaki Irvine]], Alistair McLennan * 1999 - Anne Tallentire * 2001 - Siobhan Hapaska, Grace Weir * 2003 - Katie Holten (Commissioner: Valerie Connor) * 2005 - Stephen Brandes, Mark Garry, Ronan McCrea, Isabel Nolan, Sarah Pierce, Walker and Walker (Commissioner: Sarah Glennie) * 2007 - Gerard Byrne (Commissioner: Mike Fitzpatrick) * 2009 - Sarah Browne, Gareth Kennedy, Kennedy Browne * 2011 - [[Corban Walker]] (Commissioner: Emily-Jane Kirwan) ===Israel=== Designed by [[Zeev Rechter]], 1952 (modified by [[Fredrik Fogh]], 1966). Partial list of exhibitors at the Israeli Pavilion: * 1990 - Yaacov Dorchin * 1995 - Joshua Neustein, Uri Tzaig (Curator: Gideon Ofrat) * 1997 - Yossi Berger, Miriam Cabessa, [[Sigalit Landau]] * 2005 - [[Guy Ben-Ner]] * 2007 - [[Yehudit Sasportas]] * 2009 - [[Raffi Lavie]] * 2011 - [[Sigalit Landau]] ===Italy=== "Palazzo Pro Arte": [[Enrico Trevisanato]], façade by [[Marius De Maria]] and [[Bartholomeo Bezzi]], 1895; new façade by [[Guido Cirilli]], 1914; "Padiglione Italia", present façade by [[Duilio Torres]] 1932. The pavilion has a sculpture garden by [[Carlo Scarpa]], 1952 and the "Auditorium Pastor" by [[Valeriano Pastor]], 1977. Partial list of exhibitors at the Italian Pavilion: * 1997 - [[Maurizio Cattelan]], [[Enzo Cucchi]], Ettore Spalletti * 1999 - [[Monica Bonvicini]], Bruna Esposito, [[Luisa Lambri]], [[Paola Pivi]], [[Grazia Toderi]] * 2001 - [[Alighiero Boetti]] * 2003 - [[Charles Avery]], Avish Khebrehzadeh, [[Sara Rossi]], Carola Spadoni * 2005 - [[Carolina Antich]], [[Manfredi Beninati]], [[Loris Cecchini]], [[Lara Favaretto]] * 2007 - [[Giuseppe Penone]], [[Francesco Vezzoli]] * 2009 - [[Matteo Basilé]], [[Manfredi Beninati]], [[Valerio Berruti]], [[Bertozzi&Casoni]], Nicola Bolla, [[Sandro Chia]], Marco Cingolani, Giacomo Costa, [[Aron Demetz]], Roberto Floreani, [[Daniele Galliano]], Marco Lodola, MASBEDO, Gian Marco Montesano, Davide Nido, Luca Pignatelli, [[Elisa Sighicelli]], Sissi, [[Nicola Verlato]] e [[Silvio Wolf]] * 2011 - [[Vanessa Beecroft]], [[Michelangelo Pistoletto]] ===Japan=== [[File:Venice Biennale pavillion-Japan.JPG|thumb|upright|Japanese Pavilion.]] Designed by [[Takamasa Yoshizaka]], 1956. Japan has the longest history at the Venice Biennale compared to any other Asian nation. List of exhibitors in the Japanese Pavilion: * 1952 - Taikan Yokoyama, Kokei Kobayashi, Kiyotaka Kaburaki, Heihachiro Fukuda, Kyujin Yamamoto, Kenji Yoshioka, Sotaro Yasui, Shinsen Tokuoka, Ryuzaburo Umehara, Ichiro Fukuzawa, Kigai Kawaguchi * 1954 - Hanjiro Sakamoto, Taro Okamoto * 1956 - Kunitaro Suda, Kazu Wakita, Takeo Yamaguchi, Shigeru Ueki, Toyoichi Yamamoto, Shiko Munakata * 1958 - Ichiro Fukuzawa, Ryushi Kawabata, Seison Maeda, Kenzo Okada, Yoshi Kinouchi, Shindo Tsuji * 1960 - Toshimitsu Imai, Yoshishige Saito, Kei Sato, Kaoru Yamaguchi, Tadahiro Ono, Tomonori Toyofuku, Yoshitatsu Yanagihara, Yozo Hamaguchi * 1962 - Kinuko Emi, Minoru Kawabata, Kumi Sugai, Tadashi Sugimata, Ryokichi Mukai * 1964 - Yoshishige Saito, Toshinobu Onosato, Hisao Domoto, Tomonori Toyofuku * 1966 - Toshinobu Onosato, [[Masuo Ikeda]], Morio Shinoda, Ay-O * 1968 - Tomio Miki, Kumi Sugai, Jiro Takamatsu, Katsuhiro Yamaguchi * 1970 - [[Nobuo Sekine]] * 1972 - Kenji Usami, Shintaro Tanaka * 1976 - Kishin Shinoyama * 1978 - [[Koji Enokura]], Kishio Suga * 1980 - [[Koji Enokura]], Susumu Koshimizu, Isamu Wakabayashi * 1982 - Naoyoshi Hikosaka, Yoshio Kitayama, Tadashi Kawamata * 1984 - Kosho Ito, Kyoji Takubo, Kosai Hori * 1986 - Isamu Wakabayashi, Masafumi Maita * 1988 - Shigeo Toya, Keiji Umematsu, Katsura Funakoshi * 1990 - Toshikatsu Endo, Saburo Muraoka * 1993 - [[Yayoi Kusama]] * 1995 - Katsuhiko Hibino, Yoichiro Kawaguchi, [[Hiroshi Senju]], Jan Eun Choi * 1997 - Rei Naito * 2003 - [[Yutaka Sone]], Motohiko Odani * 2005 - Ishiuchi Miyako * 2007 - Masao Okabe * 2009 - [[Miwa Yanagi]] * 2011 - Tabaimo (Curator: Yuka Uematsu) ===Netherlands === [[File:Nederlands paviljoen Biënnale van Venetië.jpg|thumb|upright|Dutch Pavilion.]] In 1914, the Swedish Pavilion, designed by [[Gustav Ferdninand Boberg]], was handed over to the Netherlands. In 1954 the Dutch pavilion was demolished and reconstructed on the same site, designed by [[Gerrit Thomas Rietveld]] in 1954. Since 1995, the Mondriaan Foundation has been responsible for the Dutch entry at the Biennale di Venezia, appointing a curator for each entry. Dutch artists and curators of previous editions: * 1995 - [[Marlene Dumas]], Maria Roosen, Marijke van Warmerdam (Curator: Chris Dercon) * 1997 - [[Aernout Mik]], Willem Oorebeek (Curators: Leontine Coelewij, Arno van Roosmalen) * 1999 - Daan van Golden (Curator: Karel Schampers) * 2001 - Liza May Post (Curator: Jaap Guldemond) * 2003 - Carlos Amorales, Alicia Framis, Meschac Gaba, Jeanne van Heeswijk, Erik van Lieshout (Curator: Rein Wolfs) * 2005 - Jeroen De Rijke / [[Willem de Rooij]] (Curator: Martijn van Nieuwenhuyzen) * 2007 - [[Aernout Mik]] (Curator Maria Hlavajova) * 2009 - [[Fiona Tan]] (Curator: Saskia Bos) * 2011 - Barbara Visser, Ernst van der Hoeven, Herman Verkerk, Johannes Schwartz, Joke Robaard, Maureen Mooren, Paul Kuipers, Sanneke van Hassel, Yannis Kyriakides (Curator: Guus Beumer) ===Poland=== List of exhibitors in the Polish Pavilion: * 2007 - [[Monika Sosnowska]] * 2011 - [[Yael Bartana]] ===Russia=== Designed by [[Aleksej V. Scusev]], 1914. List of exhibitors in the Russian Pavilion: * 2011 - [[Andrei Monastyrsky]], Elena Elagina, Sabina Hensgen, Igor Makarevich, Nikolai Pantikov, Sergei Romashko (Curator: Boris Groys) ===Scandinavia=== Designed by [[Sverre Fehn]], 1962 (small annex built by [[Fredrik Fogh]], 1987). The cooperation between Finland, Norway and Sweden in Venice was initiated in 1962 after the completion of the Nordic Pavilion. The responsibility for representation in each Biennale alternates between the collaborating countries. List of exhibitors in the Nordic Pavilion: * 1986 - Silja Rantanen * 1997 - Henrik Hakaanson, Mark Dion, Marianna Uutininen, Mariko Mori, Sven Påhlsson * 2001 - Leif Elggren, Carl Michael von Hausswolff, Anders Tomren * 2005 - Miriam Bäckström, [[Carsten Höller]] * 2007 - Maaria Wirkkala (Curator: René Block) * 2009 - [[Elmgreen and Dragset]], [[Klara Lidén]], [[Wolfgang Tillmans]] * 2011 - Fia Backström, Andreas Eriksson (Curator: Magnus af Petersens) ===South Korea=== Designed by [[Seok Chul Kim]] and [[Franco Mancuso]], 1995. South Korea has participated in the Venice Biennale since 1995. List of exhibitors in the South Korean Pavilion: * 1995 - Yoon Hyong Keun, Kwak Hoon, Kim In Kyum, Jheon Soocheon (Commissioner: Il Lee) * 1997 - Hyungwoo Lee, Ik-joong Kang (Curator: Oh Kwang Soo) * 1999 - Lee Bul, Noh Sang-Kyoon (Curator: Misook Song) * 2001 - Michael Joo, Do-Ho Suh (Commissioner: Kyung-mee Park) * 2003 - Whang In Kie, Bahc Yiso, Chung Seoyoung (Commissioner: Kim Hong-Hee) * 2007 - Hyungkoo Lee (Commissioner: Soyeon Ahn) * 2009 - [[Haegue Yang]] * 2011 - Lee Yong-baek (Commissioner: Yun Chea-gab) ===Spain=== Designed by [[Javier de Luque]], 1922 (façade restored by [[Joaquin Vaquero Palacios]], 1952). List of exhibitors in the Spanish Pavilion: * 1958 - [[Eduardo Chillida]] * 1984 - [[Antoni Clavé]] * 1993 - [[Antoni Tàpies]] * 1999 - Manolo Valdés, Esther Ferrer (Curator: David Pérez) * 2001 - Ana Laura Aláez, Javier Pérez (Curator: Estrella de Diego) * 2003 - [[Santiago Sierra]] (Curator: [[Rosa Martínez]]) * 2005 - [[Antoni Muntadas]] (Curator: Bartomeu Marí) * 2007 - Manuel Vilariño, José Luis Guerín, "Los Torreznos", Rubén Ramos (Curator: Alberto Ruiz de Samaniego) * 2009 - [[Miquel Barceló]] (Curator: Enrique Juncosa) * 2011 - Dora García (Curator: Katya García-Antón) ===Switzerland=== Designed by [[Bruno Giacometti]], 1952. List of exhibitors in the Swiss Pavilion: * 1982 - [[Dieter Roth]] * 1999 - [[Roman Signer]] * 2001 - Urs Lueth, [[Norbert Möslang]], [[Andy Guhl]] * 2003 - Emmanuelle Antille, Gerda Steiner, Jörg Lenzlinger * 2005 - [[Pipilotti Rist]], Ingrid Wildi, Gianni Motti, Shahryar Nashat, Marco Poloni * 2007 - [[Ugo Rondinone]] * 2009 - Silvia Bächli, Fabrice Gygi * 2011 - [[Thomas Hirschhorn]] (Curator: Andrea Thal) ===United States of America=== The United States Pavilion at the Venice Biennale was constructed in 1930 by the [[Grand Central Art Galleries]], a nonprofit artists' cooperative established in 1922 by [[Walter Leighton Clark]] together with [[John Singer Sargent]], [[Edmund Greacen]], and others. As stated in the Galleries' 1934 catalog, the organization's goal was to "give a broader field to American art; to exhibit in a larger way to a more numerous audience, not in New York alone but throughout the country, thus displaying to the world the inherent value which our art undoubtedly possesses." Having worked tirelessly to promote American art at home the 1920s, in 1930 [[Walter Leighton Clark]] and the [[Grand Central Art Galleries]] spearheaded the creation of the U.S. Pavilion at the Venice Biennale. Up until then there was no place at the Biennale dedicated to American art, and Clark felt that it was crucial to establishing the credentials of the nation's artists abroad. The pavilion's architects were [[William Adams Delano]], who also designed the [[Grand Central Art Galleries]], and [[Chester Holmes Aldrich]]. The purchase of the land, design, and construction was paid for by the galleries and personally supervised by Clark. As he wrote in the 1934 catalog:
"Pursuing our purpose of putting American art prominently before the world, the directors a few years ago appropriated the sum of $25,000 for the erection of an exhibition building in Venice on the grounds of the International Biennial. Messrs. Delano and Aldrich generously donated the plans for this building which is constructed of Istrian marble and pink brick and more than holds its own with the twenty-five other buildings in the Park owned by the various European governments."
The pavilion, owned and operated by the galleries, opened on May 4, 1930. Approximately 90 paintings and 12 sculptures were selected by Clark for the opening exhibition. Artists featured included Max Boehm, Hector Caser, Lillian Westcott Hale, [[Edward Hopper]], Abraham Poole, [[Julius Rolshoven]], [[Joseph Pollet]], [[Eugene Francis Savage (painter)|Eugene Savage]], Elmer Shofeld, Ofelia Keelan, and African-American artist [[Henry Ossawa Tanner|Henry Tanner]]. U.S. Ambassador John W. Garrett opened the show together with the Duke of Bergamo. The [[Grand Central Art Galleries]] operated the U.S. Pavilion until 1954, when it was sold to the [[Museum of Modern Art]]. Throughout the 1950s and 1960s shows were organized by the Modern, [[Art Institute of Chicago]], and [[Baltimore Museum of Art]]. The Modern withdrew from the Biennale in 1964, and the [[United States Information Agency]] ran the Pavilion until it was sold to the [[Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum|Guggenheim Museum]] courtesy of funds provided by the [[Peggy Guggenheim Collection]]. Since 1986 the Peggy Guggenheim Collection has worked with the United States Information Agency, the US Department of State and the Fund for Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions in the organization of the visual arts exhibitions at the US Pavilion, while the Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation has organized the comparable shows at the Architecture Biennales. Every two years museum curators from across the U.S. detail their visions for the American pavilion in proposals that are reviewed by the [[National Endowment for the Arts|NEA]] Federal Advisory Committee on International Exhibitions (FACIE), a group comprising curators, museum directors and artists who then submit their recommendations to the public-private Fund for United States Artists at International Festivals and Exhibitions. Traditionally the endowment's selection committee has chosen a proposal submitted by a museum or curator, but in 2004 it simply chose an artist who in turn has nominated a curator, later approved by the State Department. ==== Exhibitors ==== Partial list of exhibitors at the United States Pavilion: * 1930 - [[Edward Hopper]], [[Julius Rolshoven]], [[Eugene Francis Savage (painter)|Eugene Savage]], [[Henry Ossawa Tanner|Henry Tanner]]. * 1950 (26th) - [[Arshile Gorky]], [[Willem de Kooning]], [[Jackson Pollock]] * 1954 (28th) - [[Willem de Kooning]], [[Ben Shahn]] * 1960 (30th) - [[Philip Guston]], [[Hans Hofmann]], [[Franz Kline]], [[Theodore Roszak (artist)|Theodore Roszak]] * 1962 (31st) - [[Jan Müller]], [[Louise Nevelson]] * 1964 (32nd) - [[John Chamberlain (sculptor)|John Chamberlain]], [[Jim Dine]], [[Jasper Johns]], [[Morris Louis]], [[Kenneth Noland]], [[Claes Oldenburg]], [[Robert Rauschenberg]], [[Frank Stella]] * 1966 (33rd) - [[Helen Frankenthaler]], [[Ellsworth Kelly]], [[Roy Lichtenstein]], [[Jules Olitski]] * 1968 (34th) - [[Leonard Baskin]], [[Edwin Dickinson]], [[Richard Diebenkorn]], [[Red Grooms]], [[James McGarrell]], [[Reuben Nakian]], [[Fairfield Porter]] * 1972 (36th) - [[Diane Arbus]], [[Ronald Davis]], [[Richard Estes]], [[Sam Gilliam]], [[Jim Nutt]], [[Keith Sonnier]] * 1976 (37th) - [[Richard Artschwager]], [[Charles Garabedian]], [[Robert Irwin (artist)|Robert Irwin]], [[Donald Judd]], [[Agnes Martin]], [[Robert Motherwell]], [[Ed Ruscha]], [[Robert Ryman]], [[Joel Shapiro]], [[Richard Tuttle]], [[Andy Warhol]], [[H.C. Westermann]] * 1978 (38th) - [[Harry Callahan (photographer)|Harry Callahan]], [[Richard Diebenkorn]] * 1980 (39th) - [[Vito Acconci]], [[Christo]], [[Laurie Anderson]] and others * 1982 (40th) - [[Jess]], [[Robert Smithson]] (posthumous), [[Richard Pousette-Dart]] * 1984 (41st) - [[Eric Fischl]], [[Charles Garabedian]], and others * 1986 (42nd) - [[Isamu Noguchi]] * 1988 (43rd) - [[Jasper Johns]] * 1990 (44th) - [[Jenny Holzer]] - ''Mother and Child'' * 1993 (45th) - [[Louise Bourgeois]] * 1995 (46th) - [[Bill Viola]] - ''Buried Secrets'' * 1997 (47th) - [[Robert Colescott]] * 1999 (48th) - [[Ann Hamilton]] * 2001 (49th) - [[Robert Gober]] * 2003 (50th) - [[Fred Wilson (artist)|Fred Wilson]] * 2005 (51st) - [[Ed Ruscha]] * 2007 (52nd) - [[Félix González-Torres]] (posthumous) * 2009 (53rd) - [[Bruce Nauman]] (Curator: Carlos Basualdo) * 2011 (54th) - [[Allora & Calzadilla]] (Commissioner: Lisa Freiman) ===Uruguay=== Ex-warehouse of the Biennale, 1958, ceded to the government of Uruguay, 1960. List of exhibitors in the Uruguayan Pavilion: * 1954 - José Cuneo, Severino Pose * 1956 - Joaquín Torres García * 1960 - Zoma Baitler, Washington Barcala, Norberto Berdia, José Cuneo, José Echave, Adolfo Halty, Augusto Torres, Vicente Martìn, Julio Verdier (Commissioner: Jorge Pàez Vilaró) * 1962 - Germán Cabrera, Juan Ventayol * 1964 - Jorge Damiani, José Gamarra, Nelson Ramos, Jorge Páez Vilaró *1968 - Antonio Frasconi * 1986 - Ernesto Aroztegui, Clever Lara * 1988 - Luis Camnitzer * 1990 - Gonzalo Fonseca * 1993 - Águeda Di Cancro * 1995 - Ignacio Iturria * 1997 - Nelson Ramos * 1999 - Ricardo Pascale * 2001 - Rimer Cardillo (Commissioner: Cléver Lara) * 2003 - Pablo Atchugarry (Curator: Luciano Caramel) * 2005 - Lacy Duarte (Commissioners: Alicia Haber, Olga Larnaudie) * 2007 - Ernesto Vila (Commissioner: Enrique Aguerre) * 2009 - Raquel Bessio, Juan Burgos, Pablo Uribe (Commissioners: Patricia Bentancur, Alfredo Torres) * 2011 - Alejandro Cesarco, Magela Ferrero (Curator: Clio Bugel) ===Venezuela=== Designed by [[Carlo Scarpa]], 1956. List of exhibitors in the Venezuelan Pavilion: * 1964 - [[Jesús Rafael Soto]] * 1970 - Carlos Cruz-Diez, Jesús Rafael Soto * 1980 - Regulo Pérez * 1988 - Jacobo Borges * 1990 - Julio Pacheco Rivas * 2005 - Santiago Pol (Commissioner: Vivian Rivas Gingerich) * 2007 - Antonio Briceño, Vincent & Feria (Commissioner: Zuleiva Vivas) * 2009 - Claudio Perna, Antonieta Sosa, Alejandro Otero * 2011 - Francisco Bassim, Clemencia Labin, Yoshi (Curator: Luis Hurtado) ===Other=== * "Venezia" Group of Pavilions - Brenno Del Giudice (Arti Decorative pavilion 1932); other pavilions (Yugoslavia, Romania, Latin America), 1938. * Ticket Office - Carlo Scarpa, 1951. * Book Shop - James Stirling, 1991. == Golden Lions == * 1986 : ** Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: [[Frank Auerbach]], [[Sigmar Polke]] ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: [[Daniel Buren]] (France) * 1993 : ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: [[Hans Haacke]], [[Nam June Paik]] (Germany) * 1995: **Leone d'Oro for best Pavilion : (Artists: [[Akram El Magdoub]] - Hamdi Attia - Medhat Shafik - Khaled Shokry) (Egypt) * 1997 : ** Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: [[Emilio Vedova]], [[Agnes Martin]] ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: [[Fabrice Hyber]] (France) * 1999 : ** Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: [[Louise Bourgeois]], [[Bruce Nauman]] ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: [[Monica Bonvicini]], Bruna Esposito, Luisa Lambri, Paola Pivi, Grazia Toderi (Italy) * 2001 : ** Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: [[Richard Serra]] (USA), [[Cy Twombly]] (USA) ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: [[Gregor Schneider]] (Germany) * 2003 : ** Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: [[Michelangelo Pistoletto]] (Italy), [[Carol Rama]] (Italy) ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: Sun-Mei Tse (Luxemburg) * 2005 : ** Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: [[Barbara Kruger]] (USA) ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: [[Annette Messager]] (France) * 2007 : ** Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: [[Malick Sidibé]] (Mali) ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: [[Andreas Fogarasi]] (Hungary) * 2009 : ** Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: [[Yoko Ono]] (Japan), [[John Baldessari]] (USA) ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: [[Bruce Nauman]] (USA) * 2011 : ** Leone d'Oro for Lifetime Achievement: [[Franz West]] (Austria), [[Elaine Sturtevant]] (USA) ** Leone d'Oro for Best Pavilion: [[Christoph Schlingensief]] (Germany) ==Unofficial Pavilions== As well as the national pavilions there are countless other 'unofficial pavilions' that spring up every year. 2009 saw pavilions such as the Gabon Pavilion and even a Peckham pavilion. A notable pavilion is the [http://www.padiglioneinternet.com], the 2011 [[Internet Pavilion]] featured work by many upcoming artists in new media such as [[Adham Faramawy]], Agnes Bolt, Alterazioni Video, Albertine Meunier, Andreas Angelidakis, Alexandre Arrechea, Angelo Plessas, Anna Franceschini, Billy Rennekamp, Boris Eldagser, Britta Thie, Claudia Rossini, Cristian Bugatti, Elisa Giardina Papa, Emily Jones & Sarah Hartnett (Year of the Hare), Giallo Concialdi, Hayley Silverman, Interno3 and crew, Iocose, Ivano Atzori, Jaime Martinez, Jeremy Bailey, Julien Levesque, Les liens invisibles, LG Williams/Estate Of LG Williams, Luca Bolognesi, [[LuckyPDF]], Marc Kremers, Marco Cadioli, Marisa Olson, Marlous Borm, Martin Cole, Matteo Erenbourg, Michael Borras aka Systaime, Mike Ruiz, [[Miltos Manetas]], Nazareno Crea, Nikola Tosic, Parker Ito, Pegy Zali, Petros Moris, Priscilla Tea, Protey Temen, Rachele Maistrello, Rafaël Rozendaal, Rene Abythe, Riley Harmon, Sarah Ciraci, Tele Ghetto Haiti, Theodoros Giannakis, Travess Smalley, Thomas Cheneseau, UBERMORGEN.COM,Valery Grancer,Wojciech Kosma, Yuri Pattison. The full and long story of the officiality of the Internet Pavilion is talked about by its creators [http://cargocollective.com/manetas/filter/Internet-Pavilion Jan Aman and Miltos Manetas]. See [[Unoffical Pavilions (Venice Biennale)]] == See also == * [[Venice Film Festival]] * [[Venice Biennale of Architecture]] * [[Rome Quadriennale]] == Further reading == * Sophie Bowness and Clive Phillpot (ed), ''Britain at the Venice Biennale 1895–1996'', The British Council, 1995 * Martino, Enzo Di. ''The History of the Venice Biennale'', Venezia, Papiro Arte, 2007. * Sarah Thornton. ''Seven Days in the Art World''. New York: WW Norton, 2008. == External links == {{commons|Venice Biennale|Venice Biennale}} * [http://www.cap2011.net/ Official '''Central Asia Pavilion''' website] * [http://www.labiennale.org/en/ Official '''Venice Biennale''' website] * [http://www.venicebiennale.nl/?lan=en Official '''Dutch Pavilion''' website] * [http://www.labiennale.org/en/art/history/ History of the Venice Biennale's International Art Exhibition] at Venice Biennale official website. * http://www.britishcouncil.org/venicebiennale/ History of the British Council's involvement with the British Pavilion at the Venice Biennale. * [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&source=s_q&hl=en&geocode=&q=Giardini+Pubblici%E2%80%8E,+venice,+italy&sll=45.432905,12.357581&sspn=0.013552,0.017617&ie=UTF8&t=k&ll=45.428568,12.357795&spn=0.006777,0.008808&z=17 Satellite image of the Biennale buildings from Google Maps] * [http://www.treccanilab.com/biennale_di_venezia Artefacta] about 52nd Venice Biennale. * [http://www.artupdate.com/venice-biennale-2011/map-download Artupdate Venice Biennale Map] PDF (1.4mb) showing locations and listings for 54th Venice Biennale: 4 June to 27 November 2011. * [http://betweencreation.com/art/hall-of-fragments-venice-biennale/ '''Venice Biennale''' Hall of Fragments ] {{coord missing|Italy}}