United States presidential election, 1860

United States presidential election, 1860

Overview
The United States presidential election of 1860 was a quadrennial election
United States presidential election
Elections for President and Vice President of the United States are indirect elections in which voters cast ballots for a slate of electors of the U.S. Electoral College, who in turn directly elect the President and Vice President...

, held on November 6, 1860, for the office of President of the United States
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 and the immediate impetus for the outbreak of the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. The nation had been divided throughout the 1850s on questions surrounding the expansion of slavery and the rights of slave owners. In 1860, these issues finally came to a head. As a result of conflicting regional interests, the Democratic Party broke into Northern
Northern United States
Northern United States, also sometimes the North, may refer to:* A particular grouping of states or regions of the United States of America. The United States Census Bureau divides some of the northernmost United States into the Midwest Region and the Northeast Region...

 and Southern
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 factions, and a new Constitutional Union Party
Constitutional Union Party (United States)
The Constitutional Union Party was a political party in the United States created in 1860. It was made up of conservative former Whigs who wanted to avoid disunion over the slavery issue...

 appeared.
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Encyclopedia
The United States presidential election of 1860 was a quadrennial election
United States presidential election
Elections for President and Vice President of the United States are indirect elections in which voters cast ballots for a slate of electors of the U.S. Electoral College, who in turn directly elect the President and Vice President...

, held on November 6, 1860, for the office of President of the United States
President of the United States
The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

 and the immediate impetus for the outbreak of the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

. The nation had been divided throughout the 1850s on questions surrounding the expansion of slavery and the rights of slave owners. In 1860, these issues finally came to a head. As a result of conflicting regional interests, the Democratic Party broke into Northern
Northern United States
Northern United States, also sometimes the North, may refer to:* A particular grouping of states or regions of the United States of America. The United States Census Bureau divides some of the northernmost United States into the Midwest Region and the Northeast Region...

 and Southern
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

 factions, and a new Constitutional Union Party
Constitutional Union Party (United States)
The Constitutional Union Party was a political party in the United States created in 1860. It was made up of conservative former Whigs who wanted to avoid disunion over the slavery issue...

 appeared. In the face of a divided and dispirited opposition, the Republican Party
History of the United States Republican Party
The United States Republican Party is the second oldest currently existing political party in the United States after its great rival, the Democratic Party. It emerged in 1854 to combat the Kansas Nebraska Act which threatened to extend slavery into the territories, and to promote more vigorous...

, dominant in the North, secured enough electoral votes to put Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 in the White House
White House
The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the president of the United States. Located at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW in Washington, D.C., the house was designed by Irish-born James Hoban, and built between 1792 and 1800 of white-painted Aquia sandstone in the Neoclassical...

 with very little support from the South. Within a few months of the election, seven Southern states, led by South Carolina
South Carolina
South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

, responded with declarations of secession
Secession in the United States
Secession in the United States can refer to secession of a state from the United States, secession of part of a state from that state to form a new state, or secession of an area from a city or county....

, which was rejected as illegal by outgoing President James Buchanan
James Buchanan
James Buchanan, Jr. was the 15th President of the United States . He is the only president from Pennsylvania, the only president who remained a lifelong bachelor and the last to be born in the 18th century....

 and President-elect Lincoln. Four additional Southern states seceded after the Battle of Fort Sumter
Battle of Fort Sumter
The Battle of Fort Sumter was the bombardment and surrender of Fort Sumter, near Charleston, South Carolina, that started the American Civil War. Following declarations of secession by seven Southern states, South Carolina demanded that the U.S. Army abandon its facilities in Charleston Harbor. On...

.

Background


The origins of the American Civil War
American Civil War
The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States of America. In response to the election of Abraham Lincoln as President of the United States, 11 southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America ; the other 25...

 lay in the complex issues of slavery, competing understandings of federalism
Federalism
Federalism is a political concept in which a group of members are bound together by covenant with a governing representative head. The term "federalism" is also used to describe a system of the government in which sovereignty is constitutionally divided between a central governing authority and...

, party politics
Second Party System
The Second Party System is a term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to name the political party system existing in the United States from about 1828 to 1854...

, expansionism
Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny was the 19th century American belief that the United States was destined to expand across the continent. It was used by Democrat-Republicans in the 1840s to justify the war with Mexico; the concept was denounced by Whigs, and fell into disuse after the mid-19th century.Advocates of...

, sectionalism
Sectionalism
-Defined:Sectionalism is loyalty to the interests of one's own region or section of the country, rather than to the country as a whole.-United States:...

, tariffs, and economics. After the Mexican-American War, the issue of slavery in the new territories
Historic regions of the United States
This is a list of historic regions of the United States.-Colonial era :-The Thirteen Colonies:* Connecticut Colony* Delaware Colony* Province of Georgia* Province of Maryland...

 led to the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850 was a package of five bills, passed in September 1850, which defused a four-year confrontation between the slave states of the South and the free states of the North regarding the status of territories acquired during the Mexican-American War...

. While the compromise averted an immediate political crisis, it did not permanently resolve the issue of The Slave Power (the power of slaveholders to control the national government).

Amid the emergence of increasingly virulent and hostile sectional ideologies in national politics, the collapse of the old Second Party System
Second Party System
The Second Party System is a term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to name the political party system existing in the United States from about 1828 to 1854...

 in the 1850s hampered efforts of the politicians to reach yet another compromise. The result was the Kansas–Nebraska Act, which alienated Northerners and Southerners alike. With the rise of the Republican Party, which appealled to both Northeast and Western states, the industrializing North and agrarian Midwest became committed to the economic ethos of free-labor industrial capitalism.

Northern Democratic



Northern Democratic candidates:
  • Stephen A. Douglas
    Stephen A. Douglas
    Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Northern Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. He lost to the Republican Party's candidate, Abraham Lincoln, whom he had defeated two years earlier in a Senate contest following a famed...

    , Senator
    United States Senate
    The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

     from Illinois
    Illinois
    Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...

  • James Guthrie, former Secretary of the Treasury
    United States Secretary of the Treasury
    The Secretary of the Treasury of the United States is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, which is concerned with financial and monetary matters, and, until 2003, also with some issues of national security and defense. This position in the Federal Government of the United...

     from Kentucky
    Kentucky
    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

  • Robert M. T. Hunter
    Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter
    -References:* Patrick, Rembert W. . Jefferson Davis and His Cabinet. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. pp. 90–101.-External links:* – A speech by R. M. T. Hunter before the U.S. House of Representatives, May 8th, 1846...

    , Senator from Virginia
    Virginia
    The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...

  • Joseph Lane
    Joseph Lane
    Joseph Lane was an American general during the Mexican-American War and a United States Senator from Oregon.-Early life:...

    , Senator from Oregon
    Oregon
    Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located on the Pacific coast, with Washington to the north, California to the south, Nevada on the southeast and Idaho to the east. The Columbia and Snake rivers delineate much of Oregon's northern and eastern...

  • Daniel S. Dickinson
    Daniel S. Dickinson
    Daniel Stevens Dickinson was a New York politician, most notable as a United States Senator from 1844 to 1851.-Biography:...

    , former Senator from New York
    New York
    New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

  • Andrew Johnson
    Andrew Johnson
    Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States . As Vice-President of the United States in 1865, he succeeded Abraham Lincoln following the latter's assassination. Johnson then presided over the initial and contentious Reconstruction era of the United States following the American...

    , Senator from Tennessee
    Tennessee
    Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,346,105, making it the nation's 17th-largest state by population, and covers , making it the 36th-largest by total land area...


Democratic Party candidates gallery



At the Democratic convention in Charleston
Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the second largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina. It was made the county seat of Charleston County in 1901 when Charleston County was founded. The city's original name was Charles Towne in 1670, and it moved to its present location from a location on the west bank of the...

's Institute Hall in April 1860, 51 Southern Democrats walked out over a platform dispute. The extreme pro-slavery "Fire-Eater
Fire-Eaters
In United States history, the term Fire-Eaters refers to a group of extremist pro-slavery politicians from the South who urged the separation of southern states into a new nation, which became known as the Confederate States of America.-Impact:...

" William Lowndes Yancey
William Lowndes Yancey
William Lowndes Yancey was a journalist, politician, orator, diplomat and an American leader of the Southern secession movement. A member of the group known as the Fire-Eaters, Yancey was one of the most effective agitators for secession and rhetorical defenders of slavery. An early critic of...

 and the Alabama delegation first left the hall, followed by the delegates of Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, Texas, three of the four delegates from Arkansas, and one of the three delegates from Delaware.

Six candidates were nominated: Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Northern Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. He lost to the Republican Party's candidate, Abraham Lincoln, whom he had defeated two years earlier in a Senate contest following a famed...

 of Illinois, James Guthrie of Kentucky, Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter
Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter
-References:* Patrick, Rembert W. . Jefferson Davis and His Cabinet. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press. pp. 90–101.-External links:* – A speech by R. M. T. Hunter before the U.S. House of Representatives, May 8th, 1846...

 of Virginia, Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane was an American general during the Mexican-American War and a United States Senator from Oregon.-Early life:...

 of Oregon, Daniel S. Dickinson
Daniel S. Dickinson
Daniel Stevens Dickinson was a New York politician, most notable as a United States Senator from 1844 to 1851.-Biography:...

 of New York, and Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson
Andrew Johnson was the 17th President of the United States . As Vice-President of the United States in 1865, he succeeded Abraham Lincoln following the latter's assassination. Johnson then presided over the initial and contentious Reconstruction era of the United States following the American...

 of Tennessee. Three other candidates, Isaac Toucey
Isaac Toucey
Isaac Toucey was an American statesman who served as a U.S. Senator, Secretary of the Navy, Attorney General of the United States and the 18th Governor of Connecticut....

 of Connecticut, James Pearce
James Pearce
James Alfred Pearce was an American politician. He was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives, representing the second district of Maryland from 1835–1839 and 1841-1843. He later served as a U.S. Senator from Maryland from 1843 until his death in 1862.Pearce was the son of Gideon Pearce...

 of Maryland, and Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Davis
Jefferson Finis Davis , also known as Jeff Davis, was an American statesman and leader of the Confederacy during the American Civil War, serving as President for its entire history. He was born in Kentucky to Samuel and Jane Davis...

 of Mississippi (the future president of the Confederate States
President of the Confederate States of America
The President of the Confederate States of America was the Head of State and Head of Government of the Confederate States of America, which was formed from the states which declared their secession from the United States, thus precipitating the American Civil War. The only person to hold the...

) also received votes. Douglas, a moderate on the slavery issue who favored "popular sovereignty
Popular sovereignty
Popular sovereignty or the sovereignty of the people is the political principle that the legitimacy of the state is created and sustained by the will or consent of its people, who are the source of all political power. It is closely associated with Republicanism and the social contract...

", was ahead on the first ballot, needing 56.5 more votes. On the 57th ballot, Douglas was still ahead, but still 50.5 votes short of nomination. In desperation, the delegates agreed on May 3 to stop voting and adjourn the convention.

















The Democrats convened again at the Front Street Theater in Baltimore, Maryland, on June 18. This time, 110 Southern delegates (led by “Fire-Eaters”) walked out when the convention would not adopt a resolution supporting extending slavery into territories whose voters did not want it. Some considered Horatio Seymour
Horatio Seymour
Horatio Seymour was an American politician. He was the 18th Governor of New York from 1853 to 1854 and from 1863 to 1864. He was the Democratic Party nominee for president of the United States in the presidential election of 1868, but lost the election to Republican and former Union General of...

 a compromise candidate for the Democratic nomination at the reconvening convention in Baltimore. Seymour wrote a letter to the editor of his local newspaper declaring unreservedly that he was not a candidate for either spot on the ticket. After two ballots, the remaining Democrats nominated the ticket of Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen A. Douglas
Stephen Arnold Douglas was an American politician from the western state of Illinois, and was the Northern Democratic Party nominee for President in 1860. He lost to the Republican Party's candidate, Abraham Lincoln, whom he had defeated two years earlier in a Senate contest following a famed...

 of Illinois for president. Benjamin Fitzpatrick
Benjamin Fitzpatrick
Benjamin Fitzpatrick was an American politician, who served as the 11th Governor of the U.S. state of Alabama and as United States Senator from Alabama as a Democrat....

 was nominated for vice-president, but he refused the nomination. That nomination ultimately went to Herschel Vespasian Johnson
Herschel Vespasian Johnson
Herschel Vespasian Johnson was an American politician. He was the 41st Governor of Georgia from 1853 to 1857 and the vice-presidential nominee of the Douglas wing of the Democratic Party in the 1860 US presidential election....

 of Georgia.












Constitutional Union


Constitutional Union candidates:
  • John Bell
    John Bell (Tennessee politician)
    John Bell was a U.S. politician, attorney, and plantation owner. A wealthy slaveholder from Tennessee, Bell served in the United States Congress in both the House of Representatives and Senate. He began his career as a Democrat, he eventually fell out with Andrew Jackson and became a Whig...

    , former U.S. senator from Tennessee
    Tennessee
    Tennessee is a U.S. state located in the Southeastern United States. It has a population of 6,346,105, making it the nation's 17th-largest state by population, and covers , making it the 36th-largest by total land area...

  • Sam Houston
    Sam Houston
    Samuel Houston, known as Sam Houston , was a 19th-century American statesman, politician, and soldier. He was born in Timber Ridge in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, of Scots-Irish descent. Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of...

    , governor of Texas
    Texas
    Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

  • John J. Crittenden
    John J. Crittenden
    John Jordan Crittenden was a politician from the U.S. state of Kentucky. He represented the state in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and twice served as United States Attorney General in the administrations of William Henry Harrison and Millard Fillmore...

    , U.S. senator from Kentucky
    Kentucky
    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

  • Edward Everett
    Edward Everett
    Edward Everett was an American politician and educator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State...

    , former U.S. senator from Massachusetts
    Massachusetts
    The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

  • William A. Graham
    William Alexander Graham
    William Alexander Graham was a United States Senator from North Carolina from 1840 to 1843, the 30th Governor of North Carolina from 1845 to 1849 and United States Secretary of the Navy from 1850 to 1852. He was also a candidate for the vice-presidency in 1852.-Education:Graham was born near...

    , former U.S. senator from North Carolina
    North Carolina
    North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

  • William C. Rives, former U.S. senator from Virginia
    Virginia
    The Commonwealth of Virginia , is a U.S. state on the Atlantic Coast of the Southern United States. Virginia is nicknamed the "Old Dominion" and sometimes the "Mother of Presidents" after the eight U.S. presidents born there...


Constitutional Union candidates gallery


Die-hard former Southern Whigs
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. Considered integral to the Second Party System and operating from the early 1830s to the mid-1850s, the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic...

 and Know Nothing
Know Nothing
The Know Nothing was a movement by the nativist American political faction of the 1840s and 1850s. It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants, who were often regarded as hostile to Anglo-Saxon Protestant values and controlled by...

s who felt they could support neither the Democratic Party
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

 nor the Republican Party
Republican Party (United States)
The Republican Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Democratic Party. Founded by anti-slavery expansion activists in 1854, it is often called the GOP . The party's platform generally reflects American conservatism in the U.S...

 formed the Constitutional Union Party
Constitutional Union Party (United States)
The Constitutional Union Party was a political party in the United States created in 1860. It was made up of conservative former Whigs who wanted to avoid disunion over the slavery issue...

, nominating John Bell
John Bell (Tennessee politician)
John Bell was a U.S. politician, attorney, and plantation owner. A wealthy slaveholder from Tennessee, Bell served in the United States Congress in both the House of Representatives and Senate. He began his career as a Democrat, he eventually fell out with Andrew Jackson and became a Whig...

 of Tennessee for president over Governor Sam Houston
Sam Houston
Samuel Houston, known as Sam Houston , was a 19th-century American statesman, politician, and soldier. He was born in Timber Ridge in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, of Scots-Irish descent. Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of...

 of Texas on the second ballot. Edward Everett
Edward Everett
Edward Everett was an American politician and educator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State...

 was nominated for vice-president at the convention in Baltimore on May 9, 1860 (one week before Lincoln was nominated).

John Bell was a former Whig who had opposed the Kansas–Nebraska Act and the Lecompton Constitution
Lecompton Constitution
The Lecompton Constitution was the second of four proposed constitutions for the state of Kansas . The document was written in response to the anti-slavery position of the 1855 Topeka Constitution of James H. Lane and other free-state advocates...

. Edward Everett had been president of Harvard University
Harvard University
Harvard University is a private Ivy League university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, established in 1636 by the Massachusetts legislature. Harvard is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States and the first corporation chartered in the country...

 and Secretary of State
United States Secretary of State
The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. The Secretary is a member of the Cabinet and the highest-ranking cabinet secretary both in line of succession and order of precedence...

 in the Fillmore administration. The party platform advocated compromise to save the Union, with the slogan "the Union as it is, and the Constitution as it is."

{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"
! Baltimore Constitutional Union Presidential Ballot 1-2
| style="text-align:center" colspan="5" |Baltimore Constitutional Union Presidential Ballot
|-{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:center"
|-
!Ballot !!1st!! 2nd
|-
!John Bell
John Bell (Tennessee politician)
John Bell was a U.S. politician, attorney, and plantation owner. A wealthy slaveholder from Tennessee, Bell served in the United States Congress in both the House of Representatives and Senate. He began his career as a Democrat, he eventually fell out with Andrew Jackson and became a Whig...

 !!68.5!! 138
|-
!Sam Houston
Sam Houston
Samuel Houston, known as Sam Houston , was a 19th-century American statesman, politician, and soldier. He was born in Timber Ridge in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, of Scots-Irish descent. Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of...

 !!57!! 69
|-
!John J. Crittenden
John J. Crittenden
John Jordan Crittenden was a politician from the U.S. state of Kentucky. He represented the state in both the U.S. House of Representatives and the U.S. Senate and twice served as United States Attorney General in the administrations of William Henry Harrison and Millard Fillmore...

 !!28!! 1
|-
!Edward Everett
Edward Everett
Edward Everett was an American politician and educator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State...

 !!25!! 9.5
|-
!William A. Graham
William Alexander Graham
William Alexander Graham was a United States Senator from North Carolina from 1840 to 1843, the 30th Governor of North Carolina from 1845 to 1849 and United States Secretary of the Navy from 1850 to 1852. He was also a candidate for the vice-presidency in 1852.-Education:Graham was born near...

 !!22!! 18
|-
!John McLean
John McLean
John McLean was an American jurist and politician who served in the United States Congress, as U.S. Postmaster General, and as a justice on the Ohio and U.S...

 !!21!! 1
|-
!William C. Rives !!13!! 0
|-
!John M. Botts !!9.5!! 7
|-
!William L. Sharkey
William L. Sharkey
William Lewis Sharkey was an American judge and politician from Mississippi.-Biography:He was born in Sumner County, Tennessee, where he and his family lived until they moved to Warren County, Mississippi, when he was six years of age. In 1822, he was accepted into the bar at Natchez...

 !!7!! 8.5
|-
!William L. Goggin
William L. Goggin
William Leftwich Goggin was a nineteenth century politician and lawyer from Virginia.-Biography:Born near Bunker Hill, Virginia , Goggin attended country schools and was eventually graduated from Tucker’s Law School. He studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1828, commencing practice in...

 !!3!! 0
|}

Republican Party


Republican candidates:
    • Abraham Lincoln
      Abraham Lincoln
      Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

      , past U.S. representative, Illinois
      Illinois
      Illinois is the fifth-most populous state of the United States of America, and is often noted for being a microcosm of the entire country. With Chicago in the northeast, small industrial cities and great agricultural productivity in central and northern Illinois, and natural resources like coal,...


    • William H. Seward
      William H. Seward
      William Henry Seward, Sr. was the 12th Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson...

      , U.S. senator, New York
      New York
      New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...


    • Simon Cameron
      Simon Cameron
      Simon Cameron was an American politician who served as United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln at the start of the American Civil War. After making his fortune in railways and banking, he turned to a life of politics. He became a U.S. senator in 1845 for the state of Pennsylvania,...

      , U.S. senator, Pennsylvania
      Pennsylvania
      The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...


    • Salmon P. Chase
      Salmon P. Chase
      Salmon Portland Chase was an American politician and jurist who served as U.S. Senator from Ohio and the 23rd Governor of Ohio; as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln; and as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.Chase was one of the most prominent members...

      , Governor, Ohio
      Ohio
      Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...


    • Edward Bates
      Edward Bates
      Edward Bates was a U.S. lawyer and statesman. He served as United States Attorney General under Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1864...

      , past U.S. representative, Missouri
      Missouri
      Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...





.





.


Republican candidates gallery


{|align=right
|
|}

The Republican National Convention
Republican National Convention
The Republican National Convention is the presidential nominating convention of the Republican Party of the United States. Convened by the Republican National Committee, the stated purpose of the convocation is to nominate an official candidate in an upcoming U.S...

 met in mid-May, after the Democrats had been forced to adjourn their convention in Charleston. With the Democrats in disarray and with a sweep of the Northern states possible, the Republicans were confident going into their convention in Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

. William H. Seward
William H. Seward
William Henry Seward, Sr. was the 12th Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson...

 of New York was considered the front runner, followed by Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 of Illinois, Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase
Salmon Portland Chase was an American politician and jurist who served as U.S. Senator from Ohio and the 23rd Governor of Ohio; as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln; and as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.Chase was one of the most prominent members...

 of Ohio, and Missouri's Edward Bates
Edward Bates
Edward Bates was a U.S. lawyer and statesman. He served as United States Attorney General under Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1864...

.

As the convention developed, however, it was revealed that Seward, Chase, and Bates had each alienated factions of the Republican Party. Delegates were concerned that Seward was too closely identified with the radical wing of the party, and his moves toward the center had alienated the radicals. Chase, a former Democrat, had alienated many of the former Whigs by his coalition with the Democrats in the late 1840s, had opposed tariffs demanded by Pennsylvania, and critically, had opposition from his own delegation from Ohio. Bates outlined his positions on the extension of slavery into the territories and equal constitutional rights for all citizens, positions that alienated his supporters in the border states and Southern conservatives. German American
German American
German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry and comprise about 51 million people, or 17% of the U.S. population, the country's largest self-reported ancestral group...

s in the party opposed Bates because of his past association with the Know Nothing
Know Nothing
The Know Nothing was a movement by the nativist American political faction of the 1840s and 1850s. It was empowered by popular fears that the country was being overwhelmed by German and Irish Catholic immigrants, who were often regarded as hostile to Anglo-Saxon Protestant values and controlled by...

s.

Since it was essential to carry the West, and because Lincoln had a national reputation from his debates and speeches as the most articulate moderate, he won the party's nomination for president on the third ballot on May 18, 1860. Senator Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin was the 15th Vice President of the United States , serving under President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War...

 of Maine was nominated for vice-president, defeating Cassius Clay of Kentucky.

The party platform clearly stated that slavery would not be allowed to spread any further, and it also promised that tariffs protecting industry would be imposed, a Homestead Act
Homestead Act
A homestead act is one of three United States federal laws that gave an applicant freehold title to an area called a "homestead" – typically 160 acres of undeveloped federal land west of the Mississippi River....

 granting free farmland in the West to settlers, and the funding of a transcontinental railroad
Transcontinental railroad
A transcontinental railroad is a contiguous network of railroad trackage that crosses a continental land mass with terminals at different oceans or continental borders. Such networks can be via the tracks of either a single railroad, or over those owned or controlled by multiple railway companies...

. All of these provisions were highly unpopular in the South.

{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"
! Chicago Republican Presidential Ballot 1-3
| style="text-align:center" colspan="30" |Chicago Republican Presidential Ballot
|-
!Nominee !! 1st !! 2nd !! 3rd !! 3rd "corrected"
|-
!Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

  !! 102 !! 181 !! 231.5 !! 349
|-
!William H. Seward
William H. Seward
William Henry Seward, Sr. was the 12th Governor of New York, United States Senator and the United States Secretary of State under Abraham Lincoln and Andrew Johnson...

  !! 173.5 !! 184.5 !! 180 !! 111.5
|-
!Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron
Simon Cameron was an American politician who served as United States Secretary of War for Abraham Lincoln at the start of the American Civil War. After making his fortune in railways and banking, he turned to a life of politics. He became a U.S. senator in 1845 for the state of Pennsylvania,...

  !! 50.5 !! 2 !! 0 !! 0
|-
!Salmon P. Chase
Salmon P. Chase
Salmon Portland Chase was an American politician and jurist who served as U.S. Senator from Ohio and the 23rd Governor of Ohio; as U.S. Treasury Secretary under President Abraham Lincoln; and as the sixth Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court.Chase was one of the most prominent members...

  !! 49 !! 42.5 !! 24.5 !! 2
|-
!Edward Bates
Edward Bates
Edward Bates was a U.S. lawyer and statesman. He served as United States Attorney General under Abraham Lincoln from 1861 to 1864...

  !! 48 !! 35 !! 22 !! 0
|-
!William L. Dayton
William L. Dayton
William Lewis Dayton was an American politician.A distant relation of U.S. House Speaker and U.S. Constitution signatory Jonathan Dayton, he was born in Basking Ridge, New Jersey to farmer Joel Dayton and his wife...

  !! 14 !! 10 !! 1 !! 1
|-
!John McLean
John McLean
John McLean was an American jurist and politician who served in the United States Congress, as U.S. Postmaster General, and as a justice on the Ohio and U.S...

  !! 12 !! 8 !! 5 !! 0.5
|-
!Jacob Collamer
Jacob Collamer
Jacob Collamer was an American politician from Vermont.-Biography:Jacob Collamer was born in Troy, New York. He graduated from the University of Vermont at Burlington, served in the War of 1812, studied law in St. Albans, Vermont, was admitted to the bar in 1813, and served as an officer in a...

  !! 10 !! 0 !! 0 !! 0
|-
!Benjamin F. Wade  !! 3 !! 0 !! 0 !! 0
|-
!Cassius M. Clay  !! 0 !! 2 !! 1 !! 1
|-
!John C. Fremont
John C. Frémont
John Charles Frémont , was an American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, that era's penny press accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder...

  !! 1 !! 0 !! 0 !! 0
|-
!John M. Read
John M. Read
John Meredith Read was an American lawyer, jurist, and politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was one of the founders of the Republican Party and Chief Justice of the Pennsylvania Supreme Court.-Early life:...

  !! 1 !! 0 !! 0 !! 0
|-
!Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner
Charles Sumner was an American politician and senator from Massachusetts. An academic lawyer and a powerful orator, Sumner was the leader of the antislavery forces in Massachusetts and a leader of the Radical Republicans in the United States Senate during the American Civil War and Reconstruction,...

  !! 1 !! 0 !! 0 !! 0
|-
|}

{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"
! Chicago Republican Vice-Presidential Ballot 1-2
| style="text-align:center" colspan="3" |Chicago Republican Vice Presidential Ballot
|-{|class="wikitable" style="text-align:right"
|-
!Ballot !!1st !! 2nd
|-
!Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin
Hannibal Hamlin was the 15th Vice President of the United States , serving under President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War...

 !!194!! 367
|-
!Cassius M. Clay !!100.5!! 86
|-
!John Hickman
John Hickman (congressman)
John Hickman was a Republican, Democratic and Anti-Lecompton Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.-Early life:...

 !!57!! 13
|-
!Andrew Horatio Reeder
Andrew Horatio Reeder
Andrew Horatio Reeder was the first governor of the Territory of Kansas.Reeder was born in Easton, Pennsylvania, to Absolom Reeder and Christina Reeder. He was educated at an academy in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. He read law in a Pennsylvania law office and was admitted to the bar there in 1828....

 !!51!! 0
|-
!Nathaniel Prentice Banks
Nathaniel Prentice Banks
Nathaniel Prentice Banks was an American politician and soldier, served as the 24th Governor of Massachusetts, Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives and as a Union general during the American Civil War....

 !!38.5!! 0
|-
!Henry Winter Davis
Henry Winter Davis
Henry Winter Davis was a United States Representative from the 4th and 3rd congressional districts of Maryland, well known as one of the Radical Republicans during the Civil War.-Early life and career:...

 !!8!! 0
|-
!Sam Houston
Sam Houston
Samuel Houston, known as Sam Houston , was a 19th-century American statesman, politician, and soldier. He was born in Timber Ridge in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, of Scots-Irish descent. Houston became a key figure in the history of Texas and was elected as the first and third President of...

 !!6!! 0
|-
!William L. Dayton
William L. Dayton
William Lewis Dayton was an American politician.A distant relation of U.S. House Speaker and U.S. Constitution signatory Jonathan Dayton, he was born in Basking Ridge, New Jersey to farmer Joel Dayton and his wife...

 !!3!! 0
|-
!John M. Reed !!1!! 0
|-
|}

Southern Democratic


Southern Democratic candidates:
  • John C. Breckinridge
    John C. Breckinridge
    John Cabell Breckinridge was an American lawyer and politician. He served as a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from Kentucky and was the 14th Vice President of the United States , to date the youngest vice president in U.S...

    , U.S. Vice President from Kentucky
    Kentucky
    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

  • Daniel S. Dickinson
    Daniel S. Dickinson
    Daniel Stevens Dickinson was a New York politician, most notable as a United States Senator from 1844 to 1851.-Biography:...

    , former U.S. senator from New York
    New York
    New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...


Southern Democratic candidates gallery




Led by Yancey, a remnant of Southern Democrats from Maryland Institute Hall, almost entirely from the Lower South, reconvened on June 28 in Richmond, Virginia
Richmond, Virginia
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia, in the United States. It is an independent city and not part of any county. Richmond is the center of the Richmond Metropolitan Statistical Area and the Greater Richmond area...

, where the "Fire-Eater Robert Rhett
Robert Rhett
Robert Barnwell Rhett, Sr. , was a United States secessionist politician from South Carolina.-Biography:...

 had been waiting. Less than half the Southern delegates in Baltimore gathered to re-nominate the pro-slavery incumbent vice-president
Vice President of the United States
The Vice President of the United States is the holder of a public office created by the United States Constitution. The Vice President, together with the President of the United States, is indirectly elected by the people, through the Electoral College, to a four-year term...

, John C. Breckinridge
John C. Breckinridge
John Cabell Breckinridge was an American lawyer and politician. He served as a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from Kentucky and was the 14th Vice President of the United States , to date the youngest vice president in U.S...

 of Kentucky, for president. They had nominated Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane
Joseph Lane was an American general during the Mexican-American War and a United States Senator from Oregon.-Early life:...

 of Oregon for Vice President in Baltimore.




{| class="wikitable collapsible collapsed"
! Richmond Southern Democratic Presidential Ballot 1
| style="text-align:center" colspan="5" |Richmond Southern Democratic Presidential Ballot
|-
!Ballot !!1st
|-
!John C. Breckinridge
John C. Breckinridge
John Cabell Breckinridge was an American lawyer and politician. He served as a U.S. Representative and U.S. Senator from Kentucky and was the 14th Vice President of the United States , to date the youngest vice president in U.S...

 !!81
|-
!Daniel S. Dickinson
Daniel S. Dickinson
Daniel Stevens Dickinson was a New York politician, most notable as a United States Senator from 1844 to 1851.-Biography:...

 !!24
|}

Campaign



The contest in the North was between Lincoln and Douglas, but only the latter took to the stump and gave speeches and interviews. In the South, John C. Breckinridge and John Bell were the main rivals, but Douglas had an important presence in southern cities, especially among Irish American
Irish American
Irish Americans are citizens of the United States who can trace their ancestry to Ireland. A total of 36,278,332 Americans—estimated at 11.9% of the total population—reported Irish ancestry in the 2008 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau...

s. Fusion
Electoral fusion
Electoral fusion is an arrangement where two or more political parties on a ballot list the same candidate, pooling the votes for that candidate...

 tickets of the unionist non-Republicans developed in New York and Rhode Island, and partially in New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

Before 1860 "people saw candidates in the flesh less often than they saw a perfect rainbow". Lincoln followed the longstanding tradition of almost every presidential candidate since George Washington
George Washington
George Washington was the dominant military and political leader of the new United States of America from 1775 to 1799. He led the American victory over Great Britain in the American Revolutionary War as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army from 1775 to 1783, and presided over the writing of...

. During his front porch campaign
Front porch campaign
A front porch campaign is a low-key electoral campaign used in American politics in which the candidate remains close to or at home to make speeches to supporters who come to visit. The candidate largely does not travel around or otherwise actively campaign. The successful presidential campaigns...

, Lincoln made no new speeches and did not leave his hometown of Springfield, Illinois
Springfield, Illinois
Springfield is the third and current capital of the US state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County with a population of 117,400 , making it the sixth most populated city in the state and the second most populated Illinois city outside of the Chicago Metropolitan Area...

. Although he met with hundreds of visitors, Lincoln answered all political questions by advising listeners to read his published speeches, such as those from the debates with Douglas in 1858; even an August crowd of 30,000 that marched in a parade eight miles long in front of his home failed to cause Lincoln to speak more than a few words.

Douglas, in contrast, was the first presidential candidate in American history to undertake a nationwide speaking tour. In July he left New York City to Ontario County
Ontario County, New York
As of the census of 2000, there were 100,224 people, 38,370 households, and 26,360 families residing in the county. The population density was 156 people per square mile . There were 42,647 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile...

 in upstate New York
Upstate New York
Upstate New York is the region of the U.S. state of New York that is located north of the core of the New York metropolitan area.-Definition:There is no clear or official boundary between Upstate New York and Downstate New York...

, allegedly to visit his mother. Republicans and newspapers mocked Douglas' trip, which required two months and lengthy detours through New England, Pennsylvania, and Maryland. While "in search of his mother", Douglas could not resist the demands of the many crowds that met him at train stations and asked him to make speeches. After finally meeting his mother, Douglas traveled to North Carolina, allegedly for family legal issues, but with more lengthy detours throughout the South. He did not expect to win many electoral votes there, but he spoke for the maintenance of the Union. The dispute over the Dred Scott case
Dred Scott v. Sandford
Dred Scott v. Sandford, , also known as the Dred Scott Decision, was a ruling by the U.S. Supreme Court that people of African descent brought into the United States and held as slaves were not protected by the Constitution and could never be U.S...

 had helped the Republicans easily dominate the Northern states' congressional delegations, allowing that party, although a newcomer on the political scene, easily to spread its popular influence.

In August, mirroring Douglas’ stumping throughout the South, William Lowndes Yancey made a speaking tour of the North. He had been instrumental in denying the Charleston nomination to Douglas, and he supported the Richmond Convention nominating Breckinridge with his Alabama Platform. Venues in Boston, New York, and Cincinnati that hosted Emerson and Thoreau opened their doors to the "Fire-Eater". He claimed that Lincoln’s restricting slavery would bring an end of Union, and pleaded that a Northern voter could save the Union voting for anyone but Lincoln.

Because Lincoln did not campaign or give speeches, state and county Republican organizations worked on his behalf to sustain party enthusiasm and thus obtain high turnout. There was little effort to convert non-Republicans, and there was virtually no campaigning in the South except for a few border cities such as St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

, and Wheeling, Virginia
Wheeling, West Virginia
Wheeling is a city in Ohio and Marshall counties in the U.S. state of West Virginia; it is the county seat of Ohio County. Wheeling is the principal city of the Wheeling Metropolitan Statistical Area...

; indeed, the party did not even run a slate in most of the South. In the North, there were thousands of Republican speakers, tons of campaign posters and leaflets, and thousands of newspaper editorials. These focused foremost on the party platform, but also drew attention to Lincoln's life story, making the most of his boyhood poverty, his pioneer background, his native genius, and his rise from obscurity. His nicknames, "Honest Abe" and "the Rail-Splitter," were exploited to the fullest. The goal was to emphasize the superior power of "free labor," whereby a common farm boy could work his way to the top by his own efforts.


{|align=center
|
campaign buttons, 1860
first candidate portraits were tintype
Tintype
Tintype, also melainotype and ferrotype, is a photograph made by creating a direct positive on a sheet of iron metal that is blackened by painting, lacquering or enamelling and is used as a support for a collodion photographic emulsion....


|-
|
|}



The 1860 campaign was less frenzied than in 1856
United States presidential election, 1856
The United States presidential election of 1856 was an unusually heated contest that led to the election of James Buchanan, the ambassador to the United Kingdom. Republican candidate John C. Frémont condemned the Kansas–Nebraska Act and crusaded against the expansion of slavery, while Democrat...

, when the Republicans had crusaded zealously, and their opponents counter-crusaded with warnings of civil war. In 1860 every observer calculated the Republicans had an almost unbeatable advantage in the Electoral College, since they dominated almost every northern state. Republicans felt victory at hand, and used para-military campaign organizations such as the Wide Awakes
Wide Awakes
The Wide Awakes was a paramilitary campaign organization affiliated with the Republican Party during the United States presidential election of 1860. Similar organizations affiliated with the Democratic Party were called the "Douglas Invincibles", "Young Hickories" or "Earthquakes"...

 to rally their supporters (see American election campaigns in the 19th century
American election campaigns in the 19th Century
In the 19th century, a number of new methods for conducting American Election Campaigns developed in the United States. For the most part the techniques were original, not copied from Europe or anywhere else...

 for campaign techniques).

Results


The election was held on Tuesday, November 6, 1860. The 1860 election was noteworthy for the exaggerated sectionalism of the vote in a country that was soon to dissolve into civil war. In the eleven states that would later declare their secession from the Union, ballots for Lincoln were cast only in Virginia, where he received only 1.1 percent of the popular vote.
In the four slave states that did not secede (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware), he came in fourth in every state except Delaware (where he finished third). Within the 15 slave states, Lincoln won only two counties out of 996,
both in Missouri.
(In the 1856 election, the Republican candidate for president had received no votes at all in 13 of the 15 slave states).

The split in the Democratic Party was not a decisive factor in Lincoln's victory. Lincoln captured less than 40% of the popular vote, but almost all of his votes were concentrated in the free states, and he won every free state except for the electoral split in New Jersey. He won outright majorities
Majority
A majority is a subset of a group consisting of more than half of its members. This can be compared to a plurality, which is a subset larger than any other subset; i.e. a plurality is not necessarily a majority as the largest subset may consist of less than half the group's population...

 in enough of the free states to have won the presidency by an Electoral College vote of 169-134 even if the 60% of voters who opposed him nationally had united behind a single candidate.

In New York, Rhode Island, and New Jersey, the anti-Lincoln vote did in fact combine into fusion tickets
Electoral fusion
Electoral fusion is an arrangement where two or more political parties on a ballot list the same candidate, pooling the votes for that candidate...

, but Lincoln still won a majority in the first two states and four electoral votes from New Jersey.
The fractured Democratic vote did tip California, Oregon, and four New Jersey
electoral votes to Lincoln, giving him 180 Electoral College votes.
Only in California, Oregon, and Illinois was Lincoln's victory margin less than seven percent. In New England, he won every county.

Breckinridge, who was the sitting vice-president of the United States and the only candidate later to support secession, won 11 of 15 slave states, finishing second in the Electoral College with 72 votes. He carried the border slave states of Delaware and Maryland and nine of the eleven states that later formed the Confederacy
Confederate States of America
The Confederate States of America was a government set up from 1861 to 1865 by 11 Southern slave states of the United States of America that had declared their secession from the U.S...

, losing Virginia and Tennessee. Breckinridge received very little support in the free states, showing some strength only in California, Oregon, and Pennsylvania.

Bell carried three slave states (Tennessee, Kentucky, and Virginia) and finished second in the other slave states, but gleaned only tiny shares of the vote in the free states. Douglas had the most geographically widespread support, with 5-15% of the vote in most of the slave states and higher percentages in most of the free states, where he was the main opposition to Lincoln. With his votes thus scattered around the country, Douglas finished second in the popular vote with 29.5%, but last in the Electoral College, winning only Missouri and splitting New Jersey.

In 1860, for yet another presidential election, no party found the key to popular-vote majorities. All six Presidents elected since Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson
Andrew Jackson was the seventh President of the United States . Based in frontier Tennessee, Jackson was a politician and army general who defeated the Creek Indians at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend , and the British at the Battle of New Orleans...

 (1832) had been one-term presidents, and of the last four, only Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce
Franklin Pierce was the 14th President of the United States and is the only President from New Hampshire. Pierce was a Democrat and a "doughface" who served in the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate. Pierce took part in the Mexican-American War and became a brigadier general in the Army...

 had achieved a statistical majority in the popular vote (50.83%).
Voting in the South was not as monolithic as an Electoral College map appears. Economically, culturally, and politically, the South was made up of three regions. In the states of the "Upper" South (also known as "border states"), unionist popular votes were scattered among Lincoln, Douglas, and Bell to form a majority in four of the four (Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri). In four of the five "Middle" South states, there was a unionist majority divided between Douglas and Bell in Virginia and Tennessee; in North Carolina and Arkansas, the unionist vote approached a majority. Texas was the only Middle South state that Breckinridge carried convincingly. In three of the six "Deep" South, unionists won divided majorities in Georgia and Louisiana or neared it in Alabama. Breckinridge convincingly carried only three of the six states of the Deep South (South Carolina, Florida, and Mississippi). These three Deep South states were all among the four Southern states with the lowest white populations; altogether, they held only nine-percent of Southern whites.

The voter turnout rate in 1860 was the second-highest on record (81.2%, second only to 1876, with 81.8%).

Source (Popular Vote):
Source (Electoral Vote):

(a) The popular vote figures exclude South Carolina
South Carolina
South Carolina is a state in the Deep South of the United States that borders Georgia to the south, North Carolina to the north, and the Atlantic Ocean to the east. Originally part of the Province of Carolina, the Province of South Carolina was one of the 13 colonies that declared independence...

 where the Electors were chosen by the state legislature rather than by popular vote.

Results by state


{| class="wikitable" style="text-align:right"
|-
! colspan=2 |
! align=center colspan=3 | Abraham Lincoln
Republican
! align=center colspan=3 | Stephen Douglas
(Northern) Democrat
! align=center colspan=3 | John Breckinridge
(Southern) Democrat
! align=center colspan=3 | John Bell
Constitutional Union
! align=center colspan=2 | State Total
|-
! align=center | State
! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" | electoral
votes
! align=center | #
! align=center | %
! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" | electoral
votes
! align=center | #
! align=center | %
! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" | electoral
votes
! align=center | #
! align=center | %
! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" | electoral
votes
! align=center | #
! align=center | %
! style="text-align:center; font-size: 60%" | electoral
votes
! align=center | #
!
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Alabama
! 9
| colspan=3 align=center | no ballots
| 13,618
| 15.1
| -
| 48,669
| 54.0
| 9
| 27,835
| 30.9
| -
| 90,122
! AL
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Arkansas
! 4
| colspan=3 align=center | no ballots
| 5,357
| 9.9
| -
| 28,732
| 53.1
| 4
| 20,063
| 37.0
| -
| 54,152
! AR
|-
! style"text-align:left" | California
! 4
| 38,733
| 32.3
| 4
| 37,999
| 31.7
| -
| 33,969
| 28.4
| -
| 9,111
| 7.6
| -
| 119,812
! CA
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Connecticut
! 6
| 43,488
| 58.1
| 6
| 15,431
| 20.6
| -
| 14,372
| 19.2
| -
| 1,528
| 2.0
| -
| 74,819
! CT
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Delaware
! 3
| 3,822
| 23.7
| -
| 1,066
| 6.6
| -
| 7,339
| 45.5
| 3
| 3,888
| 24.1
| -
| 16,115
! DE
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Florida
! 3
| colspan=3 align=center | no ballots
| 223
| 1.7
| -
| 8,277
| 62.2
| 3
| 4,801
| 36.1
| -
| 13,301
! FL
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Georgia
! 10
| colspan=3 align=center | no ballots
| 11,581
| 10.9
| -
| 52,176
| 48.9
| 10
| 42,960
| 40.3
| -
| 106,717
! GA
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Illinois
! 11
| 172,171
| 50.7
| 11
| 160,215
| 47.2
| -
| 2,331
| 0.7
| -
| 4,914
| 1.4
| -
| 339,631
! IL
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Indiana
! 13
| 139,033
| 51.1
| 13
| 115,509
| 42.4
| -
| 12,295
| 4.5
| -
| 5,306
| 1.9
| -
| 272,143
! IN
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Iowa
! 4
| 70,302
| 54.6
| 4
| 55,639
| 43.2
| -
| 1,035
| 0.8
| -
| 1,763
| 1.4
| -
| 128,739
! IA
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Kentucky
! 12
| 1,364
| 0.9
| -
| 25,651
| 17.5
| -
| 53,143
| 36.3
| -
| 66,058
| 45.2
| 12
| 146,216
! KY
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Louisiana
! 6
| colspan=3 align=center | no ballots
| 7,625
| 15.1
| -
| 22,681
| 44.9
| 6
| 20,204
| 40.0
| -
| 50,510
! LA
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Maine
! 8
| 62,811
| 62.2
| 8
| 29,693
| 29.4
| -
| 6,368
| 6.3
| -
| 2,046
| 2.0
| -
| 100,918
! ME
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Maryland
! 8
| 2,294
| 2.5
| -
| 5,966
| 6.4
| -
| 42,482
| 45.9
| 8
| 41,760
| 45.1
| -
| 92,502
! MD
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Massachusetts
! 13
| 106,684
| 62.9
| 13
| 34,370
| 20.3
| -
| 6,163
| 3.6
| -
| 22,331
| 13.2
| -
| 169,548
! MA
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Michigan
! 6
| 88,481
| 57.2
| 6
| 65,057
| 42.0
| -
| 805
| 0.5
| -
| 415
| 0.3
| -
| 154,758
! MI
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Minnesota
! 4
| 22,069
| 63.4
| 4
| 11,920
| 34.3
| -
| 748
| 2.2
| -
| 50
| 0.1
| -
| 34,787
! MN
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Mississippi
! 7
| colspan=3 align=center | no ballots
| 3,282
| 4.7
| -
| 40,768
| 59.0
| 7
| 25,045
| 36.2
| -
| 69,095
! MS
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Missouri
! 9
| 17,028
| 10.3
| -
| 58,801
| 35.5
| 9
| 31,362
| 18.9
| -
| 58,372
| 35.3
| -
| 165,563
! MO
|-
! style"text-align:left" | New Hampshire
! 5
| 37,519
| 56.9
| 5
| 25,887
| 39.3
| -
| 2,125
| 3.2
| -
| 412
| 0.6
| -
| 65,943
! NH
|-
! style"text-align:left" | New Jersey
! 7
| 58,346
| 48.1
| 4
| 62,869
| 51.9
| 3
| colspan=6 align=center | partial fusion ticket with Douglas
| 121,215
! NJ
|-
! style"text-align:left" | New York
! 35
| 362,646
| 53.7
| 35
| 312,510
| 46.3
| -
| colspan=6 align=center|fusion ticket with Douglas
| 675,156
! NY
|-
! style"text-align:left" | North Carolina
! 10
| colspan=3 align=center | no ballots
| 2,737
| 2.8
| -
| 48,846
| 50.5
| 10
| 45,129
| 46.7
| -
| 96,712
! NC
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Ohio
! 23
| 231,709
| 52.3
| 23
| 187,421
| 42.3
| -
| 11,406
| 2.6
| -
| 12,194
| 2.8
| -
| 442,730
! OH
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Oregon
! 3
| 5,329
| 36.1
| 3
| 4,136
| 28.0
| -
| 5,075
| 34.4
| -
| 218
| 1.5
| -
| 14,758
! OR
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Pennsylvania
! 27
| 268,030
| 56.3
| 27
| 16,765
| 3.5
| -
| 178,871
| 37.5
| -
| 12,776
| 2.7
| -
| 476,442
! PA
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Rhode Island
! 4
| 12,244
| 61.4
| 4
| 7,707
| 38.6
| -
| colspan=6 align=center | fusion ticket with Douglas
| 19,951
! RI
|-
! style"text-align:left" | South Carolina
! 8
| colspan=3 | -
| colspan=3 | -
| colspan=3 | 8
| colspan=3 | -
| -
! SC
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Tennessee
! 12
| colspan=3 align=center | no ballots
| 11,281
| 7.7
| -
| 65,097
| 44.6
| -
| 69,728
| 47.7
| 12
| 146,106
! TN
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Texas
! 4
| colspan=3 align=center | no ballots
| 18
| 0.0
| -
| 47,454
| 75.5
| 4
| 15,383
| 24.5
| -
| 62,855
! TX
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Vermont
! 5
| 33,808
| 75.7
| 5
| 8,649
| 19.4
| -
| 218
| 0.5
| -
| 1,969
| 4.4
| -
| 44,644
! VT
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Virginia
! 15
| 1,887
| 1.1
| -
| 16,198
| 9.7
| -
| 74,325
| 44.5
| -
| 74,481
| 44.6
| 15
| 166,891
! VA
|-
! style"text-align:left" | Wisconsin
! 5
| 86,110
| 56.6
| 5
| 65,021
| 42.7
| -
| 887
| 0.6
| -
| 161
| 0.1
| -
| 152,179
! WI
|-
! TOTALS:
! 303
! 1,865,908
! 39.8
! 180
! 1,380,202
! 29.5
! 12
! 848,019
! 18.1
! 72
! 590,901
! 12.6
! 39
! 4,685,030
!
|-
! TO WIN:
! 152
! colspan=15 |
|}

See also

  • American election campaigns in the 19th century
    American election campaigns in the 19th Century
    In the 19th century, a number of new methods for conducting American Election Campaigns developed in the United States. For the most part the techniques were original, not copied from Europe or anywhere else...

  • Electoral history of Abraham Lincoln
    Electoral history of Abraham Lincoln
    Electoral history of Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States.-Illinois House of Representatives:1832 - Lost1834 - Won1836 - Won1838 - Won1840 - Won-United States House of Representatives:...

  • History of the United States (1849–1865)
    History of the United States (1849–1865)
    Industrialization went forward in the Northeast and a rail network linked the nation economically, opening up new markets. Immigration brought millions of European workers and farmers to the North...

  • History of the United States Democratic Party
  • History of the United States Republican Party
    History of the United States Republican Party
    The United States Republican Party is the second oldest currently existing political party in the United States after its great rival, the Democratic Party. It emerged in 1854 to combat the Kansas Nebraska Act which threatened to extend slavery into the territories, and to promote more vigorous...

  • John Hanks
    John Hanks
    John Hanks was Abraham Lincoln's second cousin, his mother's cousin. He was the son of Joseph Hanks, Nancy Hanks Lincoln's uncle.- Early years :...

  • Third Party System
    Third Party System
    The Third Party System is a term of periodization used by historians and political scientists to describe a period in American political history from about 1854 to the mid-1890s that featured profound developments in issues of nationalism, modernization, and race...

  • United States House of Representatives elections, 1860
  • United States Senate elections, 1860
    United States Senate elections, 1860
    The United States Senate election of 1860 was an election corresponding with Abraham Lincoln's election to the presidency, with the Republican Party gaining control of the United States Senate. As many Southern States seceded following the election, and members left the Senate to join the...

  • Wide Awakes
    Wide Awakes
    The Wide Awakes was a paramilitary campaign organization affiliated with the Republican Party during the United States presidential election of 1860. Similar organizations affiliated with the Democratic Party were called the "Douglas Invincibles", "Young Hickories" or "Earthquakes"...


External links