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United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom

United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom

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The office of United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 Ambassador
Ambassador
An ambassador is the highest ranking diplomat who represents a nation and is usually accredited to a foreign sovereign or government, or to an international organization....

 (or formerly Minister/Envoy Extraordinary) to the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

(known formally as Ambassador to the Court of St. James's
Court of St. James's
The Court of St James's is the royal court of the United Kingdom. It previously had the same function in the Kingdom of England and in the Kingdom of Great Britain .-Overview:...

) was traditionally, and still is very much so today due to the Special Relationship
Special relationship
The Special Relationship is a phrase used to describe the exceptionally close political, diplomatic, cultural, economic, military and historical relations between the United Kingdom and the United States, following its use in a 1946 speech by British statesman Winston Churchill...

, the most prestigious position in the United States Foreign Service
United States Foreign Service
The United States Foreign Service is a component of the United States federal government under the aegis of the United States Department of State. It consists of approximately 11,500 professionals carrying out the foreign policy of the United States and aiding U.S...

. The ambassadorship has been held by various notable politicians, including five who would later become presidents: John Adams
John Adams
John Adams was an American lawyer, statesman, diplomat and political theorist. A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the second President of the United States...

, James Monroe
James Monroe
James Monroe was the fifth President of the United States . Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States, and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation...

, John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams
John Quincy Adams was the sixth President of the United States . He served as an American diplomat, Senator, and Congressional representative. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams was the son of former...

, Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren
Martin Van Buren was the eighth President of the United States . Before his presidency, he was the eighth Vice President and the tenth Secretary of State, under Andrew Jackson ....

 and James Buchanan
James Buchanan
James Buchanan, Jr. was the 15th President of the United States . He is the only president from Pennsylvania, the only president who remained a lifelong bachelor and the last to be born in the 18th century....

.

The ambassador and the embassy staff at large work at the American Embassy
Embassy of the United States in London
The Embassy of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's has been located since 1960 in the American Embassy London Chancery Building, in Grosvenor Square, Westminster, London...

 in Grosvenor Square
Grosvenor Square
Grosvenor Square is a large garden square in the exclusive Mayfair district of London, England. It is the centrepiece of the Mayfair property of the Duke of Westminster, and takes its name from their surname, "Grosvenor".-History:...

, London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

. The official residence of the Ambassador of the United States of America to the Court of St. James's is Winfield House
Winfield House
Winfield House is a mansion set in 12 acres of grounds in Regent's Park, London, England - the largest private garden in or close to central London after that of Buckingham Palace...

 in Regent's Park.

Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's, 1785-1811

  • John Adams
    John Adams
    John Adams was an American lawyer, statesman, diplomat and political theorist. A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the second President of the United States...

     (1785–1788)

Note: John Adams became so frustrated with his cool reception at the court that he closed the legation in 1788 and the post remained vacant for four years.
  • Thomas Pinckney
    Thomas Pinckney
    Thomas Pinckney was an early American statesman, diplomat and veteran of both the American Revolutionary War and the War of 1812.-Early life in the military:...

     (1792–1796)
  • Rufus King
    Rufus King
    Rufus King was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat. He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress. He also attended the Constitutional Convention and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution on September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...

     (1796–1803)
  • James Monroe
    James Monroe
    James Monroe was the fifth President of the United States . Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States, and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation...

     (1803–1807)
  • William Pinkney
    William Pinkney
    William Pinkney was an American statesman and diplomat, and the seventh U.S. Attorney General.-Biography:Born in Annapolis, Maryland, Pinkney studied medicine and law, becoming a lawyer after his admission to the bar in 1786...

     (1808–1811)
  • From 1811 to the outbreak of the War of 1812
    War of 1812
    The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

    ,
    chargé d'affaires
    Chargé d'affaires
    In diplomacy, chargé d’affaires , often shortened to simply chargé, is the title of two classes of diplomatic agents who head a diplomatic mission, either on a temporary basis or when no more senior diplomat has been accredited.-Chargés d’affaires:Chargés d’affaires , who were...

    Jonathan Russell
    Jonathan Russell
    Jonathan Russell was a United States Representative from Massachusetts and diplomat.Born in Providence, Rhode Island, Russell graduated from Brown University in 1791. He studied law and was admitted to the bar, but did not practice...

     was the chief United States officer in London.

Note: The United States severed relations with the United Kingdom on the outbreak of the War of 1812
War of 1812
The War of 1812 was a military conflict fought between the forces of the United States of America and those of the British Empire. The Americans declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions because of Britain's ongoing war with France, impressment of American merchant...

 - Normal relations were restored in 1815.

Envoys Extraordinary and Ministers Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's, 1815-1893

  • John Quincy Adams
    John Quincy Adams
    John Quincy Adams was the sixth President of the United States . He served as an American diplomat, Senator, and Congressional representative. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams was the son of former...

     (1815–1817)
  • Richard Rush
    Richard Rush
    Richard Rush was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was the second son of Benjamin Rush, one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence and Julia Rush. He entered the College of New Jersey at the age of 14, and graduated in 1797 as the youngest member of his class...

     (1818–1825)
  • Rufus King
    Rufus King
    Rufus King was an American lawyer, politician, and diplomat. He was a delegate for Massachusetts to the Continental Congress. He also attended the Constitutional Convention and was one of the signers of the United States Constitution on September 17, 1787, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...

     (1825–1826)
  • Albert Gallatin
    Albert Gallatin
    Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin was a Swiss-American ethnologist, linguist, politician, diplomat, congressman, and the longest-serving United States Secretary of the Treasury. In 1831, he founded the University of the City of New York...

     (1826–1827)
  • James Barbour
    James Barbour
    James Barbour was an American lawyer, amember and speaker of the Virginia House of Delegates, the 18th Governor of Virginia, the first Governor to reside in the current Virginia Governor's Mansion, a U.S. Senator from 1814–1825, and the United States Secretary of War from 1825-1828.Barbour was a...

     (1828–1829)
  • Louis McLane
    Louis McLane
    Louis McLane was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware, and Baltimore, Maryland. He was a veteran of the War of 1812 and a member of the Federalist Party and later the Democratic Party. He served as the U.S. Representative from Delaware, U.S. Senator...

     (1829–1831)
  • Martin Van Buren
    Martin Van Buren
    Martin Van Buren was the eighth President of the United States . Before his presidency, he was the eighth Vice President and the tenth Secretary of State, under Andrew Jackson ....

     (1831–1832)
  • From 1832 to 1836, Aaron Vail
    Aaron Vail
    Aaron Vail was an American ambassador. As a chargé d'affaires, he acted as the chief American officer in London in lieu of an United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom between April 4, 1832 and 1836; between the presidencies of Martin Van Buren and Andrew Stevenson. He then became a Special...

    , the American
    chargé d'affaires, acted as the chief American officer in London.
  • Andrew Stevenson
    Andrew Stevenson
    Andrew Stevenson was a Democratic politician in the United States. Educated at the College of William and Mary, he married three times. His second wife, Sarah Coles, was a cousin of Dolley Madison and sister of Edward Coles, a governor of Illinois...

     (1836–1841)
  • Edward Everett
    Edward Everett
    Edward Everett was an American politician and educator from Massachusetts. Everett, a Whig, served as U.S. Representative, and U.S. Senator, the 15th Governor of Massachusetts, Minister to Great Britain, and United States Secretary of State...

     (1841–1845)
  • Louis McLane
    Louis McLane
    Louis McLane was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, in New Castle County, Delaware, and Baltimore, Maryland. He was a veteran of the War of 1812 and a member of the Federalist Party and later the Democratic Party. He served as the U.S. Representative from Delaware, U.S. Senator...

     (1845–1846)
  • George Bancroft
    George Bancroft
    George Bancroft was an American historian and statesman who was prominent in promoting secondary education both in his home state and at the national level. During his tenure as U.S. Secretary of the Navy, he established the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis in 1845...

     (1846–1849)
  • Abbott Lawrence
    Abbott Lawrence
    Abbott Lawrence was a prominent American businessman, politician, and philanthropist...

     (1849–1852)
  • Joseph R. Ingersoll (1852–1853)
  • James Buchanan
    James Buchanan
    James Buchanan, Jr. was the 15th President of the United States . He is the only president from Pennsylvania, the only president who remained a lifelong bachelor and the last to be born in the 18th century....

     (1853–1856)
  • George M. Dallas
    George M. Dallas
    George Mifflin Dallas was a U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania and the 11th Vice President of the United States , serving under James K. Polk.-Family and early life:...

     (1856–1861)
  • Charles Francis Adams, Sr.
    Charles Francis Adams, Sr.
    Charles Francis Adams, Sr. was an American lawyer, politician, diplomat and writer. He was the grandson of President John Adams and Abigail Adams and the son of President John Quincy Adams and Louisa Adams....

     (1861–1868)
  • Reverdy Johnson
    Reverdy Johnson
    Reverdy Johnson was a statesman and jurist from Maryland.-Early life:Born in Annapolis, Johnson was the son of a distinguished Maryland lawyer and politician, John Johnson . He graduated from St. John's College in 1812 and then studied law...

     (1868–1869)
  • John Lothrop Motley
    John Lothrop Motley
    John Lothrop Motley was an American historian and diplomat.-Biography:...

     (1869–1870)
  • Robert C. Schenck
    Robert C. Schenck
    Robert Cumming Schenck was a Union Army general in the American Civil War, and American diplomatic representative to Brazil and the United Kingdom. He was at both battles of Bull Run and took part in the Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1862, and the Battle of Cross Keys...

     (1871–1876)
  • Edwards Pierrepont
    Edwards Pierrepont
    Edwards Pierrepont was an American statesman, jurist and lawyer.-Biography:Born in North Haven, Connecticut, he graduated from Yale University and New Haven Law School, was admitted to the bar in 1840 and practiced law in Columbus, Ohio, from 1840 to 1845...

     (1876–1877)
  • John Welsh
    John Welsh (diplomat)
    John Welsh was an American merchant and minister to England.-Biography:His ancestors were among the early Swedish and English settlers in America...

     (1877–1879)
  • James Russell Lowell
    James Russell Lowell
    James Russell Lowell was an American Romantic poet, critic, editor, and diplomat. He is associated with the Fireside Poets, a group of New England writers who were among the first American poets who rivaled the popularity of British poets...

     (1880–1885)
  • Edward John Phelps
    Edward John Phelps
    Edward John Phelps was a lawyer and diplomat from Vermont. Born in Middlebury, he graduated from Middlebury College in 1840, studied law at Yale University, and began practicing in 1843.-Schooling:...

     (1885–1889)
  • Robert Todd Lincoln
    Robert Todd Lincoln
    Robert Todd Lincoln was an American lawyer and Secretary of War, and the first son of President Abraham Lincoln and Mary Todd Lincoln...

     (1889–1893)

Ambassadors Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to the Court of St. James's, 1893-present

  • Thomas F. Bayard, Sr.
    Thomas F. Bayard
    Thomas Francis Bayard was an American lawyer and politician from Wilmington, Delaware. He was a member of the Democratic Party, who served three terms as U.S. Senator from Delaware, and as U.S. Secretary of State, and U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom.-Early life and family:Bayard was born in...

     (1893–1897)
  • John Hay
    John Hay
    John Milton Hay was an American statesman, diplomat, author, journalist, and private secretary and assistant to Abraham Lincoln.-Early life:...

     (1897–1898)
  • Joseph Choate (1899–1905)
  • Whitelaw Reid
    Whitelaw Reid
    Whitelaw Reid was a U.S. politician and newspaper editor, as well as the author of a popular history of Ohio in the Civil War.-Early life:...

     (1905–1912)
  • Walter Hines Page
    Walter Hines Page
    Walter Hines Page was an American journalist, publisher, and diplomat. He was the United States ambassador to the United Kingdom during World War I.-Biography:...

     (1913–1918)
  • John W. Davis
    John W. Davis
    John William Davis was an American politician, diplomat and lawyer. He served as a United States Representative from West Virginia , then as Solicitor General of the United States and US Ambassador to the UK under President Woodrow Wilson...

     (1918–1921)
  • George Brinton McClellan Harvey
    George Brinton McClellan Harvey
    George Brinton McClellan Harvey was an American diplomat, journalist, author, administrator for electric rail construction and owner and editor of several newspapers, all positions that brought him great wealth....

     (1921–1923)
  • Frank B. Kellogg
    Frank B. Kellogg
    Frank Billings Kellogg was an American lawyer, politician and statesman who served in the U.S. Senate and as U.S. Secretary of State. He co-authored the Kellogg-Briand Pact, for which he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 1929..- Biography :Kellogg was born in Potsdam, New York, and his family...

     (1924–1925)
  • Alanson B. Houghton
    Alanson B. Houghton
    Alanson Bigelow Houghton was an American businessman, politician, and diplomat who served as a Congressman and Ambassador. He was a member of the Republican Party.-Early life and business career:...

     (1925–1929)
  • Charles G. Dawes
    Charles G. Dawes
    Charles Gates Dawes was an American banker and politician who was the 30th Vice President of the United States . For his work on the Dawes Plan for World War I reparations he was a co-recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize. He served in the First World War, was U.S...

     (1929–1931)
  • Andrew W. Mellon
    Andrew W. Mellon
    Andrew William Mellon was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932.-Early life:...

     (1932–1933)
  • Robert Worth Bingham
    Robert Worth Bingham
    Robert Worth Bingham was a politician, judge, newspaper publisher and United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. He attended the University of North Carolina and University of Virginia but did not graduate. He moved to Louisville in the 1890s and received a law degree from the University of...

     (1933–1937)
  • Joseph P. Kennedy (1938–1940)
  • John G. Winant (1941–1946)
  • W. Averell Harriman
    W. Averell Harriman
    William Averell Harriman was an American Democratic Party politician, businessman, and diplomat. He was the son of railroad baron E. H. Harriman. He served as Secretary of Commerce under President Harry S. Truman and later as the 48th Governor of New York...

     (1946)
  • Lewis W. Douglas (1947–1950)
  • Walter S. Gifford (1950–1953)
  • Winthrop W. Aldrich
    Winthrop W. Aldrich
    Winthrop Williams Aldrich GBE was an American banker and financier, scion of a prominent political family, and US Ambassador to the United Kingdom.-Early years:...

     (1953–1957)
  • John Hay Whitney
    John Hay Whitney
    John Hay Whitney , colloquially known as "Jock" Whitney, was U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom, publisher of the New York Herald Tribune, and a member of the Whitney family.-Family:...

     (1957–1961)
  • David K. E. Bruce
    David K. E. Bruce
    David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce was an American diplomat, and the only American to serve as Ambassador to France, the Republic of Germany and the United Kingdom.-Biography:...

     (1961–1969)
  • Walter H. Annenberg (1969–1974)
  • Elliot L. Richardson (1975–1976)
  • Anne Legendre Armstrong (1976–1977)
  • Kingman Brewster, Jr.
    Kingman Brewster, Jr.
    Kingman Brewster, Jr., was an educator, president of Yale University, and American diplomat.-Early life:...

     (1977–1981)
  • John J. Louis, Jr.
    John J. Louis, Jr.
    John Jeffry Louis, Jr. was an American businessman and United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom.Born in Evanston, Illinois to Chicago advertiser John Jeffry Louis and Johnson Wax heiress Henriette Johnson Louis, John J. Louis, Jr...

     (1981–1983)
  • Charles H. Price II
    Charles H. Price II
    Charles H. Price II is a prominent American businessman and former Ambassador of the United States.-Early life:Price was born to a prominent family in Kansas City, Missouri, who owned a local candy manufacturing firm, the Price Candy Company...

     (1983–1989)
  • Henry E. Catto, Jr.
    Henry E. Catto, Jr.
    Henry Edward Catto, Jr. is an American businessman and public servant.A native of San Antonio, Texas and son of a prominent insurance man, he was educated at T.M.I.—The Episcopal School of Texas, graduating in 1948, and at Williams College, graduating in 1952. In the early 1960s, Catto twice ran...

     (1989–1991)
  • Raymond G. H. Seitz
    Raymond G. H. Seitz
    Raymond George Hardenbergh Seitz is a former career diplomat and U.S. Ambassador to the United Kingdom. He was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on December 8, 1940. He graduated from Yale University in 1963 with a BA in history, following which he spent 2 years teaching in Dallas, Texas. He joined the US...

     (1991–1994)
  • William J. Crowe, Jr. (1994–1997)
  • Philip Lader
    Philip Lader
    Philip Lader was the United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom and as of 2010 is chairman of WPP Group plc, a global media and communications firm....

     (1997–2001)
  • William S. Farish III 2001-2004
  • Robert H. Tuttle
    Robert H. Tuttle
    Robert Holmes Tuttle is a former United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. He held the post from July 2005 to February 2009.A California native, he was nominated to be Ambassador by U.S. President George W. Bush...

     2005-2009
  • Louis Susman
    Louis Susman
    Louis B. Susman is an American lawyer, retired investment banker, and the current United States Ambassador to the United Kingdom. Nominated by President Barack Obama, he was confirmed by the Senate on July 10, 2009, and sworn in by Secretary of State Hillary Clinton.Susman is a longtime and...

     2009–present

Ambassadors who later became US Presidents

  • John Adams
    John Adams
    John Adams was an American lawyer, statesman, diplomat and political theorist. A leading champion of independence in 1776, he was the second President of the United States...

     (1785–1788)
  • James Monroe
    James Monroe
    James Monroe was the fifth President of the United States . Monroe was the last president who was a Founding Father of the United States, and the last president from the Virginia dynasty and the Republican Generation...

     (1803–1807)
  • John Quincy Adams
    John Quincy Adams
    John Quincy Adams was the sixth President of the United States . He served as an American diplomat, Senator, and Congressional representative. He was a member of the Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, and later Anti-Masonic and Whig parties. Adams was the son of former...

     (1815–1817)
  • Martin Van Buren
    Martin Van Buren
    Martin Van Buren was the eighth President of the United States . Before his presidency, he was the eighth Vice President and the tenth Secretary of State, under Andrew Jackson ....

     (1831–1832)
  • James Buchanan
    James Buchanan
    James Buchanan, Jr. was the 15th President of the United States . He is the only president from Pennsylvania, the only president who remained a lifelong bachelor and the last to be born in the 18th century....

     (1853–1856)

See also

  • List of Ambassadors from the United Kingdom to the United States
  • British Embassy, Washington, D.C.
  • United Kingdom – United States relations
  • Foreign relations of the United Kingdom
    Foreign relations of the United Kingdom
    The diplomatic foreign relations of the United Kingdom are implemented by the United Kingdom's Foreign and Commonwealth Office. The UK was the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. Throughout history it has wielded significant influence upon other nations via the British...

  • Ambassadors of the United States

External links