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V Amphibious Corps

V Amphibious Corps

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The V Amphibious Corps (VAC) was a formation of the United States Marine Corps
United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the United States Navy to deliver combined-arms task forces rapidly. It is one of seven uniformed services of the United States...

 and was composed of the 3rd, 4th and 5th Marine Divisions during World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

. They were the amphibious landing force for the United States Fifth Fleet and were notably involved in the battles for Tarawa
Battle of Tarawa
The Battle of Tarawa, code named Operation Galvanic, was a battle in the Pacific Theater of World War II, largely fought from November 20 to November 23, 1943. It was the first American offensive in the critical central Pacific region....

 and Saipan
Battle of Saipan
The Battle of Saipan was a battle of the Pacific campaign of World War II, fought on the island of Saipan in the Mariana Islands from 15 June-9 July 1944. The Allied invasion fleet embarking the expeditionary forces left Pearl Harbor on 5 June 1944, the day before Operation Overlord in Europe was...

 in 1944 and the Battle of Iwo Jima
Battle of Iwo Jima
The Battle of Iwo Jima , or Operation Detachment, was a major battle in which the United States fought for and captured the island of Iwo Jima from the Empire of Japan. The U.S...

 in 1945. During the course of the war, V Corps was initially commanded by General Holland 'Howlin Mad' Smith
Holland Smith
General Holland McTyeire "Howlin' Mad" Smith, KCB was a General in the United States Marine Corps during World War II. He is sometimes called the "father" of modern U.S. amphibious warfare....

 and later by General Harry Schmidt
Harry Schmidt (USMC)
General Harry Schmidt served as Commanding General of the Fourth Marine Division during the Marshall Islands campaign and the Battle of Saipan, and as Commanding General of the Fifth Amphibious Corps during the battles of Tinian and Iwo Jima, during World War II...

.

Structure


By 1945, the structure of a United States Marine Corps' amphibious corps was broken down into four major subordinate commands with each of them having numerous sub-elements. The first major element of the Corps was three reinforced Marine infantry divisions. The next was the Corps artillery which was composed of a field artillery group made of three battalions of 155mm howitzers and three battalions of 155mm guns and an Antiaircraft Artillery Group made of three antiaircraft artillery battalions. The next major command was Amphibian Tractor Group which was made up of four amphibian tractor battalions and an armored amphibian tractor battalion. The final command was known as the Corps Troops and was composed of a headquarters and service battalion, administrative command, signal battalion, medical battalion, motor transport battalion, engineer battalion, reconnaissance battalion
Amphibious reconnaissance
The concept of amphibious reconnaissance, or commonly amphib recon, are used primarily in conjunction with ground and naval reconnaissance concerning the littoral area bordering coastal or maritime areas of interests...

 and military police battalion
Military police
Military police are police organisations connected with, or part of, the military of a state. The word can have different meanings in different countries, and may refer to:...

.

Major subordinate units


During World War II, the following major commands served under VAC:
  • 2nd Marine Division
  • 3rd Marine Division
  • 4th Marine Division
  • 5th Marine Division
  • 7th Infantry Division
  • 27th Infantry Division
  • 32nd Infantry Division
  • XXIV Corps Artillery
  • 22nd Marine Regiment
    22nd Marine Regiment (United States)
    The 22nd Marine Regiment is an inactive infantry regiment of the United States Marine Corps. Activated for service in World War II, they fought in the battles of Eniwetok, Guam and Okinawa. The regiment was under the command of the 6th Marine Division; took part in the occupation of Northern...

  • Amphibious Reconnaissance Battalion [formerly "Company"]

  • Commanders

    • Holland M. Smith 25 August 1943 – 11 July 1944
    • Harry Schmidt
      Harry Schmidt (USMC)
      General Harry Schmidt served as Commanding General of the Fourth Marine Division during the Marshall Islands campaign and the Battle of Saipan, and as Commanding General of the Fifth Amphibious Corps during the battles of Tinian and Iwo Jima, during World War II...

       12 July 1944 – 15 February 1946 (Deactivation)

    History


    V Corps was formed on 25 August 1943 at Camp Elliott, California from the previous I Marine Amphibious Corps
    I Marine Amphibious Corps
    I Marine Amphibious Corps or IMAC was created on 1 October 1942 and deployed to the South Pacific, first to Hawaii, then to New Caledonia. When the Marine Corps was not satisfied with the leadership of its commander, Major General Clayton Vogel, Commandant Thomas Holcomb ordered Alexander...

     that was previously known as Amphibious Corps, Pacific Fleet (ACPF). In September 1943, they moved to Pearl Harbor
    Pearl Harbor
    Pearl Harbor, known to Hawaiians as Puuloa, is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet...

    , Hawaii.

    See also


    • Marine Air-Ground Task Force
      Marine Air-Ground Task Force
      The Marine Air-Ground Task Force is a term used by the United States Marine Corps to describe the principal organization for all missions across the range of military operations. MAGTFs are a balanced air-ground, combined arms task organization of Marine Corps forces under a single commander that...

    • History of the United States Marine Corps
      History of the United States Marine Corps
      The history of the United States Marine Corps began with the founding of the Continental Marines on November 10, 1775 to conduct ship-to-ship fighting, provide shipboard security and discipline enforcement, and assist in landing forces. Its mission evolved with changing military doctrine and...

    • Organization of the United States Marine Corps
      Organization of the United States Marine Corps
      The United States Marine Corps is organized within the Department of the Navy, which is led by the Secretary of the Navy . The most senior Marine officer is the Commandant of the Marine Corps, responsible for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Marine Corps so that it is ready for...