University of Padua

University of Padua

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[[Image:GymnasivmPatavinvm.jpg|thumb|right|300px|"Gymnasivm Patavinum:" The University's main Bo palace shown in a 1654 woodcut]] The '''University of Padua''' ([[Italian language|Italian]] ''Università degli Studi di Padova'', '''UNIPD''') is a premier Italian university located in the city of [[Padua]], [[Italy]]. The University of Padua was founded in 1222 as a school of law and was one of the most prominent universities in early modern Europe. It is among the earliest universities of the world and the second oldest in Italy. As of 2010 the university had approximately 65,000 students {{cn|and in 2009, was nominated as "best university" among Italian institutions of higher education with more than 40,000 students.|date=March 2011}} == History == The university is conventionally said to have been founded in 1222 (which corresponds to the first time when the University is cited in a historical document as pre-existing, therefore it is quite certainly older) when a large group of students and professors left the [[University of Bologna]] in search of more [[academic freedom]] ('Libertas scholastica'). The first subjects to be taught were [[law]] and [[theology]]. The curriculum expanded rapidly, however and by 1399 the institution had divided in two: a ''Universitas Iuristarum'' for [[Civil law (common law)|civil law]] and [[Canon law (Catholic Church)|Canon law]], and a ''Universitas Artistarum'' which taught [[astronomy]], [[dialectic]], [[philosophy]], [[grammar]], [[medicine]], and [[rhetoric]]. There was also a Universitas Theologorum, established in 1373 by Urban V. The student body was divided into groups known as [[Nation (university corporation)| "nations"]] which reflected their places of origin. The nations themselves fell into two groups: # the ''cismontanes'' for the Italian students # the ''ultramontanes'' for those who came from beyond the Alps From the fifteenth to the eighteenth century, the university was renowned for its research, particularly in the areas of medicine, astronomy, philosophy and law. This was thanks in part to the protection of the [[Republic of Venice]], which enabled the university to maintain some freedom and independence from the influence of the [[Roman Catholic Church]]. During this time, the University adopted the [[Latin]] [[motto]]: ''Universa universis patavina libertas'' (Paduan Freedom is Universal for Everyone). The university had a turbulent history, and there was no teaching in 1237-61, 1509–17, 1848-50. The [[Botanical Garden of Padova]], established by the university in 1545, was one of the oldest gardens like this in the world (after the [[Hanging Gardens of Babylon]]). Its title for oldest academic garden is in controversy because the Medici created one in Pisa in 1544. In addition to the garden, best visited in the spring and summer, the university also manages nine [[museum]]s, including a [[History of physics]] museum. Since 1595, Padua's famous anatomical theatre drew artists and scientists studying the human body during public [[dissections]]. It is the oldest surviving permanent anatomical theatre in Europe. Anatomist [[Andreas Vesalius]] held the chair of Surgery and Anatomy (''explicator chirurgiae'') and in 1543 published his anatomical discoveries in [[De Humani Corporis Fabrica]]. The book triggered great public interest in dissections and caused many other European cities to establish anatomical theatres. On 25 June 1678, [[Elena Lucrezia Cornaro Piscopia]] a Venetian noblewoman and mathematician became the first woman to be awarded a Doctor of Philosophy degree. The University became one the universities of the [[Italy|Kingdom of Italy]] in 1873, and ever since has been one of the most prestigious in the country for its contributions to scientific and scholarly research: in the field of mathematics alone, its professors have included such figures as [[Gregorio Ricci Curbastro]], [[Giuseppe Veronese]], [[Francesco Severi]] and [[Tullio Levi Civita]]. The last years of the nineteenth and the first half of the twentieth century saw a reversal of the centralisation process that had taken place in the sixteenth: scientific institutes were set up in what became veritable campuses; a new building to house the Arts and Philosophical faculty was built in another part of the city centre (''Palazzo del Liviano'', designed by [[Giò Ponti]]); the [[Asiago Observatory|Astro-Physics Observatory]] was built on the [[Asiago]] uplands; and the old ''Palazzo del Bo'' was fully restored (1938–45). Obviously, the vicissitudes of the [[Italian Fascism|Fascist period]]—political interference, the Race Laws, etc.—had a detrimental effect upon the development of the university, as did the devastation caused by the [[World War II|Second World War]] and—just a few decades later—the effect of the student protests of 1968-69 (which the University was left to face without adequate help and support from central government). However, the Gymnasium Omnium Disciplinarum continued its work uninterrupted, and overall the second half of the twentieth century saw a sharp upturn in development—primarily due an interchange of ideas with international institutions of the highest standing (particularly in the fields of science and technology). In recent years, the University has been able to meet the problems posed by overcrowded facilities by re-deploying over the Veneto as a whole. In 1990, the Institute of [[Engineering management|Management Engineering]] was set up in [[Vicenza]]; then the summer courses at [[Brixen]] (Bressanone) began once more; and in 1995 the Agripolis centre at [[Legnaro]] — for Agricultural Science and Veterinary Medicine — opened. Other sites of re-deployment are at [[Rovigo]], [[Treviso]], [[Feltre]], [[Castelfranco Veneto]], [[Conegliano]], [[Chioggia]] and Asiago. Recent changes in state legislation have also opened the way to greater autonomy for Italian universities, and in 1995 Padua adopted a new Statute that gave it greater independence. As the publications of innumerable conferences and congresses show, the modern-day University of Padua plays an important role in scholarly and scientific research at both a European and world level. True to its origins, this is the direction in which the Institution intends to move in the future, establishing closer and closer links of co-operation and exchange with all the world's major research universities. ==Eminent faculty and alumni== *[[Giovanni Pico]], humanist *[[Pomponio Algerio]], student of civil law (1550s) executed under the Roman Catholic Inquisition. *[[Nicholas of Cusa]] *[[Nicolaus Copernicus]], astronomer *[[Mikołaj Kiczka]], Polish noble, diplomat and priest. *[[Pietro Bembo]], poet and cardinal *[[Sperone Speroni]] *[[Moses Hayyim Luzzatto]], Kabbalist and playwright. Founder of Hebrew literature. *[[Reginald Pole]], cardinal *[[Vesalius|Andreas Vesalius]], anatomist *[[Gabriele Falloppio]], anatomist *[[Daniele Barbaro]], translator of [[Vitruvius]] *[[Ermolao Barbaro]], appointed professor of philosophy in 1477 *[[Francesco Barbaro]], humanist *[[Marcantonio Barbaro]], administrator who established an inclusive admission policy *[[Girolamo Fabrici d'Acquapendente]] *[[Torquato Tasso]], poet. *[[Boris Pahor]], writer *[[Francis Walsingham|Sir Francis Walsingham]] *[[Pietro Pomponazzi]] held the chair of natural philosophy from 1495 to 1509 *[[Jacopo Zabarella]] held the chairs of logic, and philosophy, from 1564 to 1589 *[[Guido Panciroli]], doctorate 1547; law professor 1547-1570, 1582–1599; first chair of Roman Law in 1554-1570, "afternoon chair" of Civil Law 1556-1570 *[[François de Sales]], doctorate in civil and canon law, summa cum laude et honore plurimo, in 1591, Bishop of Geneva in 1602, canonized 1665 *[[Cesare Cremonini (philosopher)|Cesare Cremonini]] held the chairs of natural philosophy, and medicine, between 1591 and 1631 *[[Galileo Galilei]] held the chair of [[mathematics]] between 1592 and 1610 *[[William Harvey]], anatomist. *[[Thomas Browne]], writer and physician. *[[Antonio Vallisneri]] held the chairs of practical medicine, and theoretical medicine, between 1700 and 1730 *[[Giovanni Battista Morgagni]] *[[Ugo Foscolo]] *[[Francesco Zantedeschi]] *[[Paolo Padovani]], astronomer; graduated in 1989 *[[Elena Cornaro Piscopia]], the first woman to receive a [[doctor of philosophy]] degree *[[Giuseppe Tartini]], musician and composer *[[Giacomo Casanova]], traveller, author and seducer. *[[Federico Faggin]], inventor of modern CPU *[[Francysk Skaryna]], the printer of the first book in an [[Eastern Slavic language]] *[[Leonik Tomeu]], (1456–1531) the first professor to teach Aristotle in original language. *[[Massimo Marchiori]], the inventor of [[Hypersearch]] and father of modern search engines. == List of Faculties == The University of Padova offers a wide range of degrees in 13 schools (called "faculties"): * Faculty of [[Agricultural science|Agriculture]] * Faculty of [[Economics]] * Faculty of [[Education]] * Faculty of [[Engineering]] * Faculty of [[Case law|Law]] * Faculty of [[Literature]] and [[Philosophy]] * Faculty of [[Mathematics|Mathematical]], [[Physics|Physical]] and [[Natural science|Natural Science]] * Faculty of [[Medicine]] and [[Surgery]] * Faculty of [[Pharmacy]] * Faculty of [[Political science|Political Science]] * Faculty of [[Psychology]] * Faculty of [[Statistics|Statistical Science]] * Faculty of [[Veterinary medicine|Veterinary Medicine]] == See also == *[[List of oldest universities in continuous operation]] *[[List of Italian universities]] * [[List of medieval universities]] *[[ICoN (consortium)|ICoN Interuniversity Consortium for Italian Studies]] *[[Padua]] *[[Coimbra Group]] *[[Top Industrial Managers for Europe]] == External links == * [http://www.unipd.it/ University of Padua Website] {{it icon}} {{en icon}} {{es icon}} * [http://www.musei.unipd.it/en/index.html Museums of the University] * [http://www.ing.unipd.it/ Faculty of Engineering] {{it icon}} {{en icon}} {{Ita_Uni}} {{Top Industrial Managers for Europe|State=collapsed}} {{Coimbra Group}} {{UNIMED}} {{coord missing|Italy}} {{DEFAULTSORT:University Of Padua}}