"Finance" is often defined simply as the management of money or “funds” management Modern finance, however, is a family of business activity that includes the origination, marketing, and management of cash and money surrogates through a variety of capital accounts, instruments, and markets created...
, unsecured debt
refers to any type of debt
A debt is an obligation owed by one party to a second party, the creditor; usually this refers to assets granted by the creditor to the debtor, but the term can also be used metaphorically to cover moral obligations and other interactions not based on economic value.A debt is created when a...
or general obligation that is not collateralised
In lending agreements, collateral is a borrower's pledge of specific property to a lender, to secure repayment of a loan.The collateral serves as protection for a lender against a borrower's default - that is, any borrower failing to pay the principal and interest under the terms of a loan obligation...
by a lien
In law, a lien is a form of security interest granted over an item of property to secure the payment of a debt or performance of some other obligation...
on specific assets of the borrower in the case of a bankruptcy
Bankruptcy is a legal status of an insolvent person or an organisation, that is, one that cannot repay the debts owed to creditors. In most jurisdictions bankruptcy is imposed by a court order, often initiated by the debtor....
In law, liquidation is the process by which a company is brought to an end, and the assets and property of the company redistributed. Liquidation is also sometimes referred to as winding-up or dissolution, although dissolution technically refers to the last stage of liquidation...
or failure to meet the terms for repayment.
In the event of the bankruptcy of the borrower, the unsecured creditors will have a general claim on the assets of the borrower after the specific pledged assets have been assigned to the secured creditors
A secured loan is a loan in which the borrower pledges some asset as collateral for the loan, which then becomes a secured debt owed to the creditor who gives the loan...
, although the unsecured creditors will usually realize a smaller proportion of their claims than the secured creditors.
In some legal systems, unsecured creditors who are also
indebted to the insolvent debtor are able (and in some jurisdictions, required) to set-off
In law, a set-off is a statutory defense to the whole or to a portion of a plaintiff's claim. It had no existence under the English common law, being created by 2 Geo. II c. 22 for the relief of insolvent debtors, although set-off was recognized in equity...
the debts, which actually puts the unsecured creditor with a matured liability to the debtor in a pre-preferential position.
- Also called signature loans or personal loans. These loans are often used by borrowers for small purchases such as computers, home improvements, vacations or unexpected expenses.
An unsecured loan means the lender relies on your promise to pay it back. They're taking a bigger risk than with a secured loan, so interest rates for unsecured loans tend to be higher. You normally have set payments over an agreed period and penalties may apply if you want to repay the loan early. Unsecured loans are often more expensive and less flexible than secured loans, but suitable if you want a short-term loan (one to five years).
In the UK there are hundreds of different unsecured loans to choose from, so comparison tables have become a popular way of finding out about the different options available. In 2006, according to the Bank of England, 22% of UK households had some unsecured debt with a further 21% having both secured and unsecured debt.
- Credit cards
- Medical bills