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University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine

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The Perelman School of Medicine (also known as Penn Med), formerly the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, was founded in 1765, making it the oldest American medical school. As part of the University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private, Ivy League university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States,Penn is the fourth-oldest using the founding dates claimed by each institution...

, it is located in the University City
University City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
University City is the easternmost region of West Philadelphia.The University of Pennsylvania has long been the dominant institution in the area and was instrumental in coining the name University City as part of a 1950s urban-renewal effort...

 section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. It is widely regarded as one of the world's top medical schools. In 2011, Penn Med was ranked second overall after Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School
Harvard Medical School is the graduate medical school of Harvard University. It is located in the Longwood Medical Area of the Mission Hill neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts....

 among research-based medical schools by U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report
U.S. News & World Report is an American news magazine published from Washington, D.C. Along with Time and Newsweek it was for many years a leading news weekly, focusing more than its counterparts on political, economic, health and education stories...

.

History



The school's young founder, John Morgan
John Morgan (physician)
John Morgan was co-founder of the Medical College at the University of Pennsylvania, the first medical school in Colonial America; and he served as the second "Chief physician & director general" of the Continental Army...

, was among the school's Edinburgh, Scotland and London, England educated faculty. In 1765, after spending five years training in London and Edinburgh, Dr. Morgan returned to Philadelphia and persuaded the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania to found the first medical school in America. Shortly thereafter, he delivered an address, "Upon the Insitution of Medical Schools in America" during which he expressed his desire for the new medical school to become a model institution:

That autumn, students enrolled for "anatomical lectures" and a course on "the theory and practice of physick." Modeling the School after the University of Edinburgh
University of Edinburgh
The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a public research university located in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, and a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The university is deeply embedded in the fabric of the city, with many of the buildings in the historic Old Town belonging to the university...

, the need for supplemental medical lectures with bedside teaching was emphasized, which was satisfied by practitioners at the Pennsylvania Hospital
Pennsylvania Hospital
Pennsylvania Hospital is a hospital in Center City, Philadelphia, affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania Health System . Founded on May 11, 1751 by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Bond, it was the first hospital in the United States...

.

The School of Medicine's faculty was nationally renowned: Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Rush was a Founding Father of the United States. Rush lived in the state of Pennsylvania and was a physician, writer, educator, humanitarian and a Christian Universalist, as well as the founder of Dickinson College in Carlisle, Pennsylvania....

 (medicine), Philip Syng Physick
Philip Syng Physick
Philip Syng Physick was an American physician born in Philadelphia.-Biography:Physick graduated from the University of Pennsylvania in 1785, then began the study of medicine under Dr. Adam Kuhn, and continued it in London under Dr. John Hunter, becoming, on January 1, 1790, house surgeon of St....

 (surgery), Robert Hare (chemistry), and, around the 1850s, William Pepper
William Pepper
William Pepper, Jr., M.D. , an American physician, was a leader in medical education in the nineteenth century, and a longtime Provost of the University of Pennsylvania.-Early life:...

 (medicine) and Joseph Leidy
Joseph Leidy
Joseph Leidy was an American paleontologist.Leidy was professor of anatomy at the University of Pennsylvania, and later was a professor of natural history at Swarthmore College. His book Extinct Fauna of Dakota and Nebraska contained many species not previously described and many previously...

 (anatomy). In 1847, the group of physicians who organized the American Medical Association
American Medical Association
The American Medical Association , founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of medical doctors and medical students in the United States.-Scope and operations:...

 effectively gave recognition to the School's fame by naming the AMA's first president Nathaniel Chapman
Nathaniel Chapman
Nathaniel Chapman was a well-known early American physician.Chapman was born in Summer Hill, Fairfax County, Virginia. He received his early education in six years at the classical academy of Alexandria...

, Professor of Medicine at the School.

Name


On May 10, 2011 university president Amy Gutmann
Amy Gutmann
Amy Gutmann is the eighth President of the University of Pennsylvania and the Christopher H. Browne Distinguished Professor of Political Science, Communications, and Philosophy...

 announced that the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine will be officially renamed the Raymond and Ruth Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in honor of a $225 million contribution made to the medical school by Raymond G. Perelman, 93, a Philadelphia based philanthropist and father of billionaire Ronald Perelman
Ronald Perelman
Ronald Owen Perelman is an American business magnate. Through his company MacAndrews & Forbes Holdings Inc., he has invested in various companies in grocery, cigar, licorice, makeup, car, photography, television, camping, security, lottery, jewelry, banks, and comic book industries.-Early...

. This sets the record as the largest donation given in U.S. history to rename a medical school. Together with a $25 million contribution made in 2005 to create the Ruth and Raymond Perelman Center for Advanced Medicine, the Perelman family contribution to the medical school to date is approximately $250 million. Note that the short version of the name, Perelman School of Medicine, is also an official name of the school.

Campus


In the 1870s, the university closed its campus in Center City, Philadelphia
Center City, Philadelphia
Center City, or Downtown Philadelphia includes the central business district and central neighborhoods of the City of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. As of 2005, its population of over 88,000 made it the third most populous downtown in the United States, after New York City's and Chicago's...

 and established a new location across the Schuylkill River
Schuylkill River
The Schuylkill River is a river in Pennsylvania. It is a designated Pennsylvania Scenic River.The river is about long. Its watershed of about lies entirely within the state of Pennsylvania. The source of its eastern branch is in the Appalachian Mountains at Tuscarora Springs, near Tamaqua in...

 in West Philadelphia
West Philadelphia
West Philadelphia, nicknamed West Philly, is a section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Though there is no official definition of its boundaries, it is generally considered to reach from the western shore of the Schuylkill River, to City Line Avenue to the northwest, Cobbs Creek to the southwest, and...

, just north of the Blockley Almshouse
Blockley Almshouse
The Blockley Almshouse, later known as Philadelphia General Hospital, was a charity hospital and poorhouse located in West Philadelphia. It originally opened in 1732/33 in a different part of the city as the Philadelphia Almshouse...

. As part of this move, the School of Medicine's faculty persuaded the University's trustees to build a teaching hospital on the new campus, the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania is a hospital affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania Health System located in the University City section of West Philadelphia. The hospital was founded at its current location in 1874 by the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine,...

 (HUP). Today, its affiliated hospitals include the Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania
The Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania is a hospital affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania Health System located in the University City section of West Philadelphia. The hospital was founded at its current location in 1874 by the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine,...

 (first teaching hospital in America), Pennsylvania Hospital
Pennsylvania Hospital
Pennsylvania Hospital is a hospital in Center City, Philadelphia, affiliated with the University of Pennsylvania Health System . Founded on May 11, 1751 by Benjamin Franklin and Thomas Bond, it was the first hospital in the United States...

 (first hospital in America), and Penn Presbyterian Medical Center
Penn Presbyterian Medical Center
Penn Presbyterian Medical Center is a hospital located in the University City section of West Philadelphia. It is located between Market Street and Powelton Avenue, and N. 38th Street and N. Sloan Street....

 which comprise the University of Pennsylvania Health System
University of Pennsylvania Health System
The University of Pennsylvania Health System is a diverse research and clinical care organization in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1993, it currently operates under the direction and auspices of Penn Medicine, a division of the University of Pennsylvania...

.

The administrative offices of the School of Medicine are primarily located within Stemmler Hall and the John Morgan Building. Most educational and research buildings of the school are located on the main campus of the University of Pennsylvania within a triangle made up of Hamilton Walk, University Avenue, and Civic Center Blvd.

The Penn School of Nursing building and the Philadelphia Medical Examiner's Office are both located within the School of Medicine complex.

Buildings



Listed below are the current buildings of the Perelman School of Medicine, not including those of any of the affiliated hospitals.
Building Name Year Built Architect(s) Area (sq. ft.)
Anatomy Chemistry Building 1928 Stewardson & Page 128114
Biomedical Research Building 2/3 1999 Perkins & Will, Francis Cauffman, Foley Hoffman 385000
Blockley Hall 1964 Supowitz & Demchick 166425
Claire M. Fagin Hall (Nursing) 1972 Fisher Associates 165600
Clinical Research Building 1989 Payette Associates, Venturi
Robert Venturi
Robert Charles Venturi, Jr. is an American architect, founding principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates, and one of the major figures in the architecture of the twentieth century...

, Ranch, and Scott Brown
Denise Scott Brown
Denise Scott Brown, is an architect, planner, writer, educator, and principal of the firm Venturi, Scott Brown and Associates in Philadelphia...

 
204211
Cyclotron 1987 Francis, Cauffman, Wilkinson, Pepper 8122
Edward J. Stemmler Hall
formerly the Medical Education Building, until 1990
1978 Geddes, Brecher, Qualls, and Cunningham 251344
John Morgan Building
formerly the Medical Laboratories, until 1987
1904 Cope & Stewardson
Cope & Stewardson
Cope & Stewardson was an architecture firm best known for its academic building and campus designs. The firm is often regarded as a Master of the Collegiate Gothic style. Walter Cope and John Stewardson established the firm in 1885, and were later joined by Emlyn Stewardson in 1887...

 
211140
Richards Medical Research Laboratories 1962 Louis Kahn
Louis Kahn
Louis Isadore Kahn was an American architect, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. After working in various capacities for several firms in Philadelphia, he founded his own atelier in 1935...

 
107103
Robert Wood Johnson Pavilion 1969 Alexander Ewing, Erdman & Eubank 161228
Stellar-Chance Laboratories
formerly the Biomedical Research Laboratories, until 1995
1994 Bower Lewis Thrower 213620
Translational Research Center 2010 Rafael Viñoly
Rafael Viñoly
Rafael Viñoly is an Uruguayan architect living in the United States.-Biography:He was born in Montevideo, Uruguay to Román Viñoly Barreto, and Maria Beceiro ....

 Architects PC
500000
Translational Research Laboratory (and addition) 1948
2004
Tsoi/Kobus & Associates 129418

Medical advancements



During the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the School of Medicine was one of the earliest to encourage the development of the emerging medical specialties: neurosurgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, and radiology. Between 1910 and 1939, the chairman of the Department of Pharmacology, Alfred Newton Richards
Alfred Newton Richards
Alfred Newton Richards was an American pharmacologist.Richards was born in Stamford, New York. He served as chairman of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine's Department of Pharmacology from 1910 to 1946; thereafter he became Professor Emeritus...

, played a significant role in developing the University as an authority of medical science, helping the United States to catch up with European medicine and begin to make significant advances in biomedical science.

In the 1950s and early 1960s, Dr. Jonathon E. Rhoads of the Department of Surgery (which he would later go on to head for many years), mentored Dr. Stanley Dudrick who pioneered the successful use of total parenteral nutrition
Total parenteral nutrition
Parenteral nutrition is feeding a person intravenously, bypassing the usual process of eating and digestion. The person receives nutritional formulae that contain nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, lipids and added vitamins and dietary minerals...

 (TPN) for patients unable to tolerate nutrition through their GI tract.

In the 1980s and 1990s, Dr. C. William Schwab, a trauma surgeon, led numerous advances in the concept of damage control surgery for severely injured trauma patients.

In the 1990s and 2000s, Dr. Paul Offit
Paul Offit
Paul A. Offit, M.D., is an American pediatrician specializing in infectious diseases and an expert on vaccines, immunology, and virology. He is the co-inventor of a rotavirus vaccine that has been credited with saving hundreds of lives every day. Offit is the Maurice R...

, a professor of Pediatrics at the School of Medicine and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, lead the scientific advances behind the modern RotaTeq vaccine for infectious childhood diarrhea.

In 2006, Drs. Kaplan and Shore of the Department of Orthopedics discovered the causative mutation in fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva , sometimes referred to as Stone Man Syndrome, is an extremely rare disease of the connective tissue. A mutation of the body's repair mechanism causes fibrous tissue to be ossified when damaged. In many cases, injuries can cause joints to become permanently...

, an extremely rare disease of bone.

Medical curriculum



Benchmark changes in the understanding of medical science and the practice of medicine have necessitated that the school change its methods of teaching, as well as its curriculum. Large changes were made in 1968, 1970, 1981, 1987, and 1997. The last significant change in 1997 brought about the institution of Curriculum 2000, "an integrated, multidisciplinary curriculum which emphasizes small group instruction
Small group learning
Small group learning is a useful educational approach. The group work has to be carefully planned and frequently requires a facilitator to ensure group progress. In addition the group function and the learning that takes place needs to be assessed and evaluated. The material learned is just as...

, self directed learning and flexibility." Three themes, Science of Medicine, Art and Practice of Medicine, and Professionalism and Humanism, were developed by focus group
Focus group
A focus group is a form of qualitative research in which a group of people are asked about their perceptions, opinions, beliefs and attitudes towards a product, service, concept, advertisement, idea, or packaging...

s consisting of department chairpersons, course directors, and students.

The Doctor of Medicine (MD)
Doctor of Medicine
Doctor of Medicine is a doctoral degree for physicians. The degree is granted by medical schools...

 curriculum is broken into six modules, each of which has its own courses:
  1. Core Principles
  2. Integrative Systems and Disease
  3. Technology and Practice of Medicine
  4. Required Clinical Clerkships
    Clinical clerkship
    Clinical clerkships encompass a period of medical education in which students – medical, nursing, dental, or otherwise – practice medicine under the supervision of a health practitioner.- Medical clerkships :...

  5. Electives, Selectives, and Scholarly Pursuit
  6. Professionalism and Humanism
    Humanism
    Humanism is an approach in study, philosophy, world view or practice that focuses on human values and concerns. In philosophy and social science, humanism is a perspective which affirms some notion of human nature, and is contrasted with anti-humanism....



The MD program is a four year program that can be described in relation to traditional semesters, with the modules for that semester and the courses taken for each. The first three semesters use about half the time for lectures and the other half for small group learning
Small group learning
Small group learning is a useful educational approach. The group work has to be carefully planned and frequently requires a facilitator to ensure group progress. In addition the group function and the learning that takes place needs to be assessed and evaluated. The material learned is just as...

 and problem-based learning
Problem-based learning
Problem-based learning is a student-centered pedagogy in which students learn about a subject in the context of complex, multifaceted, and realistic problems...

.
  • Semester 1
    • Module 1: basic sciences, basic medical sciences, and gross anatomy
      Gross anatomy
      Gross anatomy is the study of anatomy at the macroscopic level. The term gross distinguishes it from other areas of anatomical study, including microscopic anatomy, which is studied on a microscopic scale, typically with a microscope....

    • Module 3: doctor-patient relationship
      Doctor-patient relationship
      The doctor-patient relationship is central to the practice of healthcare and is essential for the delivery of high-quality health care in the diagnosis and treatment of disease. The doctor-patient relationship forms one of the foundations of contemporary medical ethics...

      , communication skills, and a longitudinal patient experience
    • Module 6: cultural competencies
      Cultural competence
      Cultural competence refers to an ability to interact effectively with people of different cultures, particularly in the context of human resources, non-profit organizations, and government agencies whose employees work with persons from different cultural/ethnic backgrounds.Cultural competence...

  • Semesters 2, 3
    • Module 2: organ systems-based courses
    • Module 3: clinical decision making, health care systems, introduction to clinical medicine, longitudinal patient experience, differential diagnosis
      Differential diagnosis
      A differential diagnosis is a systematic diagnostic method used to identify the presence of an entity where multiple alternatives are possible , and may also refer to any of the included candidate alternatives A differential diagnosis (sometimes abbreviated DDx, ddx, DD, D/Dx, or ΔΔ) is a...

      , and medical simulation
      Medical simulation
      Medical simulation is a branch of simulation technology related to education and training in medical fields of various industries. It can involve simulated human patients, educational documents with detailed simulated animations, casualty assessment in homeland security and military situations, and...

      s
    • Module 6: research ethics
      Research ethics
      Research ethics involves the application of fundamental ethical principles to a variety of topics involving scientific research. These include the design and implementation of research involving human experimentation, animal experimentation, various aspects of academic scandal, including scientific...

      , doctoring, and communication
  • Semesters 4, 5
    • Module 4: required clinical clerkships
    • Module 6: doctoring, communication, and patient safety
  • Semesters 6, 7, 8
    • Module 5: electives, selectives, "frontiers in medicine," (during which updates to medical science are discussed) and the required scholarly pursuit
    • Module 6: communication, and bioethics
      Bioethics
      Bioethics is the study of controversial ethics brought about by advances in biology and medicine. Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, and philosophy....



In addition to the MD curriculum, the school offers certificate programs in global health, women's health, community health, clinical neuroscience, and aging. There is also a combined degree option with the MD degree in combination with Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy
Doctor of Philosophy, abbreviated as Ph.D., PhD, D.Phil., or DPhil , in English-speaking countries, is a postgraduate academic degree awarded by universities...

 (Ph.D.), Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor
Juris Doctor is a professional doctorate and first professional graduate degree in law.The degree was first awarded by Harvard University in the United States in the late 19th century and was created as a modern version of the old European doctor of law degree Juris Doctor (see etymology and...

 (JD), Master of Business Administration
Master of Business Administration
The Master of Business Administration is a :master's degree in business administration, which attracts people from a wide range of academic disciplines. The MBA designation originated in the United States, emerging from the late 19th century as the country industrialized and companies sought out...

 (MBA), Master of Bioethics
Bioethics
Bioethics is the study of controversial ethics brought about by advances in biology and medicine. Bioethicists are concerned with the ethical questions that arise in the relationships among life sciences, biotechnology, medicine, politics, law, and philosophy....

 (MBE), Master of Science in Clinical Epidemiology (MSCE), Master of Science in Translational Research
Translational research
Translational research is a way of thinking about and conducting scientific research to make the results of research applicable to the population under study and is practised in the natural and biological, behavioural, and social sciences...

 (MTR), Master of Public Health
Public health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

 (MPH), and Master of Science in Health Policy Research (MSHP). There also exists the option for an extra year to pursue various avenues, including research or finishing the requirements for a second degree.

Biomedical Graduate Studies



Biomedical Graduate Studies, contained within the Perelman School of Medicine, was established in 1985 and serves as the academic home within the University of Pennsylvania for roughly 700 students pursuing a PhD in the basic biomedical sciences. BGS consists of more than 600 faculty members across seven Penn schools and several associated institutes including Wistar Institute
Wistar Institute
The Wistar Institute is a biomedical center, with a focus on cancer research and vaccine development. It is located in the University City section of Philadelphia, Pa...

, Fox Chase Cancer Center
Fox Chase Cancer Center
The Fox Chase Cancer Center is a National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center research facility and hospital located in the Fox Chase section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. The main facilities of the center are located on property adjoining Burholme Park...

, and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia is one of the largest and oldest children's hospitals in the world. CHOP has been ranked as the best children's hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report and Parents Magazine in recent years. As of 2008, it was ranked #1 in the nation for...

. There are seven graduate programs, labeled by the school as "graduate groups," that lead to a Ph.D.
Ph.D.
A Ph.D. is a Doctor of Philosophy, an academic degree.Ph.D. may also refer to:* Ph.D. , a 1980s British group*Piled Higher and Deeper, a web comic strip*PhD: Phantasy Degree, a Korean comic series* PhD Docbook renderer, an XML renderer...

 in basic biomedical sciences.
  • Biochemistry
    Biochemistry
    Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes...

     and Molecular Biophysics
    Molecular biophysics
    Molecular biophysics is a rapidly evolving interdisciplinary area of research that combines concepts in physics, chemistry, engineering, mathematics and biology...

  • Cell
    Cell biology
    Cell biology is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level...

     and Molecular Biology
    Molecular biology
    Molecular biology is the branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. This field overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry...

     with programs in
    • Cancer Biology
      Cancer
      Cancer , known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a large group of different diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the...

    • Cell Biology
      Cell biology
      Cell biology is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level...

       and Physiology
      Physiology
      Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. The highest honor awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or...

    • Developmental
      Developmental biology
      Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. Modern developmental biology studies the genetic control of cell growth, differentiation and "morphogenesis", which is the process that gives rise to tissues, organs and anatomy.- Related fields of study...

      , Stem Cell
      Stem cell
      This article is about the cell type. For the medical therapy, see Stem Cell TreatmentsStem cells are biological cells found in all multicellular organisms, that can divide and differentiate into diverse specialized cell types and can self-renew to produce more stem cells...

      , and Regenerative Biology
      Regenerative medicine
      Regenerative medicine is the "process of replacing or regenerating human cells, tissues or organs to restore orestablish normal function". This field holds the promise of regenerating damaged tissues and organs in the body by replacing damaged tissue and/or by stimulating the body's own repair...

    • Gene Therapy
      Gene therapy
      Gene therapy is the insertion, alteration, or removal of genes within an individual's cells and biological tissues to treat disease. It is a technique for correcting defective genes that are responsible for disease development...

       and Vaccine
      Vaccine
      A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe or its toxins...

      s
    • Genetics
      Genetics
      Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

       and Gene Regulation
      Regulation of gene expression
      Gene modulation redirects here. For information on therapeutic regulation of gene expression, see therapeutic gene modulation.Regulation of gene expression includes the processes that cells and viruses use to regulate the way that the information in genes is turned into gene products...

    • Microbiology
      Microbiology
      Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell , cell clusters or no cell at all . This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes...

      , Virology
      Virology
      Virology is the study of viruses and virus-like agents: their structure, classification and evolution, their ways to infect and exploit cells for virus reproduction, the diseases they cause, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their use in research and therapy...

      , and Parasitology
      Parasitology
      Parasitology is the study of parasites, their hosts, and the relationship between them. As a biological discipline, the scope of parasitology is not determined by the organism or environment in question, but by their way of life...

  • Epidemiology
    Epidemiology
    Epidemiology is the study of health-event, health-characteristic, or health-determinant patterns in a population. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform policy decisions and evidence-based medicine by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive...

     and Biostatistics
    Biostatistics
    Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology...

  • Genomics
    Genomics
    Genomics is a discipline in genetics concerning the study of the genomes of organisms. The field includes intensive efforts to determine the entire DNA sequence of organisms and fine-scale genetic mapping efforts. The field also includes studies of intragenomic phenomena such as heterosis,...

     and Computational Biology
    Computational biology
    Computational biology involves the development and application of data-analytical and theoretical methods, mathematical modeling and computational simulation techniques to the study of biological, behavioral, and social systems...

  • Immunology
    Immunology
    Immunology is a broad branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system in all organisms. It deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders ; the...

  • Neuroscience
    Neuroscience
    Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics,...

  • Pharmacology
    Pharmacology
    Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function...



All students receive a stipend
Stipend
A stipend is a form of salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship. It is often distinct from a wage or a salary because it does not necessarily represent payment for work performed, instead it represents a payment that enables somebody to be exempt partly or wholly from waged or salaried...

 in addition to a full fellowship
Scholarship
A scholarship is an award of financial aid for a student to further education. Scholarships are awarded on various criteria usually reflecting the values and purposes of the donor or founder of the award.-Types:...

 and tend to receive the degree within a median time frame of 5.4 years. There is also the option for students to pursue an additional certificate in medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

, public health
Public health
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting health through the organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals" . It is concerned with threats to health based on population health...

, and environmental health sciences
Environmental health
Environmental health is the branch of public health that is concerned with all aspects of the natural and built environment that may affect human health...

. Each graduate group has its own admission policy and training mission, and hence curriculum greatly varies.

Governance


"Penn Medicine" is the governing board that administers and coordinates the Perelman School of Medicine and the University of Pennsylvania Health System
University of Pennsylvania Health System
The University of Pennsylvania Health System is a diverse research and clinical care organization in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1993, it currently operates under the direction and auspices of Penn Medicine, a division of the University of Pennsylvania...

 (UPHS). The board reports directly to the trustees of the University of Pennsylvania
University of Pennsylvania
The University of Pennsylvania is a private, Ivy League university located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. Penn is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States,Penn is the fourth-oldest using the founding dates claimed by each institution...

. It was created by Penn's former president, Judith Rodin
Judith Rodin
Judith Rodin was the 7th president of the University of Pennsylvania from 1994 to 2004 and the first permanent female president of an Ivy League university. She is currently the president of the Rockefeller Foundation, a position she has held since 2005. A University of Pennsylvania alumna, she...

, in response to a $300 Million financial crisis at the Health System.

Departments


The School of Medicine has departments in the following basic science subjects: Biochemistry
Biochemistry
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes in living organisms, including, but not limited to, living matter. Biochemistry governs all living organisms and living processes...

 and Biophysics
Biophysics
Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems. Studies included under the branches of biophysics span all levels of biological organization, from the molecular scale to whole organisms and ecosystems...

, Biostatistics
Biostatistics
Biostatistics is the application of statistics to a wide range of topics in biology...

 and Epidemiology
Epidemiology
Epidemiology is the study of health-event, health-characteristic, or health-determinant patterns in a population. It is the cornerstone method of public health research, and helps inform policy decisions and evidence-based medicine by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive...

, Cancer Biology
Cancer
Cancer , known medically as a malignant neoplasm, is a large group of different diseases, all involving unregulated cell growth. In cancer, cells divide and grow uncontrollably, forming malignant tumors, and invade nearby parts of the body. The cancer may also spread to more distant parts of the...

, Cell
Cell biology
Cell biology is a scientific discipline that studies cells – their physiological properties, their structure, the organelles they contain, interactions with their environment, their life cycle, division and death. This is done both on a microscopic and molecular level...

 and Developmental Biology
Developmental Biology
Developmental Biology is a peer-reviewedscientific journal. It was established in 1959 and is the official journal of the Society for Developmental Biology. It publishes research on the mechanisms of development, differentiation, and growth in animals and plants at the molecular, cellular, and...

, Genetics
Genetics
Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

, Medical Ethics
Medical ethics
Medical ethics is a system of moral principles that apply values and judgments to the practice of medicine. As a scholarly discipline, medical ethics encompasses its practical application in clinical settings as well as work on its history, philosophy, theology, and sociology.-History:Historically,...

 and Health Policy, Microbiology
Microbiology
Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are defined as any microscopic organism that comprises either a single cell , cell clusters or no cell at all . This includes eukaryotes, such as fungi and protists, and prokaryotes...

, Neuroscience
Neuroscience
Neuroscience is the scientific study of the nervous system. Traditionally, neuroscience has been seen as a branch of biology. However, it is currently an interdisciplinary science that collaborates with other fields such as chemistry, computer science, engineering, linguistics, mathematics,...

, Pharmacology
Pharmacology
Pharmacology is the branch of medicine and biology concerned with the study of drug action. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function...

, and Physiology
Physiology
Physiology is the science of the function of living systems. This includes how organisms, organ systems, organs, cells, and bio-molecules carry out the chemical or physical functions that exist in a living system. The highest honor awarded in physiology is the Nobel Prize in Physiology or...

. The school also has departments in the following clinical practices: Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Dermatology
Dermatology
Dermatology is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin and its diseases, a unique specialty with both medical and surgical aspects. A dermatologist takes care of diseases, in the widest sense, and some cosmetic problems of the skin, scalp, hair, and nails....

, Emergency Medicine
Emergency medicine
Emergency medicine is a medical specialty in which physicians care for patients with acute illnesses or injuries which require immediate medical attention. While not usually providing long-term or continuing care, emergency medicine physicians diagnose a variety of illnesses and undertake acute...

, Family Practice and Community Medicine
Community health
Community health, a field of public health, is a discipline that concerns itself with the study and betterment of the health characteristics of biological communities. While the term community can be broadly defined, community health tends to focus on geographic areas rather than people with shared...

, Medicine
Medicine
Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

, Neurology
Neurology
Neurology is a medical specialty dealing with disorders of the nervous system. Specifically, it deals with the diagnosis and treatment of all categories of disease involving the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems, including their coverings, blood vessels, and all effector tissue,...

, Neurosurgery
Neurosurgery
Neurosurgery is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spine, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.-In the United States:In...

, Obstetrics
Obstetrics
Obstetrics is the medical specialty dealing with the care of all women's reproductive tracts and their children during pregnancy , childbirth and the postnatal period...

 and Gynecology, Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology
Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems...

 (See Scheie Eye Institute
Scheie Eye Institute
The Scheie Eye Institute is the department of ophthalmology of the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania. It is located within the Penn Presbyterian Medical Center and is a leading center for research and treatment of disorders of the eye. In 2007, Scheie was the leading...

), Orthopaedic Surgery, Otorhinolaryngology, Pathology
Pathology
Pathology is the precise study and diagnosis of disease. The word pathology is from Ancient Greek , pathos, "feeling, suffering"; and , -logia, "the study of". Pathologization, to pathologize, refers to the process of defining a condition or behavior as pathological, e.g. pathological gambling....

 and Laboratory Medicine, Pediatrics
Pediatrics
Pediatrics or paediatrics is the branch of medicine that deals with the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents. A medical practitioner who specializes in this area is known as a pediatrician or paediatrician...

 (See Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
Children's Hospital of Philadelphia
The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia is one of the largest and oldest children's hospitals in the world. CHOP has been ranked as the best children's hospital in the United States by U.S. News & World Report and Parents Magazine in recent years. As of 2008, it was ranked #1 in the nation for...

), Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Physical therapy
Physical therapy , often abbreviated PT, is a health care profession. Physical therapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing quality of life and movement potential within the spheres of promotion, prevention, diagnosis, treatment/intervention,and rehabilitation...

, Psychiatry
Psychiatry
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the study and treatment of mental disorders. These mental disorders include various affective, behavioural, cognitive and perceptual abnormalities...

, Radiation Oncology
Radiation therapy
Radiation therapy , radiation oncology, or radiotherapy , sometimes abbreviated to XRT or DXT, is the medical use of ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells.Radiation therapy is commonly applied to the cancerous tumor because of its ability to control...

, Radiology
Radiology
Radiology is a medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualized within the human body. Radiologists use an array of imaging technologies to diagnose or treat diseases...

, and Surgery
Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...

.

Centers and institutes


The Perelman School of Medicine, in conjunction with the University of Pennsylvania Health System
University of Pennsylvania Health System
The University of Pennsylvania Health System is a diverse research and clinical care organization in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1993, it currently operates under the direction and auspices of Penn Medicine, a division of the University of Pennsylvania...

, has contained within it many centers and institutes dealing with clinical medicine, clinical research, basic science research, and translational research.

Notable alumni


  • Caspar Wistar
    Caspar Wistar (physician)
    Caspar Wistar was an American physician and anatomist. He is sometimes referred to as Caspar Wistar the Younger, to distinguish him from his grandfather of the same name.-Biography:...

    , Class of 1782: president of the American Philosophical Society
    American Philosophical Society
    The American Philosophical Society, founded in 1743, and located in Philadelphia, Pa., is an eminent scholarly organization of international reputation, that promotes useful knowledge in the sciences and humanities through excellence in scholarly research, professional meetings, publications,...

     and President of the Society for the Abolition of Slavery
  • Charles Caldwell, Class of 1796: founder of the University of Louisville
    University of Louisville
    The University of Louisville is a public university in Louisville, Kentucky. When founded in 1798, it was the first city-owned public university in the United States and one of the first universities chartered west of the Allegheny Mountains. The university is mandated by the Kentucky General...

     School of Medicine
  • Nathaniel Chapman
    Nathaniel Chapman
    Nathaniel Chapman was a well-known early American physician.Chapman was born in Summer Hill, Fairfax County, Virginia. He received his early education in six years at the classical academy of Alexandria...

    , Class of 1800: first President of the American Medical Association
    American Medical Association
    The American Medical Association , founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of medical doctors and medical students in the United States.-Scope and operations:...

  • William P.C. Barton
    William P.C. Barton
    William Paul Crillon Barton , was a medical botanist, physician, professor, naval surgeon, and botanical illustrator.-History:...

    : author of A Treatise Containing a Plan for the Internal Organization and Government of Marine Hospitals in the United States... and Dean of Jefferson Medical College
  • Reuben D. Mussey
    Reuben D. Mussey
    Reuben Dimond Mussey, Sr. was a medical doctor and an early opponent of tobacco. His son Reuben D. Mussey, Jr. was a lawyer and the husband of Ellen Spencer Mussey, the founder of the first law school for females....

    , Class of 1809: in 1862, wrote a history of tobacco documenting its dangers
  • Samuel A. Cartwright
    Samuel A. Cartwright
    Samuel Adolphus Cartwright was a physician who practiced in Mississippi and Louisiana in the antebellum United States. During the American Civil War he joined the Confederate States of America and was assigned the responsibility of improving sanitary conditions in the camps about Vicksburg,...

    : improved sanitary conditions during the American Civil War
    American Civil War
    The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

     and was honored for his investigations into yellow fever
    Yellow fever
    Yellow fever is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease. The virus is a 40 to 50 nm enveloped RNA virus with positive sense of the Flaviviridae family....

     and Asiatic cholera
  • Clement Finley
    Clement Finley
    Clement Alexander Finley , was the 10th Surgeon General of the United States Army, May 15, 1861 – April 14, 1862.-Early life:...

    , Class of 1818: 10th Surgeon General of the United States Army
    United States Army
    The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

  • George McClellan
    George McClellan (physician)
    George McClellan was a 19th-century American medical doctor. Born in Woodstock, Connecticut, he is best known for founding the Jefferson Medical College and the Medical Department of Pennsylvania College...

    , Class of 1819: founder of Jefferson Medical College
    Thomas Jefferson University
    Thomas Jefferson University is a private health sciences university in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. The university consists of six constituent colleges and schools, Jefferson Medical College, Jefferson College of Graduate Studies, Jefferson School of Health...

  • John Light Atlee
    John Light Atlee
    John Light Atlee was an American physician and surgeon. He was one of the organizers of the American Medical Association, also serving as its president....

    , Class of 1820: one of the organizers of, and past President of the American Medical Association
    American Medical Association
    The American Medical Association , founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of medical doctors and medical students in the United States.-Scope and operations:...

  • Joseph Pancoast
    Joseph Pancoast
    Joseph Pancoast was a renowned American surgeon. His name is eponymic to the practice of surgery, in general, and plastic surgery, in particular....

    , Class of 1828: surgeon and department chairman at Jefferson Medical College
    Thomas Jefferson University
    Thomas Jefferson University is a private health sciences university in Center City, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in the United States. The university consists of six constituent colleges and schools, Jefferson Medical College, Jefferson College of Graduate Studies, Jefferson School of Health...

    ; author of A Treatise on Operative Surgery
  • Thomas R. Potts
    Thomas R. Potts
    Thomas Reed Potts was an American physician, civic leader and the first Mayor of St. Paul, Minnesota. After graduating from medical school, Potts moved across the country and eventually found his way to the young settlement of St. Paul. Active in civic life and popular in his medical practice,...

    , Class of 1831: first mayor of St. Paul, Minnesota
  • David Hayes Agnew
    David Hayes Agnew
    David Hayes Agnew was an American surgeon.- Biography :He was born on November 24, 1818 in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania. He graduated from the medical department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1838, and a few years later set up in practice at Philadelphia and became a lecturer at the...

    , Class of 1838: surgeon and author of The Principles and Practice of Surgery
  • Isaiah D. Clawson
    Isaiah D. Clawson
    Isaiah Dunn Clawson was an American Opposition Party / Republican Party politician who represented New Jersey's 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives from 1855 to 1859....

    , Class of 1843: Opposition Party and Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New Jersey
  • John Daniel Clardy
    John Daniel Clardy
    John Daniel Clardy was a U.S. Representative from Kentucky.-Early life:John Clardy was born in Smith County, Tennessee on August 30, 1828. He was one of six sons and two daughters born to John C. and Elizabeth Clardy...

    , Class of 1851: Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Kentucky
  • Ephraim L. Acker
    Ephraim Leister Acker
    Ephraim Leister Acker was a Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.Ephraim L. Acker was born in Marlborough Township, Montgomery County, Pennsylvania. He attended the common schools and the academy at Sumneytown, a village in Marlborough Township...

    , Class of 1852: Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania
  • Hiram R. Burton
    Hiram R. Burton
    Hiram Rodney Burton was an American physician and politician from Lewes, in Sussex County, Delaware. He was a member of the Republican Party, who served two terms as U. S. Representative from Delaware.-Early life and family:...

    , Class of 1868: Republican member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Delaware
  • Lewis Heisler Ball
    L. Heisler Ball
    Dr. Lewis Heisler Ball was an American physician and politician from Mill Creek Hundred, New Castle County, Delaware, near Stanton. He was a member of the Republican Party, who served as U.S. Representative from Delaware and two terms as U.S. Senator from Delaware...

    , Class of 1885: Republican member of the U.S. Senate from Delaware
  • William Carlos Williams
    William Carlos Williams
    William Carlos Williams was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. He was also a pediatrician and general practitioner of medicine, having graduated from the University of Pennsylvania...

    , Class of 1906: poet, pediatrician, and general practicioner
  • Isaac Starr
    Isaac Starr
    Isaac "Ike" Starr was an American physician and heart disease specialist notable for developing the first practical ballistocardiograph...

    , Class of 1920: developed the first practical ballistocardiograph
    Ballistocardiograph
    Ballistocardiograph or BCG detects and measures recoil of the human body due to the momentum of the blood that the heart is currently pumping....

    ; 1957 Albert Lasker Award, 1967 Kober Medal of the Association of American Physicians
    Association of American Physicians
    The Association of American Physicians is a medical society founded in 1885 by the Canadian physician Sir William Osler and six other distinguished physicians of his era, for "the advancement of scientific and practical medicine." Election to the AAP is an honor extended to individuals with...

    , 1977 Burger Medal of the Free University of Amsterdam
  • William Holmes Crosby, Class of 1940: one of the founding fathers of modern hematology
  • Gerald Edelman
    Gerald Edelman
    Gerald Maurice Edelman is an American biologist who shared the 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for work with Rodney Robert Porter on the immune system. Edelman's Nobel Prize-winning research concerned discovery of the structure of antibody molecules...

    , Class of 1954: 1972 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine
    The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the field of life science and medicine. It is one of five Nobel Prizes established in 1895 by Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, in his will...

     for discovering the structure and mode of action of antibodies; founder and director of The Neurosciences Institute; also noted for his theory of secondary consciousness
    Secondary consciousness
    Secondary consciousness, a term coined by Gerald Edelman, is an individual’s accessibility of their past history and future plans, as well as consciousness of their consciousness. The ability allows its possessors to go beyond the limits of the remembered present of primary consciousness. Primary...

  • David E. Kuhl
    David E. Kuhl
    David Edmund Kuhl isan American scientist specializing in nuclear medicine.He is well known for his pioneering work in positron emission tomography. Dr...

    , Class of 1955: 2009 Japan Prize
    Japan Prize
    is awarded to people from all parts of the world whose "original and outstanding achievements in science and technology are recognized as having advanced the frontiers of knowledge and served the cause of peace and prosperity for mankind."- Explanation :...

    , best known for his pioneering work in positron emission tomography
  • Walter Bortz II
    Walter Bortz II
    Walter Michael Bortz II, is an American physician who promotes the possibility of a 100-year lifespan while working at the Stanford University School of Medicine. He is one of America's leading scientific experts on aging and has written bestselling books. Dr. Bortz's latest book is entitled Next...

    , Class of 1955: one of America's leading scientific experts on aging
  • Michael Stuart Brown
    Michael Stuart Brown
    Michael Stuart Brown is an American geneticist and Nobel Laureate. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Joseph L. Goldstein in 1985 for describing the regulation of cholesterol metabolism.- Life and career :...

    , Class of 1966: 1985 Nobel Prize
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

     in Physiology or Medicine
  • Stanley Prusiner, Class of 1968: 1997 Nobel Prize
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

     in Physiology or Medicine
  • Mehmet Oz
    Mehmet Oz
    Mehmet Cengiz Oz , also known as Dr. Oz, is a Turkish-American cardiothoracic surgeon, author, talk show host, and commentator for The Dr. Oz Show, a daily television program focusing on medical issues/personal health....

    , Class of 1986: cardiothoracic surgeon and host of The Dr. Oz Show
    The Dr. Oz Show
    The Dr. Oz Show is an American syndicated television talk show, hosted by Dr. Mehmet Oz, a cardiothoracic surgeon and teaching professor at Columbia University who became famous for his appearances on The Oprah Winfrey Show from 2004 until 2009....

  • David Agus
    David Agus
    David Agus, is an American physician and a co-founder of Navigenics, a personal genetic testing company, and Oncology.com, the largest online cancer resource and virtual community and Applied Proteomics...

    , Class of 1991: co-founder of Navigenics
    Navigenics
    Navigenics, Inc. is a privately held personal genomics company, based in Foster City, California, that uses genetic testing to help people determine their individual risk for dozens of health conditions....

    , a personal genetic testing company, and Oncology.com

Rankings



United States Medical School Ranking Systems

Organization Rank Year
U.S. News, Research 2 2011
National Institutes of Health
National Institutes of Health
The National Institutes of Health are an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and are the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and health-related research. Its science and engineering counterpart is the National Science Foundation...

, by funding
3 2010
U.S. News, Primary Care 9 2011

International Clinical Medicine, Pre-Clinical Medicine, and Pharmacy Ranking Systems

Organization Country Rank Year
Times Higher Education  United Kingdom 16 2010
QS World University Rankings
QS World University Rankings
The QS World University Rankings is a ranking of the world’s top 500 universities by Quacquarelli Symonds using a method that has published annually since 2004....

 
United Kingdom 21 2011
Academic Ranking of World Universities
Academic Ranking of World Universities
The Academic Ranking of World Universities , commonly known as the Shanghai ranking, is a publication that was founded and compiled by the Shanghai Jiaotong University to rank universities globally. The rankings have been conducted since 2003 and updated annually...

 
China 22 2011

See also

  • Medical schools in Pennsylvania
  • List of Ivy League medical schools
  • University of Pennsylvania Health System
    University of Pennsylvania Health System
    The University of Pennsylvania Health System is a diverse research and clinical care organization in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Founded in 1993, it currently operates under the direction and auspices of Penn Medicine, a division of the University of Pennsylvania...


External links