United States Department of Agriculture

United States Department of Agriculture

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The United States Department of Agriculture (informally the Agriculture Department or USDA) is the United States federal executive department
United States Federal Executive Departments
The United States federal executive departments are among the oldest primary units of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States—the Departments of State, War, and the Treasury all being established within a few weeks of each other in 1789.Federal executive...

 responsible for developing and executing U.S. federal government
Federal government of the United States
The federal government of the United States is the national government of the constitutional republic of fifty states that is the United States of America. The federal government comprises three distinct branches of government: a legislative, an executive and a judiciary. These branches and...

 policy on farming, agriculture
Agriculture
Agriculture is the cultivation of animals, plants, fungi and other life forms for food, fiber, and other products used to sustain life. Agriculture was the key implement in the rise of sedentary human civilization, whereby farming of domesticated species created food surpluses that nurtured the...

, and food
Food
Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals...

. It aims to meet the needs of farmer
Farmer
A farmer is a person engaged in agriculture, who raises living organisms for food or raw materials, generally including livestock husbandry and growing crops, such as produce and grain...

s and ranchers, promote agricultural trade
Trade
Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and...

 and production, work to assure food safety
Food safety
Food safety is a scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards....

, protect natural resource
Natural resource
Natural resources occur naturally within environments that exist relatively undisturbed by mankind, in a natural form. A natural resource is often characterized by amounts of biodiversity and geodiversity existent in various ecosystems....

s, foster rural
Rural
Rural areas or the country or countryside are areas that are not urbanized, though when large areas are described, country towns and smaller cities will be included. They have a low population density, and typically much of the land is devoted to agriculture...

 communities and end hunger
Malnutrition
Malnutrition is the condition that results from taking an unbalanced diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess , or in the wrong proportions....

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and abroad.

The head of the department is the Secretary of Agriculture
United States Secretary of Agriculture
The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture. The current secretary is Tom Vilsack, who was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on 20 January 2009. The position carries similar responsibilities to those of agriculture ministers in other...

, who is a member of the Cabinet
United States Cabinet
The Cabinet of the United States is composed of the most senior appointed officers of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States, which are generally the heads of the federal executive departments...

. The current Secretary is Tom Vilsack
Tom Vilsack
Thomas James "Tom" Vilsack is an American politician, a member of the Democratic Party, and presently the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture. He served as the 40th Governor of the state of Iowa. He was first elected in 1998 and re-elected to a second four-year term in 2002...

.

In 1999 and 2010 the federal government negotiated historic civil rights settlements in Pigford v. Glickman
Pigford v. Glickman
Pigford v. Glickman was a class action lawsuit against the United States Department of Agriculture , alleging racial discrimination in its allocation of farm loans and assistance between 1983 and 1997. The lawsuit ended with a settlement on April 14, 1999, by Judge Paul L. Friedman of the U.S....

, a class action suit against USDA charging racial discrimination against black farmers by the implementation of USDA programs in the late twentieth century. The 1999 settlement of claims by more than 13,300 farmers was reportedly the largest civil rights claim to date. The 2008 Farm Bill provided for additional farmers to have their claims heard, as 70,000 had filed late. The federal government negotiated another $1.2 billion settlement in what is known as Pigford II.

Origins


Early in its history, the economy of the United States
Economy of the United States
The economy of the United States is the world's largest national economy. Its nominal GDP was estimated to be nearly $14.5 trillion in 2010, approximately a quarter of nominal global GDP. The European Union has a larger collective economy, but is not a single nation...

 was largely agrarian. Officials in the federal government had long sought new and improved varieties of seeds, plants and animals for importation to the United States. In 1836 Henry Leavitt Ellsworth
Henry Leavitt Ellsworth
Henry Leavitt Ellsworth was a Yale-educated attorney who became the first Commissioner of the U.S. Patent Office, where he encouraged innovation by inventors Samuel F.B. Morse and Samuel Colt...

, a Yale-educated attorney interested in improving agriculture, became Commissioner of Patents, a position within the Department of State
United States Department of State
The United States Department of State , is the United States federal executive department responsible for international relations of the United States, equivalent to the foreign ministries of other countries...

. He soon began collecting and distributing new varieties of seeds and plants through members of the Congress
United States Congress
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the federal government of the United States, consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Congress meets in the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C....

 and agricultural societies. In 1839, Congress established the Agricultural Division within the Patent Office
United States Patent and Trademark Office
The United States Patent and Trademark Office is an agency in the United States Department of Commerce that issues patents to inventors and businesses for their inventions, and trademark registration for product and intellectual property identification.The USPTO is based in Alexandria, Virginia,...

 and allotted $1,000 for "the collection of agricultural statistics and other agricultural purposes."

Ellsworth's interest in aiding agriculture was evident in his annual reports that called for a public depository to preserve and distribute the various new seeds and plants, a clerk to collect agricultural statistics, the preparation of statewide reports about crops in different regions, and the application of chemistry to agriculture. Ellsworth's agricultural focus earned him the sobriquet
Sobriquet
A sobriquet is a nickname, sometimes assumed, but often given by another. It is usually a familiar name, distinct from a pseudonym assumed as a disguise, but a nickname which is familiar enough such that it can be used in place of a real name without the need of explanation...

 of "The Father of the Department of Agriculture."

In 1849, the Patent Office was transferred to the newly created Department of the Interior
United States Department of the Interior
The United States Department of the Interior is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, Native...

. In the ensuing years, agitation for a separate bureau of agriculture within the department or a separate department devoted to agriculture kept recurring.
The USDA was created by Abraham Lincoln in order to help out the United States economy.

Formation and subsequent history


On May 15, 1862, President
President
A president is a leader of an organization, company, trade union, university, or country.Etymologically, a president is one who presides, who sits in leadership...

 Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln
Abraham Lincoln was the 16th President of the United States, serving from March 1861 until his assassination in April 1865. He successfully led his country through a great constitutional, military and moral crisis – the American Civil War – preserving the Union, while ending slavery, and...

 established the independent Department of Agriculture to be headed by a Commissioner without Cabinet status. Lincoln called it the "people's department." In the 1880s, varied advocacy group
Advocacy group
Advocacy groups use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and/or policy; they have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems...

s were lobbying for Cabinet representation. Business interests sought a Department of Commerce and Industry, and farmers tried to raise the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet rank. In 1887, the House of Representatives
United States House of Representatives
The United States House of Representatives is one of the two Houses of the United States Congress, the bicameral legislature which also includes the Senate.The composition and powers of the House are established in Article One of the Constitution...

 and Senate
United States Senate
The United States Senate is the upper house of the bicameral legislature of the United States, and together with the United States House of Representatives comprises the United States Congress. The composition and powers of the Senate are established in Article One of the U.S. Constitution. Each...

 passed bills giving Cabinet status to the Department of Agriculture and Labor, but the bill was killed in conference committee
Conference committee
A conference committee is a joint committee of a bicameral legislature, which is appointed by, and consists of, members of both chambers to resolve disagreements on a particular bill...

 after farm interests objected to the addition of labor. Finally, on February 9, 1889, President Grover Cleveland
Grover Cleveland
Stephen Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents...

 signed a bill into law elevating the Department of Agriculture to Cabinet level

In 1887, the Hatch Act
Hatch Act of 1887
The Hatch Act of 1887 gave federal funds, initially of $15,000 each, to state land-grant colleges in order to create a series of agricultural experiment stations, as well as pass along new information, especially in the areas of soil minerals and plant growth...

 provided for the federal funding of agricultural experiment station
Agricultural experiment station
An agricultural experiment station is a research center that conducts scientific investigations to solve problems and suggest improvements in the food and agriculture industry...

s in each state. The Smith-Lever Act of 1914
Smith-Lever Act of 1914
The Smith–Lever Act of 1914 is a United States federal law that established a system of cooperative extension services, connected to the land-grant universities, in order to inform people about current developments in agriculture, home economics, and related subjects. The Smith–Lever Act of 1914 is...

 then funded cooperative extension service
Cooperative extension service
The Cooperative Extension Service, also known as the Extension Service of the USDA, is a non-formal educational program implemented in the United States designed to help people use research-based knowledge to improve their lives. The service is provided by the state's designated land-grant...

s in each state to teach agriculture, home economics and related subjects to the public. With these and similar provisions, the USDA reached out to every county of every state.

During the Great Depression
Great Depression
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression in the decade preceding World War II. The timing of the Great Depression varied across nations, but in most countries it started in about 1929 and lasted until the late 1930s or early 1940s...

, farming remained a common way of life for millions of Americans. The Department of Agriculture was crucial to providing concerned persons with the assistance that they needed to make it through this difficult period, helping to ensure that food continued to be produced and distributed to those who needed it, assisting with loans for small landowners, and contributing to the education of the rural youth.

Allegations have been made that throughout the agency's history that its personnel have discriminated against African-American farmers, denying them loan
Loan
A loan is a type of debt. Like all debt instruments, a loan entails the redistribution of financial assets over time, between the lender and the borrower....

s and access to other programs well into the 1990s. The effect of this discrimination has been the reduction in the number of African-American farmers in the United States. In 1999, the USDA settled a class action lawsuit (Pigford v. Glickman
Pigford v. Glickman
Pigford v. Glickman was a class action lawsuit against the United States Department of Agriculture , alleging racial discrimination in its allocation of farm loans and assistance between 1983 and 1997. The lawsuit ended with a settlement on April 14, 1999, by Judge Paul L. Friedman of the U.S....

) alleging discrimination against African-American farmers in the late twentieth century. The government's settlement of nearly $1 billion with more than 13,300 farmers was reportedly the largest civil rights claim to date. The 2008 Farm Bill provided for additional farmers to have their claims heard, as 70,000 had filed late in the original program. In 2010 the federal government made another $1.2 billion settlement in what is called Pigford II for outstanding claims.

Today, many of the programs concerned with the distribution of food and nutrition to people of America and providing nourishment as well as nutrition education
Nutrition Education
Nutrition Education is any combination of educational strategies, accompanied by environmental supports, designed to facilitate voluntary adoption of food choices and other food- and nutrition-related behaviors conducive to health and well-being...

 to those in need are run and operated under the USDA Food and Nutrition Service. Activities in this program include the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
The United States Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program , historically and commonly known as the Food Stamp Program, is a federal-assistance program that provides assistance to low- and no-income people and families living in the U.S. Though the program is administered by the U.S. Department of...

, which provides healthy food to over 40 million low-income and homeless individuals and families each month,. USDA is a member of the United States Interagency Council on Homelessness,, where it is committed to working with other agencies to ensure these mainstream benefits are accessed by those experiencing homelessness.

The USDA also is concerned with assisting farmers and food producers with the sale of crops and food on both a domestic and on the world market. It plays a role in overseas aid programs by providing surplus foods to developing countries. This aid can go through USAID, foreign governments, international bodies such as World Food Program, or approved non profit organizations. The Agricultural Act of 1949
Agricultural Act of 1949
The Agricultural Act of 1949 is a United States federal law that is known as the "permanent legislation" of U.S. agricultural policy and is, in its amended form, still in effect. The Act was enacted on October 31, 1949...

, section 416 (b) and Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954
Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954
The Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 is a United States federal law that established Food for Peace, the primary U.S. overseas food assistance program. The Act was signed into law on July 10, 1954 by President Dwight D...

, also known as Public Law 480 or Food for Peace
Food for Peace
Public Law 480 also known as Food for Peace is a funding avenue by which U.S. food can be used for overseas aid....

, provides the legal basis of such actions.

Active

  • United States Secretary of Agriculture
    United States Secretary of Agriculture
    The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture. The current secretary is Tom Vilsack, who was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on 20 January 2009. The position carries similar responsibilities to those of agriculture ministers in other...

    • United States Deputy Secretary of Agriculture
      United States Deputy Secretary of Agriculture
      The United States Deputy Secretary of Agriculture is the second-highest ranking official in the United States Department of Agriculture, appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate. The Deputy Secretary becomes Acting Secretary of Agriculture in the event of the Secretary's...

      • Under Secretary of Agriculture for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services
        • Farm Service Agency
          Farm Service Agency
          The Farm Service Agency is the USDA agency into which were merged several predecessor agencies, including the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service . The ASCS was, as the FSA is now, primarily tasked with the implementation of farm conservation and regulation laws around the country...

        • Foreign Agricultural Service
          Foreign Agricultural Service
          The Foreign Agricultural Service is the foreign affairs agency with primary responsibility for the United States Department of Agriculture's overseas programs—market development, international trade agreements and negotiations, and the collection of statistics and market information...

        • Risk Management Agency
          Risk Management Agency
          The Risk Management Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture helps producers manage their business risks through effective, market-based risk management solutions. RMA's mission is to promote, support, and regulate sound risk management solutions to preserve and strengthen the economic...

        • Commodity Credit Corporation
          Commodity Credit Corporation
          The Commodity Credit Corporation is a wholly owned government corporation created in 1933 to "stabilize, support, and protect farm income and prices"...

        • Federal Crop Insurance Corporation
          Federal Crop Insurance Corporation
          The Federal Crop Insurance Corporation is a wholly owned Government corporation managed by the Risk Management Agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. FCIC manages the Federal crop insurance program which provides U.S...

      • Under Secretary of Agriculture for Natural Resources and Environment
        Under Secretary of Agriculture for Natural Resources and Environment
        The Under Secretary for Natural Resources an Environment is a high-ranking position within the United States Department of Agriculture that supervises policy development and day-to-day operations of the United States Forest Service, Natural Resources Conservation Service, and the Office of...

        • United States Forest Service
          United States Forest Service
          The United States Forest Service is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass...

        • Natural Resources Conservation Service
          Natural Resources Conservation Service
          The Natural Resources Conservation Service , formerly known as the Soil Conservation Service , is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers.Its name was changed in 1994 during the Presidency of...

      • Under Secretary of Agriculture for Rural Development
        • Rural Housing Service
          Rural Housing Service
          The Rural Housing Service is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture . Located within the Department's Rural Development mission area, RHS operates a broad range of programs to provide:*homeownership options to individuals;...

        • Rural Utilities Service
          Rural Utilities Service
          is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture , one of the federal executive departments of the United States government charged with providing public utilities to rural areas in the United States via public-private partnerships...

        • Rural Business-Cooperative Service
          Rural Business-Cooperative Service
          The Rural Business-Cooperative Service is one of three agencies within USDA Rural Development responsible for administering various economic development programs to rural communities in the United States and its territories...

      • Under Secretary of Agriculture for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services
        • Food and Nutrition Service
          Food and Nutrition Service
          The Food and Nutrition Service , an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture , was established on August 8, 1969. FNS is the federal agency responsible for administering the nation’s domestic nutrition assistance programs...

        • Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion
          Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion
          The Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion is an agency of the U.S. Department of Agriculture created on December 1, 1994, and is the focal point within the USDA where scientific research is linked with the nutritional needs of the American public....

      • Under Secretary of Agriculture for Food Safety
        • Food Safety and Inspection Service
          Food Safety and Inspection Service
          The Food Safety and Inspection Service , an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture , is the public health agency responsible for ensuring that the nation's commercial supply of meat, poultry, and egg products is safe, wholesome, and correctly labeled and packaged...

      • Under Secretary of Agriculture for Research, Education, and Economics
        Under Secretary of Agriculture for Research, Education, and Economics
        The Under Secretary for Research, Education, and Economics is a high-ranking official within the United States Department of Agriculture that provides leadership and oversight for the Agricultural Research Service, Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service, Economic Research...

        • Agricultural Research Service
          Agricultural Research Service
          The Agricultural Research Service is the principal in-house research agency of the United States Department of Agriculture . ARS is one of four agencies in USDA's Research, Education and Economics mission area...

        • Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service
          Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service
          The Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service is an agency within the U.S. Department of Agriculture , part of the executive branch of the federal government. The 1994 Department Reorganization Act, passed by Congress, created CSREES by combining the former Cooperative State...

        • Economic Research Service
          Economic Research Service
          The Economic Research Service is the main source of economic information and research from the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Located in Washington D.C., the mission of ERS is to inform and enhance public and private decision-making on economic and policy issues related to agriculture, food,...

        • National Agricultural Library
        • National Agricultural Statistics Service
          National Agricultural Statistics Service
          The National Agricultural Statistics Service or NASS is the statistical branch of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. NASS has 46 field offices throughout the United States and Puerto Rico and a headquarters unit in Washington, D.C....

      • Under Secretary of Agriculture for Marketing and Regulatory Programs
        • Agricultural Marketing Service
          Agricultural Marketing Service
          The Agricultural Marketing Service is a division of the United States Department of Agriculture, and has programs in five commodity areas: cotton and tobacco; dairy; fruit and vegetable; livestock and seed; and poultry...

        • Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
          Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service
          Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture responsible for protecting animal health, animal welfare, and plant health. APHIS is the lead agency for collaboration with other agencies to protect U.S. agriculture from invasive pests and...

        • Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration
          Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration
          The Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that facilitates the marketing of livestock, poultry, meat, cereals, oilseeds, and related agricultural products, and promotes fair and competitive trading practices for the...


Inactive

  • Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service
    Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service
    Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service was an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture. It administered programs concerning farm products and agricultural conservation...

     (ASCS) (renamed Farm Service Agency
    Farm Service Agency
    The Farm Service Agency is the USDA agency into which were merged several predecessor agencies, including the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service . The ASCS was, as the FSA is now, primarily tasked with the implementation of farm conservation and regulation laws around the country...

    )
  • Animal Damage Control (renamed Wildlife Services
    Wildlife Services
    Wildlife Services is the program that provides Federal leadership and skill to resolve wildlife interactions that threaten public health and safety and agricultural, property, and natural resources...

    )
  • Soil Conservation Service (SCS) renamed Natural Resources Conservation Service
    Natural Resources Conservation Service
    The Natural Resources Conservation Service , formerly known as the Soil Conservation Service , is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that provides technical assistance to farmers and other private landowners and managers.Its name was changed in 1994 during the Presidency of...

  • Section of Vegetable Pathology, Division of Botany (1887-90)
    • renamed Division of Vegetable Pathology (1890-95)
    • renamed Division of Vegetable Physiology and Pathology (1895-1900)
    • incorporated into the Bureau of Plant Industry

Related legislation


Important legislation setting policy of the USDA includes the:
  • 1890, 1891, 1897, 1906 Meat Inspection Act
    Meat Inspection Act
    The Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906 was a United States Congress Act that worked to prevent adulterated or misbranded meat and meat products from being sold as food and to ensure that meat and meat products are slaughtered and processed under sanitary conditions. These requirements also apply...

  • 1906: Pure Food and Drug Act
    Pure Food and Drug Act
    The Pure Food and Drug Act of June 30, 1906, is a United States federal law that provided federal inspection of meat products and forbade the manufacture, sale, or transportation of adulterated food products and poisonous patent medicines...

  • 1914: Cotton Futures Act
    Cotton Futures Act
    The Cotton Futures Act of 1914 authorized the United States Department of Agriculture to establish physical standards as a means of determining color grade, staple length and strength, and other qualities and properties for cotton...

  • 1916: Federal Farm Loan Act
    Federal Farm Loan Act
    The Federal Farm Loan Act of 1916 was a United States federal law aimed at increasing credit to rural, family farmers. It did so by creating a federal farm loan board, twelve regional farm loan banks and tens of farm loan associations...

  • 1917: Food Control and Production Acts
  • 1921: Packers and Stockyards Act
    Packers and Stockyards Act
    The Packers and Stockyards Act of 1921 was enacted following the release in 1919 of the Report of the Federal Trade Commission on the meatpacking industry.-History and passage:...

  • 1922: Grain Futures Act
    Grain Futures Act
    The Grain Futures Act , is a United States federal law enacted September 21, 1922 involving the regulation of trading in certain commodity futures, and causing the establishment of the Grain Futures Administration, a predecessor organization to the Commodity Futures Trading Commission.The bill that...

  • 1922: National Agricultural Conference
  • 1923: Agricultural Credits Act
  • 1930: Perishable Agricultural Commodities Act
  • 1930: Foreign Agricultural Service Act
  • 1933: Agricultural Adjustment Act
    Agricultural Adjustment Act
    The Agricultural Adjustment Act was a United States federal law of the New Deal era which restricted agricultural production by paying farmers subsidies not to plant part of their land and to kill off excess livestock...

     (AAA)
  • 1933: Farm Credit Act
  • 1935: Resettlement Administration
    Resettlement Administration
    The Resettlement Administration was a U.S. federal agency that, between April 1935 and December 1936, relocated struggling urban and rural families to communities planned by the federal government....

  • 1936: Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
    Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act
    The Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act is a United States federal law that allowed the government to pay farmers to reduce production so as to "conserve soil", prevent erosion, and accomplish other minor goals...

  • 1937: Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act
  • 1941: National Victory Garden Program
  • 1941: Steagall Amendment
  • 1946: Farmers Home Administration
    Farmers Home Administration
    In 1946 Farmers Home Administration replaced the Farm Security Administration which superseded the Resettlement Administration. Its mission and programs involved extending credit for agriculture and rural development. Direct and guaranteed credit went to individual farmers, low-income families,...

  • 1946: National School Lunch Act
    National School Lunch Act
    The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act is a United States federal law signed by President Harry S. Truman in 1946. The act created the National School Lunch Program , a program to provide low-cost or free school lunch meals to qualified students through subsidies to schools...

     PL 79-396
  • 1946: Research and Marketing Act
  • 1948: Hope-Aiken Agriculture Act PL 80-897
  • 1956: Soil Bank Program authorized
  • 1957: Poultry Inspection Act
  • 1947: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
    Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act
    The Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act , et seq. is a United States federal law that set up the basic U.S. system of pesticide regulation to protect applicators, consumers, and the environment. It is administered by the Environmental Protection Agency and the appropriate...

     PL 80-104
  • 1949: Agricultural Act
    Agricultural Act of 1949
    The Agricultural Act of 1949 is a United States federal law that is known as the "permanent legislation" of U.S. agricultural policy and is, in its amended form, still in effect. The Act was enacted on October 31, 1949...

     PL 81-439 (Section 416 (b))
  • 1954: Food for Peace
    Food for Peace
    Public Law 480 also known as Food for Peace is a funding avenue by which U.S. food can be used for overseas aid....

     Act PL 83-480
  • 1954: Agricultural Act
    Agricultural Act of 1954
    The Agricultural Act of 1954 is a United States federal law that, among other provisions, authorized a Commodity Credit Corporation reserve for foreign and domestic relief....

     PL 83-690
  • 1956: Mutual Security Act
    Mutual Security Act
    The Mutual Security Act of 1951 is a United States federal law, signed on October 10, 1951 by President Harry S. Truman, which authorized nearly $7.5 billion for foreign military, economic, and technical foreign aid to American allies; the aid was aimed primarily at shoring up Western Europe, as...

     PL 84-726
  • 1957: Poultry Products Inspection Act PL 85-172
  • 1958: Food Additives Amendment PL 85-929
  • 1958: Humane Slaughter Act
    Humane Slaughter Act
    The Humane Slaughter Act, or the Humane Methods of Livestock Slaughter Act, is a United States federal law designed to protect livestock during slaughter. It was passed in 1958...

  • 1958: Agricultural Act PL 85-835
  • 1961: Agricultural Act PL 87-128
  • 1964: Agricultural Act PL 88-297
  • 1964: Food Stamp Act PL 88-525
  • 1964: Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act Extension PL 88-305
  • 1965: Appalachian Regional Development Act
  • 1965: Food and Agriculture Act PL 89-321
  • 1966: Child Nutrition Act
    Child Nutrition Act
    The Child Nutrition Act is a United States federal law signed on October 11, 1966 by President Lyndon B. Johnson. The Act was created as a result of the "years of cumulative successful experience under the National School Lunch Program to help meet the nutritional needs of children." The National...

     PL 89-642
  • 1967: Wholesome Meat Act
    Wholesome Meat Act
    The Wholesome Meat Act is a United States federal law enacted in 1967 that regulates the Federal meat inspection. It requires that states have inspection programs "equal to" that of the federal government which are Administered by the Food Safety and Inspection Service of the United States...

     PL 90-201
  • 1968: Wholesome Poultry Products Act PL 90-492
  • 1970: Agricultural Act
    Agricultural Act of 1970
    The Agricultural Act of 1970 initiated a significant change in commodity support policy. This 3-year farm bill replaced some of the more restrictive and mandatory features of previous law with voluntary annual cropland set-asides and marketing certificate payments to achieve parity prices The...

     PL 91-524
  • 1972: Federal Environmental Pesticide Control Act PL 92-516
  • 1970: Environmental Quality Improvement Act
    Environmental Quality Improvement Act
    The Environmental Quality Improvement Act is a United States environmental law that amended the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969.Among other provisions, the Act added additional responsibilities to the Council on Environmental Quality. The head of this council is appointed by the President...

  • 1970: Food Stamp Act PL 91-671
  • 1972: Rural Development Act
  • 1972: Rural Development Act Reform 3.31
  • 1972: National School Lunch Act Amendments (Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children) PL 92-433
  • 1973: Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act PL 93-86
  • 1974: Safe Drinking Water Act
    Safe Drinking Water Act
    The Safe Drinking Water Act is the principle federal law in the United States intended to ensure safe drinking water for the public. Pursuant to the act, the Environmental Protection Agency is required to set standards for drinking water quality and oversee all states, localities, and water...

     PL 93-523
  • 1977: Food and Agriculture Act PL 95-113
  • 1985: Food Security Act PL 99-198
  • 1996: Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act PL 104-127
  • 1996: Food Quality Protection Act
    Food Quality Protection Act
    The Food Quality Protection Act , or H.R.1627, was passed unanimously by Congress in 1996 and was signed into law by former U.S. President Bill Clinton on August 3, 1996...

     PL 104-170
  • 2000: Agriculture Risk Protection Act PL 106-224
  • 2002: Farm Security and Rural Investment Act
    Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002
    The Farm Security and Rural Investment Act of 2002, also known as the 2002 Farm Bill, includes ten titles, addressing a great variety of issues related to agriculture, ecology, energy, trade, and nutrition....

     PL 107-171
  • 2008: Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008
    Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008
    The Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 was a $288 billion, five-year agricultural policy bill that was passed into law by the United States Congress on June 18, 2008. The bill was a continuation of the 2002 Farm Bill. It continues the United States' long history of agricultural subsidy as...

     PL 110-246

See also

  • Endangered Species Act
    Endangered Species Act
    The Endangered Species Act of 1973 is one of the dozens of United States environmental laws passed in the 1970s. Signed into law by President Richard Nixon on December 28, 1973, it was designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction as a "consequence of economic growth and...

  • Migratory Bird Treaty Act
  • US Fish and Wildlife Service
  • FAA
  • NTSB
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention are a United States federal agency under the Department of Health and Human Services headquartered in Druid Hills, unincorporated DeKalb County, Georgia, in Greater Atlanta...

  • The Wildlife Society
    The Wildlife Society
    Founded in 1937, The Wildlife Society is an international non-profit scientific and educational association dedicated to excellence in wildlife stewardship through science and education...


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