United Nations Security Council Resolution 435

United Nations Security Council Resolution 435

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United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 Security Council Resolution 435
, adopted on September 29, 1978, put forward proposals for a cease-fire and UN-supervised elections in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

n-controlled South-West Africa which ultimately led to the independence of Namibia
Namibia
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia , is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean. It shares land borders with Angola and Zambia to the north, Botswana to the east and South Africa to the south and east. It gained independence from South Africa on 21 March...

. Importantly, it established the United Nations Transition Assistance Group
United Nations Transition Assistance Group
The United Nations Transition Assistance Group was a United Nations peacekeeping force deployed from April 1989 to March 1990 in Namibia to monitor the peace process and elections there. Namibia had been occupied by South Africa since 1915, first under a League of Nations mandate and later...

 (UNTAG) which oversaw the election and the South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

n withdrawal.

The resolution was adopted by 12 votes to none; Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

 and the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

 abstained while the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 did not participate in the vote.

One of the subsequent shortcomings of the resolution was that it did not mention the paramilitary
Paramilitary
A paramilitary is a force whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not considered part of a state's formal armed forces....

 Koevoet
Koevoet
Koevoet , also known as "Operation K" and officially known as the "South West Africa Police Counter-Insurgency Unit" , was a police counter insurgency unit in South-West Africa during the 1970s and 1980s...

 force, which came into being after the resolution was passed. This unit, which was considered a stumbling block for free elections in Namibia, was eventually disbanded on October 31, 1989 — the last possible day before the November election.

On December 22, 1988, South Africa agreed to implement the resolution upon its signature of the Tripartite Accord at UN headquarters in New York.

See also

  • Angolan Civil War
    Angolan Civil War
    The Angolan Civil War was a major civil conflict in the Southern African state of Angola, beginning in 1975 and continuing, with some interludes, until 2002. The war began immediately after Angola became independent from Portugal in November 1975. Prior to this, a decolonisation conflict had taken...

  • History of Namibia
    History of Namibia
    The history of Namibia has passed through several distinct stages from being colonised in the late nineteenth century to Namibia's independence on 21 March 1990....

  • List of United Nations Security Council Resolutions 401 to 500 (1976 – 1982)
  • Namibian War of Independence
    Namibian War of Independence
    See also South African Border War.The Namibian War of Independence, also known as the South African Border War, which lasted from 1966 to 1988, was a guerrilla war, which the nationalist South-West Africa People's Organization and others, fought against the apartheid government in South...

  • South African Border War
    South African Border War
    The South African Border War, commonly referred to as the Angolan Bush War in South Africa, was a conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa and Angola between South Africa and its allied forces on the one side and the Angolan government, South-West Africa People's...

  • United Nations Commissioner for Namibia
    United Nations Commissioner for Namibia
    United Nations Commissioner for South-West Africa was a post created by the United Nations General Assembly in 1966 to assert the UN's direct responsibility for South-West Africa which was then under illegal occupation by apartheid South Africa....

  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 264
    United Nations Security Council Resolution 264
    United Nations Security Council Resolution 264 was adopted on March 20, 1969, after a General Assembly resolution terminated the mandate of South West Africa ....


External links