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{{Redirect|Union Jack||Union Jack (disambiguation)}} {{About|the British Union flag|other uses|Union flag (disambiguation)}} {{Lead too short|date=August 2010}} The '''Union Flag''', also known as the '''Union Jack''', is the [[flag of the United Kingdom]]. It retains an official or semi-official status in some [[Commonwealth Realms]]; for example, it is known as the '''Royal Union Flag''' in Canada. It is also used as an official flag in some of the smaller [[British overseas territories]]. The current design dates from the [[Act of Union 1800|Union of Great Britain and Ireland in 1801]]. ==Terminology== [[File:Union Flag and St Georges Cross.jpg|thumb|The ''Union Flag'' flying beside the [[Flag of England]].]] [[File:HMS Cornwall F99 July 2006.jpg|thumb|[[HMS Cornwall]], ''dressed'' on the occasion of her official visit to the port of [[Zeebrugge]], [[Belgium]], in 2006, and flying the ''Union Jack'' from the jackstaff.]] Whether to use "Union Flag" or "Union Jack" is a matter of debate by many. The [[Flag Institute]], the [[vexillological]] organisation for the United Kingdom, stated that the term Union Flag is a "relatively recent idea". Jack was a word previously used to denote any flag. It also noted that "From early in its life the [[Admiralty]] itself frequently referred to the flag as the Union Jack, whatever its use, and in 1902 an Admiralty Circular announced that [[Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty|Their Lordships]] had decided that either name could be used officially. In 1908 a government minister stated, in response to a Parliamentary question, that "the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag" . Nevertheless, the term "Union Flag" is used in [[Charles I of England|King Charles's]] proclamation of 1634, and in [[George III of the United Kingdom|King George III]]'s proclamation of 1 January 1801 concerning the arms and flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. One theory is that the "Jack" part of the name may also have come from the name of King James I/James VI of Scotland. When the first flag representing Britain was introduced on the [[proclamation]] of [[James I of England|King James I]] in 1606, it became known simply as "the British flag" or "the flag of Britain". The royal proclamation gave no distinctive name to the new flag. The word "jack" was in use before 1600 to describe the [[Maritime flag#Jacks|maritime bow flag]].{{Citation needed|date=September 2008}} By 1627 a small Union Jack was commonly flown in this position. One theory goes that for some years it would have been called just "the Jack", or "Jack flag", or "the King's Jack", but by 1674, while formally referred to as "His Majesty's Jack", it was commonly called the Union Jack, and this was officially acknowledged. Amongst the proclamations issued by King George III at the time of the [[Acts of Union 1800|Union]] of 1801 was a proclamation concerning flags at sea, which referred to "Our Flags, Jacks, and Pendants" and forbade merchant vessels from wearing "Our Jack, commonly called the Union Jack" nor any pendants or colours used by the King's ships. In contrast, the King's proclamation of the same day concerning the arms and flag of the United Kingdom, not colours at sea, called the new flag "the Union Flag". The size and power of the [[Royal Navy]] internationally at the time could also explain why the flag was named the "Union Jack"; considering the navy was so widely utilised and renowned by the United Kingdom and [[British Empire|colonies]], it is possible that the term "Jack" occurred because of its regular use on all British ships using the "Jack Staff" (a flag pole attached to the bow of a ship). Even if the term "Union Jack" does derive from the jack flag (as perhaps seems most likely), after three centuries, it is now sanctioned by use, has appeared in official use, and remains the popular term. The term "Union Flag" is less well-known outside the United Kingdom, and may refer to [[Union Flag#See also|other union flags]].'' ===Specification=== [[File:United Kingdom Flag Specifications.svg|500px|right|Diagram of the Union Flag's design]] [[File:United Kingdom Flag Specifications 2.PNG|thumb|For clarity, the [[fimbriation]] of the [[Ordinary (heraldry)|ordinaries]] is highlighted in yellow.]] The Union Flag is normally twice as long as it is wide, a ratio of 1:2. In the United Kingdom land flags are normally a ratio of 3:5; the Union flag can also be made in this shape, but is 1:2 for most purposes. Flags that have the Union Flag in the canton should always be 1:2 to preserve the square fly area.{{Clarify|date=February 2011}} The three component crosses that make up the Union Flag are sized as follows: * The red [[St. George's Cross]] width is 1/5 of the flag's height with a 1/15 flag height [[fimbriation]] * The white diagonal [[St. Andrew's Cross]] width is 1/5 of the flag's height and the broader white diagonal's width is 1/10 of the flag's height * The red diagonal [[St. Patrick's Cross]] width is 1/15 of the flag's height and the narrow white diagonal's width is 1/30 of the flag's height Another way of looking at it is that the white diagonal St. Andrew's Cross and the red diagonal St. Patrick's Cross sit side-by-side along the centre-lines of the diagonals. They each have a width of 1/15 of the flag's height with a 1/30 flag height fimbriation. The crosses are slightly pinwheeled with St. Andrew's Cross leading in the clockwise direction. The centre-lines of the diagonals must meet in the centre (as shown on the diagram). The three crosses retain their thickness whether they are shown with a ratio of 3:5 or 1:2 ===Colours=== The colour specifications for the colours Union Flag (Royal) Blue, Union Flag Red and White are: {| class="wikitable" border="1" style="text-align: center" |- ! Scheme ! style="background:#00247d; color:white;" | Blue (D) ! style="background:#cf142b; color:white;" | Red (H) ! style="background:white; color:black;" | White (J) | style="text-align: left;" rowspan=7 width="200px" | '''General Note:''' The colour schemes are not all congruent. This is due to different specifications for different types of media (for example, screen and print)

* Not official; these are Wikimedia Commons' own conversions of the Pantone. |- ! [[Pantone]] (paper) | 280 C | 186 C | Safe |- ! [[Web colors#Web-safe colors|Web-Safe Hex]] | #003399 | #CC0000 | #FFFFFF |- ! | 8711D | 8711 | 8711J |- ! [[NATO Stock Number|NSN]] | 8305.99.130.4580 | 8305.99.130.4584 | 8305.99.130.4585 |- ! [[CMYK color model|CMYK]] | | | |- ! [[RGB color model|RGB]] ([[Web colors#Hex triplet|Hex]])* | 0, 36, 125 (#00247D) | 207, 20, 43 (#CF142B) | 255, 255, 255 (#FFFFFF) |} ===Flying=== {| style="float: right;" |- |[[File:Flag of the United Kingdom.svg|center|thumb|alt=Union Flag with red bars in diagonals to one side of the white diagonals, such that there is a thicker white border on one side. The red bars are all off-centre as if they had been pushed in an anticlockwise direction.|'''Right''' way to fly the flag, assuming hoist to the left]] |[[File:Flag of the United Kingdom reversed.svg|center|thumb|alt=Union flag where red bars in diagonals are moved off-centre in a clockwise direction. This is both the vertical and horizontal mirror image of the previous image.|'''Wrong''' way to fly the flag, assuming hoist to the left]] |} The flag does not have reflection symmetry, due to the slight pinwheeling of St Patrick's cross, which is technically called the ''counterchange of [[saltire]]s''. Thus, it has a right side and a wrong side up. To fly the flag the correct way up, the broad portion of the white cross of St Andrew should be ''above'' the red band of St Patrick (and the thin white portion below) in the upper hoist canton (the corner at the top nearest to the flag-pole), giving the Scottish symbol precedence over the Irish symbol. This is expressed by the phrases ''wide white top'' and ''broad side up''. Traditionally, flying a flag upside down is understood as a distress signal. In the case of the Union Flag, the difference is so subtle as to be easily missed by many. Indeed, some people have displayed it upside down inadvertently. On 3 February 2009, the [[BBC]] reported that the flag had been inadvertently flown upside-down by the UK government at the signing of a trade agreement with Chinese premier [[Wen Jiabao]]. The error had been spotted by readers of the BBC news website who had contacted the BBC after seeing a photograph of the event. ==History== In 1603, [[James VI of Scotland]] inherited the English and Irish thrones (as James I), thereby [[Union of the Crowns|uniting the crowns]] of [[Kingdom of England|England]], [[Kingdom of Scotland|Scotland]] and [[Kingdom of Ireland|Ireland]] in a [[personal union]] (which remained separate states). On 12 April 1606, a new flag to represent this regal union between England and Scotland was specified in a royal decree, according to which the [[flag of England]] (a red cross on a white background, known as [[St. George's Cross]]), and the [[flag of Scotland]] (a white [[saltire]] on a blue background, known as the Saltire or [[Flag of Scotland|St. Andrew's Cross]]), would be joined together, forming the flag of Great Britain and first union flag: {{cquote|By the King: Whereas, some differences hath arisen between Our subjects of South and North Britaine travelling by Seas, about the bearing of their Flagges: For the avoiding of all contentions hereafter. We have, with the advice of our Council, ordered: That from henceforth all our Subjects of this Isle and Kingdome of Great Britaine, and all our members thereof, shall beare in their main-toppe the [[Flag of England|Red Crosse]], commonly called [[St. George's Cross|St. George’s Crosse]], and the [[Flag of Scotland|White Crosse]], commonly called St. Andrew’s Crosse, joyned together according to the forme made by our [[herald]]s, and sent by Us to our Admerall to be published to our Subjects: and in their fore-toppe our Subjects of South Britaine shall weare the Red Crosse onely as they were wont, and our Subjects of North Britaine in their fore-toppe the White Crosse onely as they were accustomed.}} This royal flag was at first for use only at sea on civil and military ships of both England and Scotland, whereas land forces continued to use their respective national banners. In 1634, [[Charles I of England|King Charles I]] restricted its use to the royal ships. After the [[Acts of Union 1707]], the flag gained a regularised status as "the ensign armorial of the [[Kingdom of Great Britain]]", the newly created state. It was then adopted by land forces as well, although the blue field used on land-based versions more closely resembled that of the blue of the flag of Scotland. Various shades of blue have been used in the Saltire over the years. The ground of the current Union Flag is a deep "[[navy blue|navy]]" blue ([[Pantone]] 280), which can be traced to the colour used for the [[Blue Ensign]] of the [[Royal Navy|Royal Navy's]] historic "Blue Squadron". (Dark shades of colour were used on [[maritime flags]] on the basis of durability.) In 2003 a committee of the [[Scottish Parliament]] recommended that the flag of Scotland use a lighter "[[royal blue|royal]]" blue, (Pantone 300). (The Office of the [[Lord Lyon]] does not detail specific shades of colour for use in heraldry.) A thin white stripe, or [[fimbriation]], separates the red cross from the blue field, in accordance with heraldry's [[rule of tincture]] where colours (like red and blue) must be separated from each other by metals (like white, i.e. ''[[argent]]'' or silver). The [[blazon]] for the old union flag, to be compared with the current flag, is ''Azure, the Cross Saltire of St Andrew Argent surmounted by the Cross of St George Gules, fimbriated of the second.'' Wales had no explicit recognition in the Union Flag as it had been a part of the [[Kingdom of England]] since being annexed by [[Edward I of England]] in 1282 and its full integration by the [[Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542]], and was therefore represented by the flag of England. [[File:Flag of the Commonwealth (1658-1660).svg|thumb|alt=Red cross with white border over a white saltire and dark blue background. At the centre is a gold harp in dark blue shield, which is the same size as the intersection of vertical and horizontal white bars.|[[Protectorate Jack]], 1658–60]] The [[Kingdom of Ireland]], which had existed as a personal union with England since 1541, was likewise unrepresented in the original versions of the Union Flag. However, the flag of [[The Protectorate]] from 1658 to 1660 was [[escutcheon (heraldry)|inescutcheon]]ed with the [[arms of Ireland]]. These were removed after [[English Restoration|the Restoration]], supposedly because [[Charles II of England|Charles II]] disliked them. The original flag appears in the canton of the Commissioners' Ensign of the [[Northern Lighthouse Board]]. This is the only contemporary official representation of the pre-1801 Union Flag in the United Kingdom and can be seen flying from their [[George Street, Edinburgh|George Street]] headquarters in [[Edinburgh]]. [[Taunton, Massachusetts]], USA, has in recent years used a flag with the old style Union Flag. Likewise, [[Westmoreland County, Pennsylvania]], has been known to fly a flag containing the Kings Colours since 1973. This version of the Union Flag is also shown in the [[canton (flag)|canton]] of the [[Grand Union Flag]] (also known as the Congress flag, the First Navy Ensign, the Cambridge Flag, and the Continental Colours), the first widely used [[flag of the United States]], slowly phased out after 1777. ''[[Lord Howe's action, or the Glorious First of June]]'', painted in 1795, shows a Union flying from [[HMS Queen Charlotte (1790)|HMS ''Queen Charlotte'']] on the "[[Glorious First of June]]" 1794. The actual flag, preserved in the [[National Maritime Museum]], is a cruder approximation of the proper specifications; this was common in 18th and early 19th-century flags. The British Army's flag is the Union Flag, but in 1938 a "British Army Non-Ceremonial Flag" was devised, featuring a Lion on crossed blades with the [[St Edward's Crown]] on a red background. This is not the equivalent of the ensigns of the other armed services, but is used at recruiting and military or sporting events, when the Army needs to be identified but the reverence and ceremony due to the [[regiment]]al flags and the Union Flag would be inappropriate. ===Other proposed versions=== [[File:Union jack proposed.jpg|thumb|150px|alt=Page of ancient book showing six flag designs, all showing combinations of English and Scottish flags.|Other proposed versions.]] Various other designs for a common flag were drawn up following the union of the two Crowns in 1603, but were rarely, if ever, used. One version showed St George's cross with St Andrew's cross in the canton, and another version placed the two crosses side by side. {{Clear}} ===Scottish Union Flag=== [[File:BeaumontScottishUnionFlag.png|thumb|right|alt=White saltire clearly visible over white-bordered red cross on blue background.| Unofficial Scottish Union Flag in the 1704 edition of ''The Present State of the Universe'']] In objecting to the design of Union Flag adopted in 1606, whereby the cross of [[Saint George]] surmounted that of Saint Andrew, a group of Scots took up the matter with [[John Erskine, 18th Earl of Mar]], and were encouraged by him to send a letter of complaint to James VI, via the [[Privy Council of Scotland]], which stated that the flag's design "''will breid some heit and miscontentment betwix your Majesties subjectis, and it is to be feirit that some inconvenientis sail fall oute betwix thame, for our seyfaring men cannot be inducit to resave that flage as it is set down''". Although documents accompanying this complaint which contained drafts for alternative designs have been lost, evidence exists, at least on paper, of an unofficial Scottish variant, whereby the Scottish cross was uppermost. There is reason to think that cloth flags of this design were employed during the 17th century for unofficial use on Scottish vessels at sea. This flag's design is also described in the 1704 edition of ''The Present State of the Universe'' by John Beaumont, Junior, which contains as an appendix ''The Ensigns, Colours or Flags of the Ships at Sea: Belonging to The several Princes and States in the World''. [[File:Edinburgh Castle John Slezer.jpg|thumb|left|150px|alt=Engraving of a castle on top of a steep hill, above the title "The North East View of Edinburgh Castle". On the castle flies a large Union Flag with Scottish saltire part of flag most visible.|[[John Slezer|Slezer's]] [[Edinburgh Castle]] c.1693 depicting the Scottish Union Flag.]]On land, evidence suggesting use of this flag appears in the depiction of [[Edinburgh Castle]] by [[John Slezer]], in his series of [[engraving]]s entitled ''Theatrum Scotiae'', c. 1693. Appearing in later editions of ''Theatrum Scotiae'', the ''North East View'' engraving depicts the ''[[Scotch (adjective)|Scotch]]'' (to use the appropriate adjective of that period) version of the Union Flag flying from the Castle Clock Tower. However, it is not shown on the ''North Prospect of the City of Edenburgh'' engraving. On 17 April 1707, just two weeks prior to the [[Acts of Union 1707|Acts of Union]] coming into effect, and with Sir Henry St George, [[Garter King of Arms]], having presented several designs of flag to [[Anne of Great Britain|Queen Anne]] and her [[Privy Council]] for consideration, the flag for the soon to be unified [[Kingdom of Great Britain]] was chosen. At the suggestion of the Scots representatives, the designs for consideration included that version of Union Flag showing the Cross of Saint Andrew uppermost; identified as being the "''Scotts union flagg as said to be used by the Scotts''". However, the Queen and her Council approved Sir Henry's original effort, numbered "one". A manuscript compiled in 1785 by William Fox and in possession of the [[Flag Research Center]] includes a full plate showing "''the scoth [sic] union''" flag. This could imply that there was still some insistence on a Scottish variant after the addition of the cross of St. Patrick to the Union Flag. ===Since 1801=== The current and second Union Flag dates from 1 January 1801 with the [[Act of Union 1800]], which merged the [[Kingdom of Ireland]] and the [[Kingdom of Great Britain]] to form the [[United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland]]. The new design added a red [[saltire]], the so-called "[[Saint Patrick's Flag|cross of Saint Patrick]]", for Ireland. This is [[counterchanging|counterchanged]] with the saltire of St Andrew, such that the white always follows the red clockwise. The arrangement has introduced a requirement to display the flag "the right way up"; see [[Union Flag#Specifications for flag use|specifications for flag use]], below. As with the red cross, so too the red saltire is separated by a white fimbriation from the blue field. This fimbriation is repeated for symmetry on the white portion of the saltire, which thereby appears wider than the red portion. The fimbriation of the cross of St George separates its red from the red of the saltire. Outside the Union flag, Saint Patrick's cross has seldom been used to represent Ireland, and with little popular recognition or enthusiasm; it is usually considered to derive from the arms of the powerful [[FitzGerald]] family rather than any association with the saint. The current flag's design, in use since 1801, is [[blazon]]ed ''Azure, the Crosses Saltire of St Andrew and St Patrick, quarterly per saltire, counterchanged Argent and Gules, the latter fimbriated of the second, surmounted by the Cross of St George of the third, fimbriated as the saltire.'' ====Flag speculation after Irish Independence==== When the [[Anglo-Irish Treaty]] was concluded on 6 December 1921 and the creation of the new [[Irish Free State]] was an imminent prospect, the question arose as to whether the cross of Saint Patrick should remain in the Union Flag. The New York Times reported that on 22 January 1922:

At the College of Arms it was stated that certain modifications were under consideration and that if any action were taken it would be done by the King in Council. No parliamentary action would be necessary. Heraldry experts say that alterations in arms are very expensive. Some years ago there was a demand from Irish quarters that the blue ground of the golden harp on the royal standard should be changed to green. It was then estimated that the alteration would cost at least £2,000,000. To remove all reference to Ireland from the present Union Jack and Royal Arms would be vastly more expensive.
There was some speculation on the matter in British dominions also, with one New Zealand paper reporting that:
...the removal of the cross of St. Patrick Cross after 120 years will transform the appearance of the flag. It will certainly become a flag under which great victories were won in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, but to most minds the sentimental loss will be great. Probably it will be found that the deletion is not absolutely necessary. Other possible changes include the abolition of the title of the United Kingdom, and the removal of the harp from the Royal Standard and the Coat of Arms, and the substitution of the Ulster emblem.
However, the fact that it was likely that [[Northern Ireland]] would choose not to remain part of the Irish Free State after its foundation and instead exercise its right to opt back into the United Kingdom, gave better grounds for keeping the cross of St. Patrick in the Union Jack. In this regard, [[Sir James Craig]], the [[Prime Minister of Northern Ireland]] remarked in December 1921 that he and his government were ''"glad to think that our decision [to opt back into the United Kingdom] will obviate the necessity of mutilating the Union Jack.''" Ultimately, when the British [[Home Secretary]] was asked on 7 December 1922 (the day after the Irish Free State was established) whether the [[Garter Principal King of Arms|Garter King-of-Arms]] was to issue any regulations with reference to the Union flag, the response was no and the flag has never been changed. A [[Question Time|Dáil question]] in 1961 mooted raising the removal of the cross of St. Patrick with the UK government; the [[Minister for Foreign Affairs (Ireland)|Irish Minister for External Affairs]] declined to "waste time on heraldic disputations". ===Campaigns for a new Union Flag=== In 2003 a private individual started a campaign – dubbed "reflag" or "Union Black" – to interpret the Union Flag in a racial context, and introduce black stripes in it. The proposal was denounced by [[Member of the Scottish Parliament|MSP]] [[Phil Gallie]] as "ridiculous tokenism [that] would do nothing to stamp out [[racism]]". The campaign received little support from any quarter and is now defunct. Since there is no uniquely Welsh element in the Union Flag, [[Wrexham]]’s [[Labour Party (UK)|Labour]] [[Member of Parliament|MP]] [[Ian Lucas]] proposed on 27 November 2007 in a [[House of Commons of the United Kingdom|House of Commons]] debate that the Union Flag be combined with the [[Flag of Wales|Welsh flag]] to reflect Wales’ status within the UK, and that the [[Welsh Dragon|Red Dragon]] be added to the Union Flag's red, white, and blue pattern. He said the Union Flag currently only represented the other three UK nations, and [[Department for Culture, Media and Sport|Minister for Culture, Creative Industries and Tourism]] [[Margaret Hodge]] conceded that Mr Lucas had raised a valid point for debate. She said "the Government is keen to make the Union flag a positive symbol of Britishness reflecting the diversity of our country today and encouraging people to take pride in our flag". This development sparked design contests with entries from all over the world; some of the entries incorporated red dragons and even [[anime]] characters and [[Leek#Cultural significance|leeks]]. ==Status== [[File:Flags outside Parliament.jpg|thumb|alt=Union Flag, Scottish Flag and European Flag on poles against a blue sky.|The "Union Flag", [[Flag of Scotland|Scottish Flag]] and [[Flag of Europe|European Flag]] flying from the [[Scottish Parliament Building|Scottish Parliament]]'s flag poles.]] The Union Flag is used as a [[jack (flag)|jack]] by commissioned warships and submarines of the [[Royal Navy]], such as {{HMS|Victory}}, and by commissioned [[British Army|Army]] and [[Royal Air Force]] vessels. When at anchor or alongside, it is flown from the [[jackstaff]] at the [[Bow (ship)|bow]] of the ship. When a ship is underway, the Union Jack is only flown from the jackstaff when the ship is dressed for a special occasion, such as the Queen's official birthday. The Union Flag is worn at the masthead of a ship to indicate the presence of the Sovereign or an [[Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)|Admiral of the Fleet]]. It is also worn at the masthead of [[Canadian Navy|Her Majesty's Canadian ships]] within Canadian territorial waters on certain days of the year, such as the Queen's official birthday and [[Commonwealth Day]]. The Union Flag may also be flown from the yardarm to indicate that a [[court-martial]] is in progress, though these are now normally held in shore establishments. No law has been passed making the Union Flag the national flag of the United Kingdom: it has become one through precedent. Its first recorded recognition as a national flag came in 1908, when it was stated in Parliament that "the Union Jack should be regarded as the National flag". A more categorical statement was made by the [[Secretary of State for the Home Department|Home Secretary]], [[Sir John Gilmour, 2nd Baronet|Sir John Gilmour]], in 1933 when he stated that "the Union Jack is the National Flag". But it is still officially a flag of the monarch, rather than the Union.{{Verify credibility|date=May 2010}} Civilian use is permitted on land, but non-naval/military use at sea is prohibited. Unauthorised use of the flag in the 17th Century to avoid paying harbour duties – a privilege restricted to naval ships – caused James' successor, [[Charles I of England|Charles I]], to order that use of the flag on naval vessels be restricted to His Majesty's ships "upon pain of Our high displeasure". It remains a criminal offence under the Merchant Shipping (Registration, etc.) Act 1993 to display the Union Flag (other than the "Pilot Jack" – see below) from a British ship. Naval ships will fly the [[white ensign]], merchant and private boats can fly the [[red ensign]], others with special permission such as naval yacht clubs can fly the [[blue ensign]]. All of the coloured ensigns contain the union flag as part of the design. The Court of the [[Lord Lyon]], which has legal jurisdiction in heraldic matters in Scotland, confirms that the Union Flag "is the correct flag for all citizens and corporate bodies of the United Kingdom to fly to demonstrate their loyalty and their nationality." The Union Flag has been in use in Canada dating back to the Scottish settlement in [[Nova Scotia]] in 1621.{{Citation needed|date=January 2010}} At the close of the [[Great Canadian Flag Debate]] of 1964, which resulted in the adoption of the [[Flag of Canada|Maple Leaf Flag]] as the Canadian national flag in 1965, the Parliament of Canada voted to make the Union Flag the symbol of Canada's membership of the Commonwealth and its allegiance to the crown. The move was a concession given to conservatives who preferred to keep the old flag, with its Union Flag in the canton. The Royal Union flag (as it is now known in Canada) is flown alongside the Maple-Leaf Flag on [[Commonwealth Day]] and other royal occasions and anniversaries. The Union Flag was also the official flag of the [[Dominion of Newfoundland]] (1931–1949) and continued after Newfoundland became a Canadian province (now [[Newfoundland and Labrador]]) until 1980. In [[Australia]], the [[flag of Australia|current national flag]] gradually replaced the Union Flag. When it was formally created the national flag in the [[Flags Act 1953]], section 8 of that Act specified that ''"this Act does not affect the right or privilege of a person to fly the Union Jack"''. The Union Flag continued to be used for a period thereafter as a national flag. The [[flag of New Zealand|current national flag]] of [[New Zealand]] was given official standing under the New Zealand Ensign Act in 1902, but similarly to Australia the Union Flag continued to be used in some contexts as a national flag. On 5 February 2008, [[Conservative Party (UK)|Conservative]] [[Member of Parliament|MP]] [[Andrew Rosindell]] introduced the 'Union Flag Bill' as a [[private member's bill]] as a 10-minute bill in the [[House of Commons of the United Kingdom|House of Commons]]. The Bill seeks to formalise the position of the Union Flag as the [[flag of the United Kingdom|national flag of the UK]] in law, to remove legal obstacles to its regular display and to officially recognise the name 'Union Jack' as having equal status with 'Union Flag'. However the Bill had not received its [[second reading]] by the end of that [[parliamentary session]]. ==Other ratios== [[File:Flag of the United Kingdom (3-5).svg‎|thumb|alt=Union Flag truncated to remove far-left and far-right edges.|3:5 variant or [[War flag]].]] Although the most common ratio is 1:2, other ratios exist. The Royal Navy's flag code book, BR20 ''Flags of All Nations'', states that both 1:2 and 3:5 versions are official. The 3:5 version is most commonly used by the British Army and is sometimes known as the [[War flag]]. In this version the innermost points of the lower left and upper right diagonals of the St Patrick's cross are cut off or truncated. The Queen's Harbour Master's flag, like the Pilot Jack, is a 1:2 flag that contains a white-bordered Union Flag that is longer than 1:2. The jacks of ships flying variants of the [[Blue Ensign]] are square and have a square Union Flag in the canton. The [[Regimental colours#British Army|Queen's Colours of Army regiments]] are 36 x 43 inches; on them, the bars of the cross and saltire are of equal width; so are their respective fimbriations, which are very narrow. ===Other nations and regions=== {{Unreferenced section|date=May 2011|reason=no refs}} [[Image:Flag of Australia (converted).svg|thumb|right|alt=Dark blue flag with six white stars and Union Flag as top-left quarter|The [[flag of Australia]].]] The Union Flag was found in the ''[[Flag terminology|canton]]'' (upper left-hand quarter) of the flags of many colonies of Britain, while the ''[[field (heraldry)|field]]'' (background) of their flags was the colour of the [[British ensigns#History|naval ensign]] flown by the particular [[Royal Navy]] squadron that patrolled that region of the world. Nations and colonies that have used the Union Flag at some stage have included [[Aden]], [[Borneo]], [[Burma]], [[Canada]], [[Ceylon]], [[Cyprus]], [[British East Africa|British East Africa (Kenya Colony)]], [[Gambia]], [[Gold Coast (British colony)|Gold Coast (Ghana)]], [[Hong Kong]], [[South Asia]] ([[SAARC]]), [[Jamaica]], [[Lagos]], [[Malta]], [[Mauritius]], [[Nigeria]], [[Palestine]], [[Penang|Penang (Malaysia)]], [[Rhodesia]], [[Sierra Leone]], [[Singapore]], [[Somaliland]], [[Tanganyika]], [[Trinidad]], [[Uganda]] and the [[United States]]. As former British Empire nations were granted independence, these and other versions of the Union Flag were decommissioned. The most recent decommissioning of the Union Flag came on 1 July 1997, when the former [[History of Colonial Hong Kong (1800s–1930s)|Dependent Territory of Hong Kong]] was returned to China. All administrative regions and territories of the United Kingdom fly the Union Flag in some form, with the exception of [[Flag of Gibraltar|Gibraltar]] (other than the government ensign) and the [[Crown Dependencies]]. Outside the UK, it is usually part of a special [[ensign]] in which the Union Flag is placed in the upper left hand corner of a blue field, with a signifying crest in the bottom right. Four former British colonies in Oceania which are now independent countries incorporate the Union Flag as part of their national flags: Australia, New Zealand, [[Tuvalu]] and [[Fiji]], the last of which is not part of the Commonwealth realms. In former British colonies, the Union Flag was used semi-interchangeably with territorial flags for significant parts of their early history. This was the case in Canada until the introduction of the [[Flag of Canada|Maple Leaf Flag]] in 1965, but it is still used in the flags of a number of Canadian provinces such as [[British Columbia]], [[Manitoba]] and [[Ontario]]. [[Newfoundland and Labrador]] uses a modified version of the Union Flag, once the flag of the province. Canadian practice allows the flag, known in Canada as the Royal Union Flag, to be flown by private individuals and government agencies to show support for the Monarch and the Commonwealth. On some official occasions, the flag is always flown besides the Maple Leaf Flag, one such occasion is on the anniversary of the [[Statute of Westminster 1931|Statute of Westminster]]. Many other Australian flags retain the use of the Union Flag, including the [[Royal Australian Navy Ensign]] (also known as the Australian White Ensign), the [[Royal Australian Air Force Ensign]], the [[Australian Red Ensign]] (for use by merchant and private vessels) and the [[Australian Civil Aviation Ensign]]. The flags of all six Australian States retain the Union Flag in the ''[[Flag terminology|canton]]'', as do some regional flags such as the Upper and Lower [[Murray River Flag]]s. The Vice-Regal flags of the State Governors also retain the use of the Union Flag. See [[List of Australian flags]] for more information. The [[Basque Country (historical territory)|Basque Country's]] flag, the [[Ikurriña]] is also loosely based on the Union Flag, reflecting the significant commercial ties between [[Bilbao]] and Britain at the time the [[Ikurriña]] was designed (1894). The [[Miskito people|Miskito]] people sometimes use a similar flag that also incorporates the Union Flag in its [[Flag terminology#Description of standard flag parts and terms|canton]], due to long periods of contact in the [[Mosquito Coast]]. [[File:Flag of Hawaii.svg|thumb|right|alt=Thin red white and blue horizontal stripes with Union Flag as top-left quarter.|''Ka Hae Hawai{{okina}}i'', or the [[flag of Hawaii]].]] The Union Flag was used by the United States in its first flag, the [[Grand Union Flag]]. This flag was of a similar design to the one used by the [[British East India Company]]. Hawaii, which is a state of the United States but is located in Oceania, incorporates the Union Jack in its [[Flag of Hawaii|state flag]]. According to one story, the King of Hawaii asked the British mariner, [[George Vancouver]], during a stop in Lahaina, what the piece of cloth flying from his ship was. Vancouver replied that it represented his king's authority. The Hawaiian king then adopted and flew the flag as a symbol of royal authority (his own) not recognising its national derivation. Hawaii's flag represents the only current use of the Union Jack in any American state flag. Also in the United States, the Union Flag of 1606 is incorporated into the [[flag of Baton Rouge, Louisiana|flag of Baton Rouge]], the capital city of Louisiana. Baton Rouge was a British colony from the time of the [[Seven Years War]] until the end of the [[American Revolutionary War]], when it was captured by Spanish and American forces. Symbols from the colonial powers France and Spain are also incorporated into the Baton Rouge flag. The Union Flag also appeared on both the 1910–1928 and 1928–1994 [[South African Flag#History|flags]] of South Africa. The 1910–1928 flag was a [[red ensign]] with the [[Union of South Africa|Union]] coat of arms in the fly. The 1928–1994 flag, based on the [[Prinsenvlag#The Prince.27s Flag|Prinsenvlag]] and commonly known as the ''oranje-blanje-blou'' (orange-white-blue), contained the Union Flag as part of a central motif at par with the flags of the two [[Boer]] republics of the [[Orange Free State]] and [[South African Republic|Transvaal]]. To keep any one of the three flags from having precedence, the Union Flag is spread horizontally from the Orange Free State flag towards the hoist; closest to the hoist, it is in the superior position but since it is reversed it does not precede the other flags. {{Image gallery |lines=2 |width=120 |height=80 |Flag of New Zealand.svg|Dark blue flag with four red and white stars and Union Flag as top-left quarter.|The [[flag of New Zealand]] |Flag of Tuvalu.svg|Powder blue flag with nine yellow stars and Union Flag as top-left quarter.|The [[flag of Tuvalu]] |Flag of Fiji.svg|Cyan blue flag with Union Flag as top-left quarter and crest on right side.|The [[flag of Fiji]] |Flag of Bermuda.svg|Red flag with Union Flag as top-left quarter and crest on right side.|The [[flag of Bermuda]] |Flag of British Columbia.svg|Flag with horizontally stretched Union Flag as top half. The lower half is a large yellow sun over blue and white waves.|The [[flag of British Columbia]] |Taunton Flag (United States).svg|Red flag with Union Flag as top-left quarter and white text|Flag of [[Taunton, Massachusetts]] |Flag of Baton Rouge.svg|Red flag with Union Flag on creast in bottom-left quarter and words on right side.|The [[flag of Baton Rouge, Louisiana]]. |Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory.svg|Blue and white flag with Union Flag in canton and palm tree in fly|[[Flag of the British Indian Ocean Territory]] }} {{Image gallery |lines=4 |width=120 |height=80 |Canadian Red Ensign.svg|Red flag with Union Flag as top-left quarter and crest on right side.|1957 version of the [[Canadian Red Ensign]] national flag until 1965 |Flag of South Africa 1928-1994.svg|Horizontal orange, white and blue stripes. In the centre are three small flags, the left of which is the Union Flag.|''Oranje-blanje-blou'', or the [[South African Flag#History|flag of South Africa (1928–1994)]] |Flag_of_Hong_Kong_1959.svg|Navy Blue flag with Union Flag as top-left quarter and crest on right side.|The [[flag of Hong Kong]] (Before 1997) |Flag of Rhodesia (1964).svg|Sky Blue flag with Union Flag as top-left quarter and crest on right side.|The [[flag of Rhodesia]] between 1964 and 1968. }} ===Ensigns=== {{Main|British ensigns}} {{Unreferenced section|date=May 2011|reason=no refs}} The Union Flag can be found in the canton of several of the [[ensign]]s flown by vessels and aircraft of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories. These are used in cases where it is illegal to fly the Union Flag, such as at sea from a British ship. Normal practice for UK ships is to fly the [[White ensign]] (Royal Navy) or the [[Red ensign]] (Merchant and private boats). Similar ensigns are used by other countries (such as [[List of New Zealand flags#Ensigns|New Zealand]] and [[List of Australian flags#Military and Naval flags|Australia]]) with the Union Flag in the canton. Other countries (such as [[List of Indian flags#Military flags|India]] and [[List of Jamaican flags#Ensigns|Jamaica]]) follow similar ensign etiquette as the UK, replacing the Union Flag with their own national flag. {{Image gallery |lines=3 |width=120 |height=60 |Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg|Red cross on white background,Union Flag as top-left quarter.|[[Royal Navy]] [[White Ensign]]. |Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg|Solid red flag with Union Flag as top-left quarter.|The Merchant Navy Ensign. |Ensign of the Royal Air Force.svg|Sky blue flag with concentric circle RAF icon in right half and Union Flag as top-left quarter.|[[Royal Air Force]] [[Royal Air Force Ensign|Ensign]]. |Civil Air Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg|Dark blue cross with white border on powder blue background, with Union Flag as top-left quarter.|[[British Civil Air Ensign]]. |Government Ensign of Gibraltar.svg|Dark blue flag with red and yellow castle to right and Union Flag in top-left quarter.|Gibraltar State Ensign. |Civil Ensign of the Cayman Islands.svg|Red flag with multicoloured shield to right and Union Flag in top-left quarter.|Cayman Islands Red Ensign. |Naval Ensign of Australia.svg|Australian Flag with white background and blue stars|[[Royal Australian Navy]] Ensign. |Ensign of the Royal Australian Air Force.svg|Australian Flag with pale blue background and small RAF icon in bottom-right.|Royal Australian Air Force Ensign. |Civil Air Ensign of New Zealand.svg|Dark blue cross with white border on powder blue background, with Union Flag as top-left quarter and red stars in bottom-right corner.|New Zealand Civil Aviation Ensign. }} ===Pilot Jack=== [[File:Civil Jack of the United Kingdom.svg|thumb|right|alt=Union Flag with thick white border comprising about half of the area of the flag.|The Union Jack with a white border.]] {{refimprove section|date=May 2011|reason=needs more refs}} The flag in a white border occasionally seen on merchant ships was sometimes referred to as the '''Pilot Jack'''. It can be traced back to 1823 when it was created as a signal flag, never intended as a civil jack. A book issued to British [[consul]]s in 1855 states that the white bordered Union Flag is to be hoisted for a pilot. Although there was some ambiguity regarding the legality of it being flown for any other purpose on civilian vessels, its use as an ensign or jack was established well in advance of the 1864 Act that designated the [[Red Ensign]] for merchant shipping. In 1970 the white-bordered Union Flag ceased to be the signal for a pilot, but references to it as national colours were not removed from the current Merchant Shipping Act and it was legally interpreted as a flag that could be flown on a merchant ship, as a jack if desired. This status was confirmed to an extent by the Merchant Shipping (Registration, etc.) Act 1993 and the consolidating Merchant Shipping Act 1995 which, in Section 4, Subsection 1, prohibits the use of any distinctive national colours or those used or resembling flags or pendants on Her Majesty's Ships, "except the [[Red Ensign]], the Union flag (commonly known as the Union Jack) with a white border", and some other exceptions permitted elsewhere in the Acts. However, Section 2 regards the 'British flag', and states that "The flag which every British ship is entitled to fly is the Red Ensign (without any defacement or modification) and, subject to (a warrant from Her Majesty or from the Secretary of State, or an Order of Council from her Majesty regarding a defaced [[Red Ensign]]), no other colours." However, no provision is made in the Act for flags incorporating the Union Flag such as the [[Blue Ensign]], or defaced Blue Ensign, both of which are widely used. The validity and accuracy of the Act is therefore questionable. The ultimate determination of legality is that many civil vessels fly the white bordered Union Flag without official opposition. ==Flag days== United Kingdom In July 2007 the British prime minister at the time, [[Gordon Brown]], unveiled plans to have the Union Flag flown more often from government buildings. While consultation on new guidelines is under way, the decision to fly the flag may be made by each government department. Previously the flag was generally only flown on public buildings on days marking the birthdays of members of the [[British Royal Family|Royal Family]], the [[wedding anniversary]] of the monarch, [[Commonwealth Day]], [[Accession Day]], [[Coronation Day]], the [[Queen's Birthday|Queen's Official Birthday]], [[Remembrance Sunday]] and on the days of the State Opening and prorogation of Parliament. The Union Flag is flown at [[half mast]] from the announcement of the death of the Sovereign (save for Proclamation Day), or upon command of the Sovereign. The current flag days where the Union Flag should be flown from government buildings throughout the UK are: * 20 January (Birthday of [[Sophie, Countess of Wessex|The Countess of Wessex]]) * 6 February (Anniversary of the accession of [[Elizabeth II|The Queen]]) * 19 February (Birthday of [[Prince Andrew, Duke of York|The Duke of York]]) * Second Monday in March ([[Commonwealth Day]]) * 10 March (Birthday of [[Prince Edward, Earl of Wessex|The Earl of Wessex]]) * 21 April ([[Elizabeth II|The Queen]]'s Birthday) * 9 May ([[Europe Day]]) * 2 June (Anniversary of The Queen's coronation) * 10 June (Birthday of [[Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh|The Duke of Edinburgh]]) * June (no fixed date) – [[Queen's Birthday|The Queen's Official Birthday]] * 17 July (Birthday of [[Camilla, Duchess of Cornwall|The Duchess of Cornwall]]) * 15 August (Birthday of the [[Anne, Princess Royal|The Princess Royal]]) * Second Sunday in November ([[Remembrance Sunday]]) * 14 November (Birthday of [[Charles, Prince of Wales|The Prince of Wales]]) * 20 November (Anniversary of the wedding of The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh) In addition, the Union Flag should be flown in the following areas on specified days: * 1 March (Wales only, for [[Saint David's Day|St David's Day]]) * 17 March ([[Northern Ireland]] only, for [[St Patrick's Day]]) * 23 April (England only, for [[Saint George's Day|St George's Day]]) * 3 September (Scotland only, for Merchant Navy Day) * The Day of the Opening of a Session of the Houses of Parliament, [[Greater London]] only * The day of the prorogation of a Session of the Houses of Parliament, [[Greater London]] only On 30 November, ([[Saint Andrew's Day|St Andrew's Day]]), the Union Flag can be flown in Scotland only where a building has more than one flagpole—on this day the Saltire will not be lowered to make way for the Union Flag if there is only one flagpole. This difference arose after [[Member of the Scottish Parliament|Members of the Scottish Parliament]] complained that Scotland was the only country in the world that could not fly its national flag on its national day. However, on 23 April, St George's Day, it is the Union Flag of the United Kingdom that is flown over United Kingdom's government offices in England. Non-government organisations may fly the Union Flag whenever they choose. Canada In Canada, the Royal Union Flag is flown on specified days from federal buildings, airports, warships, military bases, and other government buildings on the following days: * [[Commonwealth Day]] (second Monday in March) * [[Victoria Day]]- the official birthday of the [[Queen of Canada|monarch]] (the Monday on or preceding 24 May) * 11 December- the anniversary of the proclamation of the [[Statute of Westminster 1931]] The flag is only flown in addition to the [[flag of Canada|Canadian national flag]], where physical arrangements allow (e.g., when there is more than one flag pole). ==Usage and disposal== In general there are no prescriptions regarding the use and disposal of the flag in a manner akin to the [[United States Flag Code]]. This reflects its largely unofficial status as a national flag. There is no contemporary national concept of [[flag desecration]]. There is also no specific way in which the Union Flag should be folded as there is with the United States Flag. It should simply be folded ready for the next use. Royal Navy Stores Duties Instructions, article 447, dated 26 February 1914, specified that flags condemned from further service use were to be torn up into '''''small''''' pieces and disposed of as rags (ADM 1/8369/56), not to be used for decoration or sold. The exception was flags that had flown in action: these could be framed and kept on board, or transferred to a "suitable place", such as a museum (ADM 1/8567/245). ==Other names== *In Canada the flag is officially called the '''Royal Union Flag'''. *In Hong Kong, the flag has the nickname '''Rice-Character Flag''' (米字旗; [[Cantonese]] [[Jyutping]]: ''mai5zi6kei4'') in Chinese, since the pattern looks like the Chinese character for "rice" (米). *The '''Butcher's Apron''' is a [[pejorative]] term for the flag, common among [[Irish republicanism|Irish republicans]]. In 2006, [[Sandra White]], a [[Member of the Scottish Parliament]], caused a furore when the term was used in a press release under her name. It was later blamed on the actions of a researcher, who resigned yet claimed that the comment had been approved by White. ==Other uses== Commonly the Union Flag is used on computer software and Internet pages as an [[Computer icon|icon]] representing a choice of the [[English language]] where a choice among multiple languages may be presented to the user. The Union flag has been embroidered on various [[Reebok]] equipment as a mark of the brand's British origin, and the Reebok Union Jack has been referred to as a brand icon. Many music artists have used the Union flag ranging from rock artists [[The Who]], [[Freddie Mercury#Illness and death|Freddie Mercury]], [[Oasis (band)|Oasis]], [[Iron Maiden]] and [[Def Leppard#Hysteria era (1984–1989)|Def Leppard]], to the pop girl group the [[Spice Girls#Other brand ventures|Spice Girls]]. ===The Union Flag in use=== {{Image gallery |width=120 |lines=6 | Pre-1801 Union Flag at Fort York, Toronto.JPG|Flag on pole before grey sky and trees in early spring. A modern brick building is visible on the left.|Pre-1801 Union Flag at the historic [[Fort York]], Toronto, Canada. | Scottish Union Flag.jpg|Flag on pole atop a historic building showing the Scottish variant of the Union Flag|Scottish Union Flag at [[Lennoxlove House]], East Lothian, Scotland. | GillrayBritannia.jpg|Colour engraving of carroon ship at sea flying flag with red cross over white saltire on blue background.|The flag flying on [[Britannia]]'s boat in this 1793 [[James Gillray]] cartoon is considerably different from the present flag. | A-Block-for-the-Wigs-Gillray.jpeg|Satirical cartoon has flag with light blue cross and saltire on white background, and light blue cross in top-left quarter of flag.|A different style of Union Flag appears again in another cartoon by [[James Gillray|Gillray]]. | UK-CA-BC_Flags.JPG||The Royal Union Flag alongside the [[flag of Canada]] and the [[flag of British Columbia]], at Stanley Park in Vancouver. | A typical london street.jpg||Rows of Union Flags line each side of [[The Mall, London|The Mall]] in [[London]]. | Corner of Downing St and Whitehall, London - May 2008.jpg||Union Flag flying above [[Downing Street]]. }} ===Ensigns and other examples=== {{Image gallery |width=120 |height=80 |lines=4 | Hudsons Bay Company Flag.svg|Flag with solid red background and Union Flag as top-left quarter and initials "HBC" in white in bottom-right.|The [[Hudson's Bay Company]]'s flag has a Union Flag on the corner. | Northern Lighthouse Board Commisioners Flag of the United Kingdom.png||Commissioners' Flag of the [[Northern Lighthouse Board]]. | Taunton Flag (United States).svg||Flag of [[Taunton, Massachusetts]]. | Flag_of_Ontario.svg||The [[Flag of Ontario|flag]] of the Canadian Province of [[Ontario]]. | Flag_of_Manitoba.svg||The [[Flag of Manitoba|flag]] of the Canadian Province of [[Manitoba]]. | Flag_of_Newfoundland_and_Labrador.svg||The [[Flag of Newfoundland and Labrador|flag]] of the Canadian Province of [[Newfoundland and Labrador]]. | Grand_Union_Flag.svg||The [[Grand union flag|Grand Union Flag]] is considered to be the first national flag of the United States. | Flag_of_Hawaii.svg||The [[Flag of Hawaii|flag of the U.S. state of Hawaii]], incorporating the Union Flag. | Flag_of_Australia.svg||Australian national flag, incorporates the Union Flag. | Flag_of_Queensland.svg||Union Flag as part of the Queensland State flag. |Flag_of_Hong_Kong_1871.svg||Former colonial [[Flag of Hong Kong]], used 1871 to 1876. |Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg|Red cross on white background,Union Flag as top-left quarter.|[[Royal Navy]] [[White Ensign]]. |Civil Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg|Solid red flag with Union Flag as top-left quarter.|The Merchant Navy Ensign. |Ensign of the Royal Air Force.svg|Sky blue flag with concentric circle RAF icon in right half and Union Flag as top-left quarter.|[[Royal Air Force]] [[Royal Air Force Ensign|Ensign]]. ||Sky blue flag with Royal Observer Coprs badge in the right half and Union Flag as top-left corner.|[[Royal Observer Corps]] Ensign. |Civil Air Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg|Dark blue cross with white border on powder blue background, with Union Flag as top-left quarter.|[[British Civil Air Ensign]]. |Government Ensign of Gibraltar.svg|Dark blue flag with red and yellow castle to right and Union Flag in top-left quarter.|Gibraltar State Ensign. |Civil Ensign of the Cayman Islands.svg|Red flag with multicoloured shield to right and Union Flag in top-left quarter.|Cayman Islands Red Ensign. |Naval Ensign of Australia.svg|Australian Flag with white background and blue stars|[[Royal Australian Navy]] Ensign. |Ensign of the Royal Australian Air Force.svg|Australian Flag with pale blue background and small RAF icon in bottom-right.|Royal Australian Air Force Ensign. |Civil Air Ensign of New Zealand.svg|Dark blue cross with white border on powder blue background, with Union Flag as top-left quarter and red stars in bottom-right corner.|New Zealand Civil Aviation Ensign. }} ==See also== * [[List of British flags]] * [[Northern Ireland flags issue]] * [[Union between Sweden and Norway|Flag]] and [[Union between Sweden and Norway#National_symbols|Flags]] of the Union between Sweden and Norway. * [[Cross]] * [[Union Jack Club]], London ==External links== {{External media |align = right |width = 300px |image1 = [http://farm3.static.flickr.com/2609/3998116284_e733eba016_b.jpg The Cross of Saint Andrew]. 26 September 2009. By [http://www.flickr.com/photos/cthonus/ cthonus] Accessed 2009-12-30. |image2 = [http://farm1.static.flickr.com/52/169159047_949c211b8b_b.jpg The Cross of Saint George]. 11 June 2006. By [http://www.flickr.com/photos/83031170@N00/ Two Thumbs]. Accessed 2009-12-30. |image3 = [http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3401/3589637303_d28495046d_b.jpg Scottish Union Flag.] 02 June 2009. By [http://www.flickr.com/photos/30178831@N02/ boongiepam]. Accessed 2009-12-16. |image4 = [http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3104/2394005982_55390ea0d1_b.jpg English/British Union Flag.] 29 March 2008. By [http://www.flickr.com/photos/nicbutler/ dr.nic]. Accessed 2009-12-31. |image5 = [http://farm1.static.flickr.com/166/424511908_2b2dd02dcd_b.jpg The Cross of Saint Patrick]. 17 March 2007. By [http://www.flickr.com/photos/tim_ellis/ tim ellis]. Accessed 2009-12-30. |image6 = [http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3426/3722605567_867033b96c_b.jpg United Kingdom Union Flag.] 15 July 2009. By [http://www.flickr.com/photos/mortuaryman/ leegibb13]. Accessed 2009-12-16. }} {{Commons category|Flags of the United Kingdom}} * [http://www.lyon-court.com/lordlyon/218.183.html The Lyon Court: Flags] * [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/norfolk/4116988.stm Monochrome Union Flag not flown to avoid controversy] * British flags during [[The Protectorate]] and the [[Commonwealth of England]] – see [http://flagspot.net/flags/gb-inter.html external link] * [http://www.royal.gov.uk/output/page5017.asp British Monarchy — Union Flag] * [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/4895076.stm BBC page for 400th anniversary of flag] * [http://www.jdawiseman.com/papers/union-jack/union-jack.html How to draw the Union Jack]
{{nationalflags}} {{Flags of Europe}} {{UKFlags}} {{Union Flag|state=collapsed}}