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Uniforms of the Canadian Forces

Uniforms of the Canadian Forces

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Encyclopedia
The Uniforms of the Canadian Forces are the official dress worn by members of Canada's military while on duty.

Prior to unification in 1968
Unification of the Canadian Forces
Unification of the Canadian Forces took place in 1968 when the Royal Canadian Navy, Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force were merged to form the Canadian Armed Forces....

, the uniforms of the Canadian Army, Royal Canadian Navy
Royal Canadian Navy
The history of the Royal Canadian Navy goes back to 1910, when the naval force was created as the Naval Service of Canada and renamed a year later by King George V. The Royal Canadian Navy is one of the three environmental commands of the Canadian Forces...

 (RCN) and Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
The history of the Royal Canadian Air Force begins in 1920, when the air force was created as the Canadian Air Force . In 1924 the CAF was renamed the Royal Canadian Air Force and granted royal sanction by King George V. The RCAF existed as an independent service until 1968...

 (RCAF) were similar to their counterparts in the forces of the United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 and other Commonwealth
Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, normally referred to as the Commonwealth and formerly known as the British Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of fifty-four independent member states...

 countries, save for national identifiers and some regimental accoutrements. With unification in 1968 all branches started wearing the new rifle green uniform. The present distinctive environmental uniforms in different colours for the army, navy and air force were introduced in the late 1980s and are generally similar to their pre-1968 counterparts.

History



Shortly following unification, the service-specific uniforms (navy blue, khaki, and light blue) were abandoned in favour of the Canadian Forces
Canadian Forces
The Canadian Forces , officially the Canadian Armed Forces , are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces."...

 rifle green, single-breasted
Single-breasted
In clothing, single-breasted refers to a coat, jacket or similar garment having one column of buttons and a narrow overlap of fabric. In contrast, a double-breasted coat has a wider overlap and two parallel rows of buttons....

, four-button tunic
Tunic
A tunic is any of several types of clothing for the body, of various lengths reaching from the shoulders to somewhere between the hips and the ankles...

 and pants, with beret
Beret
A beret is a soft, round, flat-crowned hat, designated a "cap", usually of woven, hand-knitted wool, crocheted cotton, or wool felt, or acrylic fiber....

 or service cap uniform, commonly referred to as "CFs" or "CF greens". Though accommodation was made for army regiments' ceremonial uniforms (kilt
Kilt
The kilt is a knee-length garment with pleats at the rear, originating in the traditional dress of men and boys in the Scottish Highlands of the 16th century. Since the 19th century it has become associated with the wider culture of Scotland in general, or with Celtic heritage even more broadly...

s for Highland and Irish Regiments, for example), no allowance was made for the Navy or Air Force, with the exception of a rifle-green wedge cap
Garrison cap
A Side cap is a foldable military cap with straight sides and a creased or hollow crown sloping to the back where it is parted. It is known as a garrison cap , a wedge cap , or officially field service cap, , but it is more generally known as the side cap.It follows the style which...

 for optional wear by the latter. The traditional Navy and Air Force rank names were replaced by the army equivalents, with naval-style rank badges for officers and army-style for non-commissioned members. Navy rank names were restored a few years later. However, the Air Force retains what had formerly been considered "army" rank (but which is similar to that used by the air forces of many other nations).
For everyday work wear, in environments or occasions where the CF greens would not be appropriate, personnel were issued the Work Dress uniform. This consisted of rifle-green work trousers; a zippered rifle-green work jacket; a "lagoon green" work shirt; and beret. The jacket collar was worn open; the shirt was either worn with a tie, or with the collar open and over the jacket collar. For a brief period in the 1980s, ascots
Ascot tie
An ascot tie, or ascot, is a narrow neckband with wide pointed wings, traditionally made of pale grey patterned silk. This wide, formal tie is usually patterned, folded over, and fastened with a stickpin or tie tack. It is usually reserved for wear with morning dress for formal daytime weddings and...

 or "dickies" in regimental or branch colours were worn inside the open shirt collar. Army field units normally wore combat boots with work dress, "blousing" the trousers with elastic boot bands. Many Army regiments wore regimental shoulder flashes on the work dress jacket.

A notable exception was the Special Service Force (SSF), who wore a camouflage
Camouflage
Camouflage is a method of concealment that allows an otherwise visible animal, military vehicle, or other object to remain unnoticed, by blending with its environment. Examples include a leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier and a leaf-mimic butterfly...

 jump smock
Canadian Para Smock
The Canadian Parachutist Smock was issued to the Canadian Airborne Regiment from 1975 until the regiment was disbanded in 1995 and to all units of 1 SSF Brigade including the 1st Battalion of The Royal Canadian Regiment based in London, Ontario. Made of 'Reverse DPM' camouflage, it is very similar...

, regimental T-shirt, beret, and high-top paratrooper boots, with work dress or combat trousers as applicable.

Distinct Environmental Uniform


Distinctive Environmental Uniforms (DEU) were issued to the CF beginning in 1986. Members of the sea, land and air forces were issued uniforms distinctive to their service or "environment". While the term "DEU" refers to all the different environmental uniforms, in practical usage it refers to what is more properly known as "No 3 (Service) Dress".

The following Orders of Dress existed after DEU was implemented:
  • No. 1 (Ceremonial) Dress: Full formal dress uniforms for ceremonial parades and other special occasions. Uniforms include regimental full dress (such as scarlet tunics and bearskin hats of Guards regiments), patrol dress (a slightly less elaborate regimental uniform), and Service Dress (see below) uniform with ceremonial accoutrements (swords, white web belts, gloves, etc.). Regimental uniforms are normally not provided at public expense; purchase of these uniforms is done either by individuals or by various regiments out of non-public funds.


  • No. 2 (Mess) Dress: Formal evening attire for mess dinners. Uniforms range from full mess kit
    Mess dress
    Mess dress is the military term for the formal evening dress worn in the mess or at other formal occasions. It is also known as mess uniform and mess kit...

     (with dinner jackets, cummerbund
    Cummerbund
    A cummerbund is a broad waist sash, usually pleated, which is often worn with single-breasted dinner jackets . The cummerbund was first adopted by British military officers in colonial India as an alternative to a waistcoat, and later spread to civilian use...

    s or waistcoat
    Waistcoat
    A waistcoat or vest is a sleeveless upper-body garment worn over a dress shirt and necktie and below a coat as a part of most men's formal wear, and as the third piece of the three-piece male business suit.-Characteristics and use:...

    s, etc.) to Service Dress with bow ties. Mess Dress is not provided at public expense; however, all commissioned officers of the Regular Force are required to own Mess Dress within six months of being commissioned.

  • No. 3 (Service) Dress: Also called a "walking-out" or "duty uniform", it is the military equivalent of the business suit; it is the standard uniform for appearing in public (hence the moniker "walking-out dress"). The uniforms range from the tunic-necktie-undress ribbons to the more informal short-sleeve shirt dress. The Navy also has an optional white summer uniform with white high-collared tunic. With the exception of the high collar white option, "Service Dress" becomes No 2 (Mess) Dress by replacing the shirt and tie with a white shirt and bow tie, or to No 1 (Ceremonial) Dress by the addition of ceremonial web or sword belts, gloves, and other accoutrements.

  • No. 4 (Base) Dress: Known as "Garrison Dress" in the Army. It was a more informal uniform, originally for day-to-day wear in garrison or on base, out of the public eye. It usually consisted of work trousers and either a dress shirt or work shirt, with an optional sweater; Army personnel wore a disruptive-pattern jacket. It has been phased out; No. 5 dress (for the army) and No. 3 (for the air force and navy, became No. 3E) has been adapted to replace it.

  • No. 5 (Operational) Dress: Originally specialized uniforms for wear in an operational (i.e. combat) theatre, they have now superseded No 4 uniform for everyday wear in garrison. It consists of a CADPAT
    CADPAT
    Canadian Disruptive Pattern is the computer-generated digital camouflage pattern currently used by the Canadian Forces . CADPAT is designed to reduce the likelihood of detection by night vision devices. The basic uniform consists of a wide brim combat hat, helmet cover, shirt, jacket, trousers,...

     combat uniform for the Army and Air Force and Naval Combat Dress (NCD) for the Navy. Certain trades such as firefighters and military police wear working dress similar to their civilian counterparts.

Royal Canadian Navy


  • Ceremonial Dress
  • Mess Dress
  • Service Dress
  • Naval Combat Dress

Canadian Army


Service dress
Land personnel were issued new tunics and trousers similar in style to the old CF greens, but with the addition of shoulder straps. They were issued in heavy-weight rifle green (worn with the old CF green dress shirt) for winter wear, and lighter weight tan for summer; in the latter case, headgear, neckties, belts and badges were still rifle-green or on rifle-green backing. Only the Army retained the branch or regimental collar badges on the dress jacket, such non-traditional devices having been abandoned on Navy and Air Force jackets. Army personnel were also issued epaulets that could be sewn to the old CF green service dress tunic to convert it to a "new" DEU tunic.

Recently, the peaked service cap was retired for Land personnel (with the exception of regimental forage caps in the Governor General's Foot Guards and the Canadian Grenadier Guards), and the beret (except in Scottish and Highland regiments) is the universal Army headdress. Most recently, the heavy combat sweater was retired, replaced with a lighter-weight V-neck sweater for Service Dress wear, and with a fleece sweatshirt for Operational wear.

Garrison dress
The unpopular work dress was replaced with "No. 4 (Garrison) Dress", which consisted of the old-style work dress pants, a disruptive-pattern jacket, a black web belt, a short-sleeve summer Service Dress shirt with the collar open and over the jacket collar, and high paratrooper-style garrison boots. The rifle-green crew-neck combat sweater doubled as a sweater for wear with Service Dress and Garrison Dress. Due to concerns over the number of uniforms Army personnel had to carry with them on postings and taskings, the tan summer DEU was eventually retired, and the winter uniform mandated for year-round wear. The garrison dress uniform was never popular with the combat arms, as the boots were easily scuffed, especially when doing manual labour; the jacket was hot (being heavily lined) and restrictive; the belt was designed to ride very high on the body and served no practical purpose. Army troops generally eschewed garrison dress for the combat uniform when possible, even in garrison. Land Force Western Area
Land Force Western Area
Land Force Western Area is one of four operational commands of the Canadian Army. LFWA is responsible for all Canadian Army administration and operations in western Canada from the Pacific Ocean to Thunder Bay, Ontario...

 actually instructed its units to wear the combat uniform instead, and Land Force Command later adopted the practice across the rest of the country, authorizing combat uniform for all occasions where garrison dress was deemed appropriate. This authorization is often extended to Land environment personnel in other commands.

Royal Canadian Air Force


Personnel in the Air element were issued a uniform of similar cut to the old CF greens, but in blue, with a light-blue shirt, black necktie, and air force blue wedge cap, forage cap and beret. No 4 (Base) Dress consists of blue work pants, light blue dress shirt (open-necked or with necktie), and optional V-neck sweater. Air personnel were eventually authorized to wear the Navy's work shirt, which was similar in dark blue, though this was recently replaced by a camouflage uniform similar to the Land combat uniform. Air personnel were issued a blue beret for wear when appropriate; it was soon authorized as was the blue flyer's jacket and Gore-Tex
Gore-Tex
Gore-Tex is a waterproof/breathable fabric, and a registered trademark of W. L. Gore and Associates. It was co-invented by Wilbert L. Gore, Rowena Taylor, and Gore's son, Robert W. Gore. Robert Gore was granted on April 27, 1976, for a porous form of polytetrafluoroethylene with a...

 "line" jackets for use with work dress, then with service dress; the wedge cap is still popular. Forage caps are still authorized for wear by officers as an optional item. Non-aircrew personnel wear a "half-wing" trade badge on the right side of the service dress tunic above the right breast pocket.

The "purple" trades


For military occupations that are not specifically designated to a particular element (e.g. clerks, military police, medical personnel, etc.), an element is usually assigned or may be requested on enrolment. Due to the way that members of these "purple trades
Purple trades
In the armed forces of Canada, the purple trades are occupations and careers – typically related to logistics or other support – that are not strongly linked to one of the Canadian Forces' three major 'environments' or 'elements': sea, land, or air....

" frequently have environments different from their current assignments, many units of the Canadian Forces, when on parade in dress uniform, will display a mix of navy, army, and air force uniforms. As various specialty courses become more widely available, no longer restricted only to "soldiers" or "sailors", for example, it is not unheard-of to see a Navy clerk in a tactical air squadron with parachutist's wings, or an Air Force medic in a tank regiment with a submariner's "dolphins" badge.

Operational dress


Until the early 1960s, the Army Battle Dress
Battle Dress
Battle Dress was the specific title of a military uniform adopted by the British Army in the late 1930s and worn until the 1960s. Several other nations also introduced variants of Battle Dress during the Second World War, including Australia, Canada, India, New Zealand, South Africa, and the...

 uniform was worn both on parades and in combat. It was common to maintain traditional regimental distinctions, even in the thick of battle. A notable exception to this was the Highland regiments, who were ordered to cease wearing their kilts in 1939 in favour of more generic service dress, the kilt being deemed "unsuitable for modern war".

By the time of the Korean War, more comfortable combat clothing was being designed, notably "Bush Dress", in dark green cotton and bearing a resemblance to the Khaki Drill uniform of the Second World War. Lightweight Service Dress known as "T-Dubs" were issued for parades in the summer months.

In the early 1960s, Battle Dress was replaced for field wear by the combat uniform, often referred to merely as "combats". It was issued as a standard order of dress for the pre-Unification Army, and later Regular Force "army" personnel in field units of Force Mobile Command and for personnel in field units or detachments in Canadian Forces Communication Command, as well as for personnel in other organizations as required for employment in a land combat environment. Combat uniforms were not issued to Reservists until 1972, although they were permitted to wear it if they purchased it themselves (usually at war surplus stores).

The combat uniform consisted of a long-sleeve olive-drab (OD) shirt, with two voluminous cargo pockets at the hip and two slanted pockets (designed for the 20-round FNC1 rifle magazine) at the breast, and drawstrings at the waist and hem; OD trousers, with regular pockets at the front and back and a large cargo patch pocket on each thigh, drawstrings at the cuff, and buttons on the belt loops for the attachment of optional suspenders; an OD V-neck undershirt; and black combat boots, with trouser cuffs bloused over. The beret was often worn, but could be replaced by a soft OD field hat or the American M1 steel helmet as the tactical situation dictated (while the Canadian combat uniform was universally olive green, American style cloth helmet covers with two types of camouflage pattern were issued; the woodland pattern worn in Vietnam and an autumn pattern). At the time of adoption, the OD colour was a standard among NATO forces; however, as other NATO forces adopted camouflage uniforms (for example, the British DPM (Disruptive Pattern Material) uniforms, or the Americans their woodland camouflage BDUs (Battle Dress Uniforms)), the Canadian Forces quickly became one of the only first world militaries not to adopt camouflage garments.

Officers displayed their rank on slip-ons on the epaulets of the shirt or jacket; NCMs wore small OD versions of their rank insignia stitched in the centre of the upper sleeve, although for a period in the 1980s these were stitched onto slip-ons, ostensibly to save wear-and-tear on the uniforms, but also providing the ability to remove rank for security purposes. The national identifier consisted of a "CANADA" flash stitched on the upper shoulder just below the sleeve seam, and unit or trade identifiers were worn on slip-ons on the shirt's epaulets; however, personnel belonging to Canadian Forces Europe and other overseas missions wore full-colour Canadian flag patches on the upper sleeve. In the 1990s, the "CANADA" flash was replaced with a subdued olive-drab Canadian flag, worn on the upper left sleeve below the epaulet. Interestingly, these flag badges showed up in full-colour red-and-white when illuminated by a blue light.

Lightweight coats, rain suits, parkas, and other tactical clothing (in OD) were issued to deal with different weather conditions. For winter conditions, personnel were issued white mukluks, mitts, and balaclavas, as well as white camouflage covers for their parkas, trousers, helmets, and rucksacks.

In the late 1980s, the CF experimented with an alternative combat shirt designed by an Air Command officer. The Mark III Combat Shirt had flat breast pockets and lacked the hip cargo pockets and drawstrings. It was designed to be tucked in to the trousers like a regular shirt if desired, or worn untucked like the older style shirt. It proved rather unpopular from an operational standpoint due to its lack of storage capacity, and was considered to look sloppier than the older style; few were issued after initial stocks were depleted but the Mark III was worn alongside the earlier marks by some individuals until the adoption of CADPAT throughout the Army. Today they remain in small numbers in the Cadet program and are issued at summer training facilities to junior cadets for survival exercises.

Royal Military College of Canada uniforms and proficiency badges


At the Royal Military College of Canada
Royal Military College of Canada
The Royal Military College of Canada, RMC, or RMCC , is the military academy of the Canadian Forces, and is a degree-granting university. RMC was established in 1876. RMC is the only federal institution in Canada with degree granting powers...

, cadets wear a variety of uniforms depending on the occasion and their environment: ceremonial dress (semi ceremonial); full dress (formal occasions); ceremonial dress (semi ceremonial); outside sports dress; service dress Air Force; service dress Navy; service dress Navy without jacket; Service dress Air Force without jacket; service dress Army without jacket; and combat dress.

Cadets wear a variety of badges, depending on their proficiency and rank. The gold thread crossed pistols are awarded as a military badge for marksmanship when markman levels are achieved for the pistol; a crown is awarded in May to the top score in the College. The gold thread crossed rifles are awarded as a military badge for marksmanship when markman levels are achieved for the rifle; a crown is awarded in May to the top score in the College. The gold thread cross swords in a laurel wreath
Laurel wreath
A laurel wreath is a circular wreath made of interlocking branches and leaves of the bay laurel , an aromatic broadleaf evergreen. In Greek mythology, Apollo is represented wearing a laurel wreath on his head...

 military proficiency badge is awarded if the following conditions have been met by the student: a mark of at least B in military assessment; positive leadership qualities in the summer training report; an academic average of at least 70%; a mark of at least B in physical training; a satisfactory mark in the bilingualism profile; A crown is awarded to the top Cadet having received this award, by year. All students are awarded at least a blue start for a start at bilingualism. As they achieve proficiency, they receive a silver or gold star. An academic distinction badge is awarded to a student with an academic average of at least 80% at the end of the year. Physical fitness badges are awarded upon reaching a certain number of points. As cadets learn and demonstrate leadership skills, they are appointed to different positions. The number of bars increases from 0 to 5 as students are promoted. There are 5 no-bar positions and 15 2 bar positions. The brass or gold thread lyre
Lyre
The lyre is a stringed musical instrument known for its use in Greek classical antiquity and later. The word comes from the Greek "λύρα" and the earliest reference to the word is the Mycenaean Greek ru-ra-ta-e, meaning "lyrists", written in Linear B syllabic script...

 is awarded as a proficiency badge for brass and reed by the Band Officer when a student is considered capable of participating in parades. A brass or gold treble clef is awarded by the Band Officer as a proficiency badge for choir when a student is considered to be ready for concerts. A brass or gold thread pipe is awarded by the Band Officer as a proficiency badge for pipes when a student is considered capable of participating in parades. A brass or gold thread drum is awarded as a proficiency badge for drums by the Band Officer when a student is considered capable of participating in parades. The brass or gold thread thistle
Thistle
Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae. Prickles often occur all over the plant – on surfaces such as those of the stem and flat parts of leaves. These are an adaptation that protects the...

 is awarded by the Band Officer as a proficiency badge for Scottish highland dance
Scottish highland dance
The term Highland dance or Highland dancing is used today to refer to a style of athletic solo dancing which developed in the Gaelic Highlands of Scotland...

 when a student is considered capable of participating in parades.

CADPAT and the "Clothe the Soldier" program


In September 1996, the Treasury Board of the Canadian government approved the "Clothe the Soldier" project to address the deficiencies in the Army's operational clothing and personal protective equipment. By the 1990s, it was realized by the Forces that the combat uniform and personal protective equipment was becoming outmoded and obsolete. Over the years a number of specific deficiencies with various items had been identified; it was also noted that many items were not fully compatible with each other, reducing their overall effectiveness.

Since that time, the Clothe the Soldier project has begun an ambitious task of issuing new items of compatible clothing, ballistic protection, and load-carriage systems. New combat clothing would be issued in an integrated system to deal with any weather or environmental conditions, from tropical to arctic and from arid to wet.

The project was initially mandated to support 40,000 members of the Land Force, Regular and Reserve. In July 2000 the project was expanded to cover 50,000 members, to include all CF personnel conducting land operations (the additional 10,000 members from "entitled units", for example the Communication Reserve).


In 1997, CADPAT
CADPAT
Canadian Disruptive Pattern is the computer-generated digital camouflage pattern currently used by the Canadian Forces . CADPAT is designed to reduce the likelihood of detection by night vision devices. The basic uniform consists of a wide brim combat hat, helmet cover, shirt, jacket, trousers,...

 (Canadian Disruptive Pattern) was officially adopted as the standard Canadian Army camouflage
Camouflage
Camouflage is a method of concealment that allows an otherwise visible animal, military vehicle, or other object to remain unnoticed, by blending with its environment. Examples include a leopard's spotted coat, the battledress of a modern soldier and a leaf-mimic butterfly...

 pattern. CADPAT is a computer-designed pixellated pattern, based loosely on traditional disruptive pattern camouflage. The very first CADPAT item issued was the camouflage cover for the new ballistic helmet. Other than the unique digital pattern, the new CADPAT uniform is very similar in design to the former combat uniform: trousers with cuff drawstrings and side-of-leg cargo pockets, and jacket with two breast patch pockets and two large hip cargo pockets. Rank insignia, however, is now worn on a single slip-on on an epaulet midway down the shirt, in line with the breastbone of the individual. On the rank insignia slip on, embroidered the same color thread as the members element, is their branch, unit or regiment.

The Canadian Flag is worn on the left shoulder as a national identifier; it is attached by a hook-and-loop
Velcro
Velcro is the brand name of the first commercially marketed fabric hook-and-loop fastener, invented in 1948 by the Swiss electrical engineer George de Mestral...

 system, and can be switched with a green-coloured equivalent for use in the field. A name tape is similarly attached over the right breast pocket; the tape bears the member's name, preceded by a symbol denoting the member's environment: crossed swords for Land, an eagle for Air, and an anchor for Sea. Members of the Land Force have their rank insignia and name tag stitched in olive drab on CADPAT cloth. Members of the Air Force have their rank insignia and name tag stitched in dark blue on olive drab cloth, and wear blue shirts with the CADPAT instead of the standard green ones. Members of the Navy, have their rank insignia and name tape in black on olive drab cloth, and wear black shirts with CADPAT instead of the standard green ones. The old-style field cap was replaced by a broad-brimmed bush hat with a deployable neck covering.

Naval Combat Dress


Referred to as "Naval Combat Dress" or "NCDs", both officers
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position...

 and non-commissioned members of the Navy
Navy
A navy is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake- or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions...

 (or the Army and Air Force if required) wear a denim coloured work/dress shirt (combat shirt) with epaulets for rank badges on both shoulders along with black work trousers. Combat jackets, worn over the combat shirts, have epaulets for rank badges on each shoulder, along with name tags and ship's badge over the right chest. Specialist badges (such as diver, naval boarding party, or submariner qualification) are worn on the left. Depending on situation, headdress is either a beret (colour depending on the wearer's element) or a ship's ballcap. Footwear is black steel-toed (high top) sea boots (or optionally black ankle/parade boots while ashore). NCDs Jackets and pants are made of NOMEX.

Maternity dress


When conventional pattern uniforms are no longer comfortable or aesthetically appropriate, a pregnant woman can wear maternity dress. The non-operational maternity dress is a common-pattern ensemble in light-weight, washable material in three environmental colours. There is also
a white occupational variant for medical, dental, and food services personnel, worn as well by navy personnel during the summer dress period. The ensemble consists of general-purpose items suitable for wear as alternatives to those of service dress and its ceremonial and mess derivatives. Medals and accoutrements may be worn on ceremonial dress occasions. The ensemble includes a long tunic, a short tunic, slacks, maternity shirts in both long and short sleeve, a light jacket and a maternity top-coat with a removable liner.

Uniform of the Commander-in-Chief


The governor general is commander-in-chief of Canada. This role was expressly conferred on the governor general in the letters patent of 1947. As such, the governor general plays a major role in recognizing the importance of Canada’s military at home and abroad, and as Commander in Chief of Canada, the Governor General may wear Canadian Forces uniforms.

The dress uniform is often chosen by the Governor General. Most Governors General have opted to wear the Vice-Regal
Viceroy
A viceroy is a royal official who runs a country, colony, or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. The term derives from the Latin prefix vice-, meaning "in the place of" and the French word roi, meaning king. A viceroy's province or larger territory is called a viceroyalty...

 formal dress during military or formal events. On some occasions the Governor General has worn a regular suit.

Former Governor General Michaëlle Jean
Michaëlle Jean
Michaëlle Jean is a Canadian journalist and stateswoman who served as Governor General of Canada, the 27th since Canadian Confederation, from 2005 to 2010....

 chose to wear each of the three uniforms when appropriate:
  • Sleeve braids consist of crowned lions holding a red maple leaf in its paw alternating with gold leaves
  • Gold aiguillettes and shoulder cords
  • Epaulets with a crest of the arms of Canada (crowned lion holding a red maple leaf in its paw) without gold coloured lining as her aides-de-camp wear.
  • The Order of Canada and Order of Military Merit insignia around her neck
  • The Canadian Forces Decoration and the Saskatchewan Centennial Medal
  • The Star of the Order of St. John.


On Remembrance Day, 2009, in company of the Prince of Wales, Jean wore the Army version of the uniform of the Governor General. However, this time, the Governor General did not wear the insignia of the Order of Military Merit, and did not wear the star of the Order of St. John. Also, on the shoulder straps; the straps had the gold coloured lining as her aides-de-camp wear.

The current Governor General, David Johnston
David Lloyd Johnston
David Lloyd Johnston is a Canadian academic, author and statesman who is the current Governor General of Canada, the 28th since Canadian Confederation....

, has indicated that he likely will not don a uniform for military events, as he never served in the Canadian Forces.

Military police




After unification, military police
Canadian Forces Military Police
The Canadian Forces Military Police provide military police services to the Canadian Forces.Canadian Military Police are unusual in that they are classified as Peace Officers in the Criminal Code of Canada, which gives them the same powers as civilian law enforcement personnel to enforce Acts of...

 (MPs) wore the same uniforms as other personnel, distinguished only by a few unique accoutrements: a white vinyl cover over the service cap, a gold-coloured police-style badge on the breast pocket, and/or a brassard
Brassard
A brassard or armlet is an armband or piece of cloth or other material worn around the upper arm, used as an item of military uniform to which rank badges may be attached instead of being stitched into the actual clothing...

 or armlet bearing the title "MP" or "MILITARY POLICE MILITAIRE".

With the introduction of DEU, these accoutrements (except the brassards) were replaced. Now the main identifying feature of the military police was the addition of the colour red: a red service cap band for Naval and Air Force personnel, a red beret for army MPs and red backing for the cap badges of air force and navy MPs. In 2005, the dress regulations were amended to permit all MPs to wear the red beret regardless of their element, with any order of dress that may include a beret, except the number three order of dress for the Navy, in which the peaked cap is still worn, and the Air Force, in which case the Wedge is worn - both of which have a red identifier around the Military Police cap badge.

In 2001, the CF formally introduced the Military Police Operational Patrol Dress (MP OPD), a marked departure from standard military uniforms: it is immediately recognisable as a police uniform as opposed to a military one. It consists of black trousers, short-sleeved shirts for summer wear, long-sleeved collared shirts for winter, the naval pattern sweater, patrol jacket, body armour, police equipment belt and MP Gore-Tex
Gore-Tex
Gore-Tex is a waterproof/breathable fabric, and a registered trademark of W. L. Gore and Associates. It was co-invented by Wilbert L. Gore, Rowena Taylor, and Gore's son, Robert W. Gore. Robert Gore was granted on April 27, 1976, for a porous form of polytetrafluoroethylene with a...

 boots, with a red beret for all MPs. It is normally authorised for wear on patrol duties only, by members up to and including the rank of Warrant Officer / Petty Officer 1st Class. Some units, however, have begun to dress all uniformed and badged MPs of all ranks (including those above Warrant Officer / Petty Officer 1st Class) and those outside of patrol duties, in MP OPD and accoutrements. This is to ensure that all MP are available at any time in the case of an Extraordinary Rapid Deployment (similar to the US SWAT) scenario.

Medical Technician


Canadian Forces Health Services members wear the same uniforms as other members, with unique identifiers depending on which distinctive environmental uniform (DEU) they are assigned (Navy, Army, Air). Regardless of environment, all officer
Officer (armed forces)
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority. Commissioned officers derive authority directly from a sovereign power and, as such, hold a commission charging them with the duties and responsibilities of a specific office or position...

s and non-commissioned member
Non-commissioned member
A non-commissioned member , in the Canadian Forces, is defined in the Queen's Regulations and Orders as:"… any person, other than an officer, who is enrolled in, or who pursuant to law is attached or seconded otherwise than as an officer to, the Canadian Forces…" Thus, an NCM is any member who is...

s (NCMs) wear the same cap badge. The only difference between the cap badges is that the staff of Æsculapius on NCM badge comprises a gold serpent on a gold staff whereas on the officer badge comprises a silver serpent on a gold staff.

Naval medical officers wear scarlet distinction cloth between the braids of their rank, while other health care officer classifications (non-physicians) wear a dull cherry distinction cloth. NCMs wear a trade badge on their jackets.

All army health care officer classifications and non-commissioned members wear a "Medical" shoulder bar on the service dress jacket, and a tab bearing either the title "MEDICAL" or a unit identifier (e.g. "15 FD AMB") on slip-on
Slip-on
A shoulder mark, also called a shoulder board, shoulder loop, shoulder slide, rank slide, slip on, epaulette sleeve, or an epaulette, is a flat cloth sleeve worn on the shoulder strap of a uniform. It may bear rank or other insignia...

s for other uniforms. NCMs below the rank of warrant officer wear a trade badge on the sleeve of the service dress jacket.

All air force medical branch officers and non-commissioned members wear a distinctive metal badge over their name tag on both their dress uniform jacket and short-sleeve order of dress.

For working with their civilian counterparts, Canadian Forces Medical Technicians are issued midnight blue paramedic uniforms. They consists of dark trousers, short-sleeved collared shirts for summer wear, long-sleeved collared shirts for winter, and a patrol jacket. They feature reflective tape around the arms and legs, and a sanguine shoulder flash bearing e Medical Technician badge. In accordance with provincial laws, Medical Technicians training in Quebec must wear a maroon and gray uniform.

The Canadian Forces is in the process of introducing burgundy scrubs for members to wear while working in a care delivery unit, or during Maintenance of Clinical Skills shifts at civilian facilities.

Berets


The beret
Beret
A beret is a soft, round, flat-crowned hat, designated a "cap", usually of woven, hand-knitted wool, crocheted cotton, or wool felt, or acrylic fiber....

 is still the most widely worn headgear, and is worn with almost all orders of dress with the exception of the more formal orders of Naval and Air Force dress (i.e. Ceremonial, Mess, and Service Dress). A regimental or branch badge is worn centred over the wearer's left eye, and excess material pulled to the wearer's right.

Colour


The colour of the beret is determined by the wearer's environment, branch, or mission. The beret colours listed below are the current standard:
Colour Wearer
       Air Force blue
Air Force blue
Air Force blue is a variety of colours that are a form of blue. These colours are used by airforces for colour identification.-RAF blue:Air Force blue or RAF blue is a medium shade of the colour azure...

 
Air Force
Canadian Forces Air Command
The Royal Canadian Air Force , formerly Canadian Forces Air Command, is one of three environmental commands of the Canadian Forces...

black
Black beret
The black beret is a type of headgear commonly worn by armoured forces around the world including the British Army's Royal Tank Regiment , The Canadian Forces's Royal Canadian Armoured Corps , and The Australian Army's Royal Australian Armoured Corps among others...

 
Armoured
Royal Canadian Armoured Corps
The Royal Canadian Armoured Corps is the armoured branch of service of the Canadian Army, including regular force and reserve regiments.-History:...

, Navy
Canadian Forces Maritime Command
The Royal Canadian Navy , is the naval force of Canada. The RCN is one of three environmental commands within the unified Canadian Forces. Operating 33 warships and several auxiliary vessels, the Royal Canadian Navy consists of 8,500 Regular Force and 5,100 Primary Reserve sailors, supported by...

CF green  Army
Army
An army An army An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine), in the broadest sense, is the land-based military of a nation or state. It may also include other branches of the military such as the air force via means of aviation corps...

UN blue  personnel serving with the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 on peacekeeping
Peacekeeping
Peacekeeping is an activity that aims to create the conditions for lasting peace. It is distinguished from both peacebuilding and peacemaking....

 missions
scarlet
Scarlet (color)
Scarlet is a bright red color with a hue that is somewhat toward the orange. It is redder than vermilion. It is a pure chroma on the color wheel one-fourth of the way between red and orange. Scarlet is sometimes used as the color of flame...

 
Military Police
Canadian Forces Military Police
The Canadian Forces Military Police provide military police services to the Canadian Forces.Canadian Military Police are unusual in that they are classified as Peace Officers in the Criminal Code of Canada, which gives them the same powers as civilian law enforcement personnel to enforce Acts of...

maroon
Maroon beret
The maroon beret is a military beret and has been an international symbol of elite airborne forces since it was chosen for British airborne forces in World War II. This distinctive head dress was officially introduced in 1942, at the direction of General Frederick Browning, commander of the British...

 
Airborne
The Canadian Airborne Regiment
The Canadian Airborne Regiment was a Canadian Forces formation created on April 8, 1968. It was not an administrative regiment in the commonly accepted British Commonwealth sense, but rather a tactical formation manned from other regiments and branches...

 paratroopers
blaze orange  Search-and-rescue technicians and members of 8 Air Communications and Control Squadron
terracotta  personnel serving with the Multinational Force and Observers
Multinational Force and Observers
The Multinational Force and Observers is an international peacekeeping force overseeing the terms of the peace treaty between Egypt and Israel.-Background:...

tan
Tan beret
The tan beret has been adopted as official headdress by several special operations forces as a symbol of their unique capabilities.-British Army:...

Special Forces

History


Berets were first worn in the Canadian Army in 1937 when tank regiments (at that time part of the infantry) adopted the black beret of the Royal Armoured Corps
Royal Armoured Corps
The Royal Armoured Corps is currently a collection of ten regular regiments, mostly converted from old horse cavalry regiments, and four Yeomanry regiments of the Territorial Army...

. The black beret, which is now the headdress of the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps
Royal Canadian Armoured Corps
The Royal Canadian Armoured Corps is the armoured branch of service of the Canadian Army, including regular force and reserve regiments.-History:...

 (RCAC), was first worn by the Essex Regiment (Tank), now renamed The Windsor Regiment (RCAC). This was because the other new tank units were ordered to wear the headdress that they had while serving as infantry. The Essex Regiment (Tank) was a new unit, formed as a tank regiment, with no connection to the Infantry. As such, it picked the headdress that was worn by the Royal Tank Corps of the British Army
British Army
The British Army is the land warfare branch of Her Majesty's Armed Forces in the United Kingdom. It came into being with the unification of the Kingdom of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707. The new British Army incorporated Regiments that had already existed in England...

.

During the Second World War, a khaki beret was adopted throughout the Canadian Army, with the Canadian Armoured Corps (later Royal Canadian Armoured Corps) wearing the black beret and parachute troops wearing the maroon beret
Maroon beret
The maroon beret is a military beret and has been an international symbol of elite airborne forces since it was chosen for British airborne forces in World War II. This distinctive head dress was officially introduced in 1942, at the direction of General Frederick Browning, commander of the British...

 adopted by British airborne forces. The 2nd Canadian Parachute Battalion (the Canadian component of the First Special Service Force) wore a red beret with the dress uniform. Wartime berets were much fuller in cut than postwar berets.


After the Second World War, a series of coloured berets were adopted, with infantry regiments wearing scarlet, rifle regiments wearing dark (rifle) green, the armoured corps wearing black, and other arms and services wearing midnight blue berets, with a large coloured "flash" in corps colours - dull cherry for the Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps
Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps
The Royal Canadian Army Medical Corps was an administrative corps of the Canadian Army. The Militia Medical Service was established in 1899. The Militia Medical Service was redesignated the Canadian Army Medical Corps in 1904. The Canadian Army Medical Corps was redesignated The Royal Canadian...

, Emerald Green for the Royal Canadian Dental Corps
Royal Canadian Dental Corps
The Royal Canadian Dental Corps was an administrative corps of the Canadian Army. The Canadian Dental Corps was authorized on 31 Aug 1939. The Regular and Reserve components of the Canadian Dental Corps were collectively redesignated The Royal Canadian Dental Corps on 15 Jan 1947...

, etc. The coloured flashes were not popular and replaced in 1956 with forage caps bearing coloured bands in corps colours. The midnight blue beret itself was retained, however.

When the Canadian Forces unified on 1 February 1968, the rifle green beret was adopted as the CF standard. The RCAC
Royal Canadian Armoured Corps
The Royal Canadian Armoured Corps is the armoured branch of service of the Canadian Army, including regular force and reserve regiments.-History:...

 successfully fought to retain its distinctive black beret, and the Canadian Airborne Regiment wore the maroon beret
Maroon beret
The maroon beret is a military beret and has been an international symbol of elite airborne forces since it was chosen for British airborne forces in World War II. This distinctive head dress was officially introduced in 1942, at the direction of General Frederick Browning, commander of the British...

 until the unit was disbanded. Scottish and Irish infantry regiments wear tam o'shanters, glengarries
Glengarry
The glengarry bonnet is a traditional boat-shaped hat without a peak made of thick-milled woollen material with a toorie on top, a rosette cockade on the left, and ribbons hanging down behind...

, balmorals
Balmoral bonnet
The Balmoral is a traditional Scottish hat that can be worn as part of formal or informal Highland dress. Dating back to at least the 16th century, it takes the form of a knitted, soft wool cap with a flat crown...

 or caubeen
Caubeen
The caubeen is an Irish beret. It was formerly worn by peasants; however, it has since been adopted as the headdress of the Irish regiments of the British and Commonwealth armies, where its formal name is the "Bonnet, Irish, Green".-Name:...

s instead of berets.

The beret is used with service dress as formal headdress (especially after the move away from the forage cap in the 1990s) as well as with CADPAT
CADPAT
Canadian Disruptive Pattern is the computer-generated digital camouflage pattern currently used by the Canadian Forces . CADPAT is designed to reduce the likelihood of detection by night vision devices. The basic uniform consists of a wide brim combat hat, helmet cover, shirt, jacket, trousers,...

 clothing as garrison dress and as a form of combat dress. In certain cases the beret is even used as Ceremonial Dress, most commonly in units of the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps.

Full dress and patrol dress


The armoured, artillery, and infantry regiments are authorized ceremonial uniforms, but they are rarely seen because they are not provided at public expense (with a few exceptions).

Regular force


These regular force regiments have authorized full dress.
Regiment Headgear Jacket Trousers or kilt
Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
Royal Canadian Horse Artillery
The Royal Canadian Horse Artillery is the name given to the regular field artillery units of the Canadian Army. RCHA units are the senior units of the Canadian land field force, with a history dating back to the birth of Canada as a nation...

Busby
Busby
Busby is the English name for the Hungarian prémes csákó or kucsma, a military head-dress made of fur, worn by Hungarian hussars. In its original Hungarian form the busby was a cylindrical fur cap, having a bag of coloured cloth hanging from the top. The end of this bag was attached to the right...

, scarlet bag, white over scarlet plume
Blue light-cavalry jacket, scarlet facings, yellow frogging, blue cuffs, yellow Austrian knot
Austrian knot
An Austrian Knot is an elaborate design of twisted cord or lace worn as part of a dress uniform, usually on the lower sleeve. It is usually a distinction worn by officers; the major exception is the hussars, in which Austrian knots are worn by all ranks...

Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
The Royal Canadian Dragoons
The Royal Canadian Dragoons
The Royal Canadian Dragoons is an armoured regiment of the Canadian Army. It is one of three armoured regiments in the Regular Force and forms part of the Royal Canadian Armoured Corps....

Brass helmet, black plume Scarlet tunic, blue facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)
Lord Strathcona's Horse (Royal Canadians)
Lord Strathcona's Horse is a regular armoured regiment of the Canadian Forces. Currently based in Edmonton, Alberta, the regiment is part of Land Force Western Area's 1 Canadian Mechanized Brigade Group...

Brass helmet, red and white plume Scarlet tunic, myrtle green facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
12e Régiment blindé du Canada
12e Régiment blindé du Canada
The 12e Régiment blindé du Canada is a Canadian Forces armoured regiment based in CFB Valcartier, on the outskirts of Quebec City...

Black beret
Beret
A beret is a soft, round, flat-crowned hat, designated a "cap", usually of woven, hand-knitted wool, crocheted cotton, or wool felt, or acrylic fiber....

Scarlet tunic, yellow facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Busby, scarlet bag, white plume Blue tunic, scarlet facings, blue cuffs, yellow Austrian knot Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
The Royal Canadian Regiment
The Royal Canadian Regiment
The Royal Canadian Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. The regiment consists of four battalions, three in the Regular Force and one in the Primary Reserve...

White Wolseley helmet, scarlet puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings, white piping Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry
Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry is one of the three regular force infantry regiments of the Canadian Army. The regiment is composed of four battalions including a primary reserve battalion, for a total of 2,000 soldiers...

White Wolseley helmet, French grey puggaree Scarlet tunic, French grey facings, white piping Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Royal 22e Régiment
Royal 22e Régiment
The Royal 22nd Regiment is an infantry regiment and the most famous francophone organization of the Canadian Forces. The regiment comprises three Regular Force battalions, two Primary Reserve battalions, and a band, making it the largest regiment in the Canadian Army...

Bearskin cap, scarlet plume Scarlet tunic, blue facings, white piping Blue trousers, scarlet stripe

Reserve force


These reserve force regiments have authorized full dress and patrol dress uniforms.
Regiment Full dress headgear
Patrol dress headgear
Full dress jacket
Patrol dress jacket
Trousers or kilt
The Governor General's Horse Guards
The Governor General's Horse Guards
The Governor General's Horse Guards is an armoured reconnaissance regiment in the Primary Reserve of the Canadian Army, part of Land Force Central Area's 32 Canadian Brigade Group. Based in Toronto, it is the most senior reserve regiment in Canada, and the only Household Cavalry regiment of...

White metal helmet, scarlet plume Blue tunic, scarlet facings, white heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Black beret Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
Chain Mail
"Chain Mail" is a single by Mancunian band James, released in March 1986 by Sire Records, the first after the band defected from Factory Records. The record was released in two different versions, as 7" single and 12" EP, with different artworks by John Carroll and, confusingly, under different...

8th Canadian Hussars (Princess Louise's)
8th Canadian Hussars (Princess Louise's)
The 8th Canadian Hussars is one of the longest serving armoured regiments in the Canadian Army. A Squadron being Regular Force served in CFB Gagetown and B, C and HQ Squadrons served in Sussex, Moncton and Sackville...

Blue busby, white bag and plume Blue hussar
Hussar
Hussar refers to a number of types of light cavalry which originated in Hungary in the 14th century, tracing its roots from Serbian medieval cavalry tradition, brought to Hungary in the course of the Serb migrations, which began in the late 14th century....

 tunic, white facings, yellow light-cavalry knot
Blue trousers, two yellow stripes
Forage cap
Forage cap
Forage cap is the designation given to various types of military undress, fatigue or working headresses. These varied widely in form, according to country or period...

 or black beret
Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The Ontario Regiment (RCAC)
The Ontario Regiment (RCAC)
The Ontario Regiment is a Primary Reserve armoured reconnaissance regiment of the Canadian Forces Land Force Command. The unit is based in downtown Oshawa, Ontario...

Black beret Scarlet tunic, blue facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC)
The Queen's York Rangers (1st American Regiment) (RCAC)
The Queen's York Rangers R.C.A.C. is a Canadian Forces Primary Reserve regiment based in Toronto and Aurora. The regiment is part of Land Force Central Area's 32 Canadian Brigade Group. The regiment consists of two reconnaissance squadrons, A Sqn in Aurora and B Sqn in Toronto, and a Headquarters...

Black beret Green tunic, blue amethyst facings, white heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
Sherbrooke Hussars
Sherbrooke Hussars
The Sherbrooke Hussars is a Primary Reserve armoured regiment of the Canadian Forces.-Sherbrooke Regiment:The Sherbrooke Regiment was initially formed in 1866 as the Sherbrooke Battalion of Infantry, becoming the 53rd Battalion in 1867. The regiment provided volunteers for the 12th Battalion,...

Wolseley helmet, blue pugaree Blue hussar tunic, blue facings, yellow light-cavalry knot Blue trousers, two yellow stripes
Forage cap or black beret Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
12e Régiment blindé du Canada
12e Régiment blindé du Canada
The 12e Régiment blindé du Canada is a Canadian Forces armoured regiment based in CFB Valcartier, on the outskirts of Quebec City...

Black beret Scarlet tunic, yellow facings, heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
1st Hussars
1st Hussars
The 1st Hussars is an armoured Primary Reserve regiment of the Canadian Forces, currently based in London, Ontario and Sarnia, Ontario.-Foundation and organisation:...

Busby, buff bag, white plume Blue hussar tunic, buff facings, yellow light-cavalry knot Blue trousers, two white stripes
Forage cap or black beret Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The Prince Edward Island Regiment (RCAC)
The Prince Edward Island Regiment (RCAC)
The Prince Edward Island Regiment is a Primary Reserve armoured reconnaissance regiment of the Canadian Forces, Land Force Atlantic Area, 36 Canadian Brigade Group. The regiment is based in Charlottetown and Summerside.-Perpetuations:...

Wolseley helmet, yellow over red plume Scarlet tunic, yellow facings Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Forage cap or black beret Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The Royal Canadian Hussars (Montreal)
The Royal Canadian Hussars (Montreal)
The Royal Canadian Hussars is a Primary Reserve armoured regiment of the Canadian Forces. The unit is based in Montreal.-Lineage:...

Busby, white bag and plume Blue hussar tunic, white facings, yellow light-cavalry knot Blue trousers, two white stripes
Forage cap or black beret Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The British Columbia Regiment (Duke of Connaught's Own) Forage cap or Black beret Green tunic, black facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The South Alberta Light Horse
The South Alberta Light Horse
The South Alberta Light Horse, or SALH, is an armoured reconnaissance unit of the Canadian Forces Army Reserve based in Medicine Hat and Edmonton, Alberta...

Wolseley helmet Scarlet tunic, yellow facings, light-cavalry knot Blue trousers, two yellow stripes
Brown Stetson
Stetson
Stetsons are the brand of hat manufactured by the John B. Stetson Company of St. Joseph, Missouri.Stetson eventually became the world’s largest hat maker, producing over 3.3 million hats a year in a factory spread over . Today Stetson remains a family-owned concern...

 or black beret
Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The Saskatchewan Dragoons Wolseley helmet Scarlet tunic, blue facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Forage cap or black beret Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC)
The King's Own Calgary Regiment (RCAC)
The King's Own Calgary Regiment , or KOCR, is an armoured unit of the Canadian Forces Primary Reserve based at the Mewata Armoury in Calgary, Alberta....

Forage Cap, Cambridge blue puggaree, Scarlet tunic, Oxford blue facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Black beret Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The British Columbia Dragoons
The British Columbia Dragoons
The British Columbia Dragoons is a Primary Reserve armoured reconnaissance regiment of the Canadian Forces. It is based in Kelowna, Vernon and Penticton, British Columbia...

Wolseley helmet Scarlet tunic, blue facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Forage cap or black beret Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The Fort Garry Horse
The Fort Garry Horse
The Fort Garry Horse is a Canadian Army Reserve Armoured Regiment based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It is currently part of Land Force Western Area's 38 Canadian Brigade Group.- History :...

Wolseley helmet Scarlet tunic, yellow facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Forage cap or black beret Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
Le Régiment de Hull (RCAC)
Le Régiment de Hull (RCAC)
Le Régiment de Hull is a Primary Reserve armoured reconnaissance regiment of the Canadian Forces. The regiment is based in Hull, Quebec near Ottawa...

Black beret Scarlet tunic, blue facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, yellow stripe
Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The Windsor Regiment (RCAC)
The Windsor Regiment (RCAC)
The Windsor Regiment is a Primary Reserve armoured regiment of the Canadian Forces. The regiment, which was founded in 1936 as The Essex Regiment , is based in Windsor, Ontario. During World War II, the regiment was designated as the reconnaissance regiment for the 7th Canadian Infantry Division...

Black beret Scarlet tunic, black facings, yellow heavy-cavalry knot Blue trousers, two white stripes
Blue jacket, shoulder chain mail
The Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery Busby, scarlet bag, white plume Blue tunic, scarlet facings, blue cuffs Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Pillbox cap Blue jacket
Governor General's Foot Guards
Governor General's Foot Guards
The Governor General's Foot Guards is one of three Household regiments in the Primary Reserve of the Canadian Army, along with The Governor General's Horse Guards and the Canadian Grenadier Guards. The GGFG is the most senior militia infantry regiment in Canada."Civitas et Princeps Cura Nostra" is...

Bearskin cap, scarlet plume Scarlet guardsman tunic, blue facings, buttons in twos. Pipers: blue doublet
Doublet (clothing)
A doublet is a man's snug-fitting buttoned jacket that is fitted and shaped to the man's body which was worn in Western Europe from the Middle Ages through to the mid-17th century. The doublet was hip length or waist length and worn over the shirt or drawers. Until the end of the 15th century the...

.
Blue trousers, scarlet stripe. Pipers: Black Watch tartan
Tartan
Tartan is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours. Tartans originated in woven wool, but now they are made in many other materials. Tartan is particularly associated with Scotland. Scottish kilts almost always have tartan patterns...

.
Forage cap with white band Blue jacket
The Canadian Grenadier Guards
The Canadian Grenadier Guards
The Canadian Grenadier Guards is the second most senior and oldest infantry regiment in the Reserve Force of the Canadian Forces. Located in Montreal, its primary role is the provision of combat-ready troops in support of Canadian regular infantry...

Bearskin cap, white horsehair plume Scarlet guardsman tunic, blue facings, buttons worn singly. Pipers: blue doublet Blue trousers, scarlet stripe. Pipers: Black Watch tartan
Forage cap with scarlet band Blue jacket
The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada
The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada
The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada is a militia regiment within the Canadian Forces, based in Toronto, Ontario. The regiment is part of Land Force Central Area's 32 Canadian Brigade Group. It is the only Primary Reserve regiment in Canada to have a parachute role. The regiment consists of the reserve...

Busby, black over scarlet plume Green rifleman tunic, scarlet facings Green trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Green jacket
The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada
The Black Watch (Royal Highland Regiment) of Canada
The Black Watch of Canada is a reserve infantry regiment in 34 Brigade Group, Land Force Quebec Area. The regiment is located on rue de Bleury in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and is currently commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Bruno Plourde...

Feather bonnet
Feather bonnet
The feather bonnet is a type of military headdress used mainly by the Scottish Highland infantry regiments of the British Army from about 1763 until the outbreak of World War I. It is now mostly worn by pipers and drummers in various bands throughout the world...

, red plume
Scarlet doublet, blue facings. Pipers: Green doublet Black Watch tartan kilt. Pipers: Royal Stewart tartan kilt
Balmoral bonnet
Balmoral bonnet
The Balmoral is a traditional Scottish hat that can be worn as part of formal or informal Highland dress. Dating back to at least the 16th century, it takes the form of a knitted, soft wool cap with a flat crown...

, tam o'shanter, or battle bonnet depending rank and title, red hackle, or Glengarry
Glengarry
The glengarry bonnet is a traditional boat-shaped hat without a peak made of thick-milled woollen material with a toorie on top, a rosette cockade on the left, and ribbons hanging down behind...

, plain border
Green coatee
Les Voltigeurs de Québec
Les Voltigeurs de Québec
Les Voltigeurs de Québec is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. The name of the regiment commemorates another older French-Canadian militia light infantry unit, the Canadian Voltigeurs...

Green shako
Shako
A shako is a tall, cylindrical military cap, usually with a peak or visor and sometimes tapered at the top...

, falling green cock's feather plume
Green rifleman tunic, scarlet facings Green trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Green jacket
The Royal Regiment of Canada
The Royal Regiment of Canada
The Royal Regiment of Canada is the largest army regiment in the Canadian Forces Primary Reserve. It is an infantry unit based in Toronto, Ontario, part of Land Force Central Area's 32 Canadian Brigade Group....

Bearskin cap, scarlet over white plume Scarlet guardsman tunic, buttons worn singly Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment)
The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment)
The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry is a Primary Reserve unit of the Canadian Forces based at John W. Foote VC Armouries in Hamilton, Ontario....

Wolseley helmet, scarlet puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Princess of Wales' Own Regiment
The Princess of Wales' Own Regiment
The Princess of Wales' Own Regiment is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.The regiment was created on 16 January 1863 as the 14th Battalion Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada from the amalgamation of Kingston, Ontario’s seven independent rifle companies...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment
The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment
The Hastings and Prince Edward Regiment is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. The regiment is headquartered in Belleville, Ontario, with companies in Peterborough and Cobourg....

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Lincoln and Welland Regiment
The Lincoln and Welland Regiment
The Lincoln and Welland Regiment is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces based in St Catharines and Welland, Ontario.The Regimental Colonel-in-Chief is The Countess of Wessex and...

Wolseley helmet, white puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Royal Canadian Regiment
The Royal Canadian Regiment
The Royal Canadian Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. The regiment consists of four battalions, three in the Regular Force and one in the Primary Reserve...

Wolseley helmet, scarlet puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada
The Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada
The Royal Highland Fusiliers of Canada is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. Prince Andrew, as a member of the Canadian Royal Family, acts as Colonel-in-Chief. Previously, this post was held by Princess Margaret, Countess of Snowdon....

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree. Drum major: bearskin cap, white hackle. Scarlet doublet, blue facings. Pipers: blue doublet Mackenzie tartan kilt. Pipe band: Erskine tartan kilt and hose
Balmoral, red, white, and green diced border, white fusilier hackle Blue cut-away jacket with Inverness flaps
The Grey and Simcoe Foresters
The Grey and Simcoe Foresters
The Grey and Simcoe Foresters is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. It is part of Land Force Central Area's 32 Canadian Brigade Group...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Lincoln green facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Lorne Scots (Peel, Dufferin and Halton Regiment)
The Lorne Scots (Peel, Dufferin and Halton Regiment)
The Lorne Scots is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Army. It is part of Land Force Central Area's 32 Canadian Brigade Group.The sub-units of the Lorne Scots are situated in the following armouries:...

Feather bonnet, primrose plume Scarlet doublet, white facings Campbell Ancient kilt
Balmoral, red, white, and green diced border, green toorie. Drummers: Glengarry, red, white and green diced border, scarlet toorie. Green coatee
The Brockville Rifles
The Brockville Rifles
The Brockville Rifles is a Primary Reserve Infantry Regiment of the Canadian Forces. It is fifteenth in the order of precedence.The motto of the regiment is Semper Paratus meaning 'Always Ready'.-History:...

Busby, black over scarlet plume Green tunic, scarlet facings Green trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Green jacket
Stormont, Dundas and Glengarry Highlanders Feather bonnet, white plume Scarlet doublet, blue facings. Pipers: green doublet MacDonnell of Glengarry tartan kilt
Glengarry, red and white diced border Green coatee
Les Fusiliers du Saint-Laurent Bearskin cap, white plume Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
Le Régiment de la Chaudière
Le Régiment de la Chaudière
The Régiment de la Chaudière is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.-Insignia:The regimental insignia consists of two crossed machine guns, surmounted by a beaver supporting a fleur-de-lys...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
Royal 22e Régiment
Royal 22e Régiment
The Royal 22nd Regiment is an infantry regiment and the most famous francophone organization of the Canadian Forces. The regiment comprises three Regular Force battalions, two Primary Reserve battalions, and a band, making it the largest regiment in the Canadian Army...

Bearskin cap, scarlet plume Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal
Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal
Les Fusiliers Mont-Royal is one of the oldest surviving units of the historical regiments of the Canadian army. It celebrated its regimental centenary in 1969. The unit was created on November 5, 1869...

Bearskin cap, white plume Scarlet tunic, white facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Princess Louise Fusiliers
The Princess Louise Fusiliers
The Princess Louise Fusiliers is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.-History:Based in Halifax, Nova Scotia, this infantry regiment traces its local roots as a Halifax unit of Militia back to June 18, 1798 when Sir Edward Cornwalis formed a local Militia under his own command...

Bearskin cap, grey plume or Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap, grey plume Blue jacket
The Royal New Brunswick Regiment
The Royal New Brunswick Regiment
The Royal New Brunswick Regiment is a reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces based in New Brunswick. It consists of two battalions, both of which are part of 37 Canadian Brigade Group. The regiment as it is now, was formed in 1954 by the amalgamation of the Carleton and York Regiment,...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The West Nova Scotia Regiment
The West Nova Scotia Regiment
The West Nova Scotia Regiment is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces, twenty fourth in the order of precedence. It has seen active service in both the Great War and World War II...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Nova Scotia Highlanders
The Nova Scotia Highlanders
The Nova Scotia Highlanders is a reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.- Creation :The regiment was formed in 1954 by the amalgamation of The North Nova Scotia Highlanders, The Cape Breton Highlanders, and The Pictou Highlanders....

Feather bonnet, white plume Scarlet doublet, blue facings. Pipers: green doublet MacDonald tartan kilt
Balmoral = Black with red toorie. Green coatee
Le Régiment de Maisonneuve
Le Régiment de Maisonneuve
Le Régiment de Maisonneuve is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.The regiment is Canada's twenty-sixth most senior reserve infantry regiment, and comprises one battalion serving as part of the Land Force Reserve.-History:...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa
The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa
The Cameron Highlanders of Ottawa is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.-History:The 1st Volunteer Militia Rifle Company of Ottawa was formed on April 3, 1856. At that time, the bulk of Canada's militia existed as small, independent companies scattered throughout the provinces...

Feather bonnet, white plume Scarlet doublet, blue facings. Pipers: green doublet Cameron of Erracht tartan kilt
Glengarry, plain border (pipers add eagle feather), or Balmoral, blue hackle Green coatee
The Royal Winnipeg Rifles
The Royal Winnipeg Rifles
The Royal Winnipeg Rifles are a Primary Reserve one-battalion infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. Nicknamed the "Little Black Devils", they are based at Minto Armouries in Winnipeg, Manitoba...

Busby, black plume Green tunic, black facings Green trousers, black stripe
Forage cap Green jacket
The Essex and Kent Scottish
The Essex and Kent Scottish
The Essex and Kent Scottish is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.The regiment was formed in 1954 by the amalgamation of The Essex Scottish Regiment and The Kent Regiment....

Feather bonnet, white plume Scarlet doublet, blue facings. Pipers: green doublet MacGregor tartan kilt
Glengarry, red, white, and blue diced border Blue cut-away jacket
48th Highlanders of Canada
48th Highlanders of Canada
The 48th Highlanders of Canada is a Canadian Forces Primary Reserve infantry regiment based in Toronto, parading out of Moss Park Armoury. The regiment is part of Land Force Central Area's 32 Canadian Brigade Group....

Feather bonnet, white plume Scarlet doublet, blue facings. Pipers: green doublet Davidson tartan kilt. Pipers: Stewart of Fingask tartan
Glengarry, red, white, and blue diced border Green coatee
Le Régiment du Saguenay
Le Régiment du Saguenay
Le Régiment du Saguenay is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.-References:* *...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Algonquin Regiment
The Algonquin Regiment
The Algonquin Regiment is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces comprising two companies. A Coy is located in North Bay, Ontario and B Coy is located in Timmins.-Early period:...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada (Princess Louise's) Feather bonnet, white plume Scarlet doublet, yellow facings Argyll and Sutherland tartan kilt
Glengarry, red and white diced border Green coatee
The Lake Superior Scottish Regiment Feather bonnet, white plume Scarlet doublet, blue facings. Pipers: green doublet MacGillivray tartan kilt
Glengarry, red, white, and blue diced border, light blue toorie Green coatee
The North Saskatchewan Regiment Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings. Pipers: blue doublet Blue trousers, scarlet stripe. Pipers: Mackenzie tartan kilt
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Royal Regina Rifles
The Royal Regina Rifles
The Royal Regina Rifles is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. Prior to 1982 the regiment was known as The Regina Rifle Regiment...

Busby, black over scarlet plume Green tunic, scarlet facings Green trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Green jacket
The Rocky Mountain Rangers
The Rocky Mountain Rangers
The Rocky Mountain Rangers is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. The regimental headquarters are located at JR Vicars Armoury in Kamloops, British Columbia...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, rifle green facings Rifle green trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Green jacket
The Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry)
The Loyal Edmonton Regiment (4th Battalion, Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry)
The Loyal Edmonton Regiment , or LER, is a Primary Reserve infantry unit of the Canadian Forces based in Edmonton, Alberta. The LER is part of Land Force Western Area's 41 Canadian Brigade Group...

Wolseley helmet, black puggaree French grey facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada
The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada
The Queen's Own Cameron Highlanders of Canada is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces.-Formation:As early as 1905 the local Scottish community in Winnipeg, led by the St Andrew's Society, began lobbying the government to raise a Highland regiment...

Feather bonnet, white plume. Pipers: Glengarry, eagle feather Scarlet doublet, midnight blue facings. Pipers: green doublet Cameron of Erracht tartan kilt
Glengarry, blue hackle Green coatee
The Royal Westminster Regiment
The Royal Westminster Regiment
The Royal Westminster Regiment is an infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces Primary Reserve. It is based in New Westminster, British Columbia at The Armouries, located at the corner of 6th and Queens....

Wolseley helmet, scarlet puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Calgary Highlanders
The Calgary Highlanders
The Calgary Highlanders is a Canadian Forces Land Force Primary Reserve infantry regiment, headquartered at Mewata Armouries in Calgary, Alberta, Canada...

Glengarry, red and white diced border Scarlet doublet, yellow facings. Pipers: green doublet Argyll and Sutherland tartan kilt
Tam o'shanter or Balmoral (No Plume) Green coatee
Les Fusiliers de Sherbrooke
Les Fusiliers de Sherbrooke
Les Fusiliers de Sherbrooke is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. It is based in Sherbrooke, Quebec, with a sub-unit in Granby.-Armourial description:...

Bearskin cap, white plume Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada
The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada is a light infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces Primary Reserve based in Vancouver, British Columbia. The regiment is subordinate to 39 Canadian Brigade Group, Land Forces Western Area...

Feather bonnet, white plume. Pipers add cockfeathers. Scarlet doublet, buff facings. Pipers: green doublet. Mackenzie tartan kilt
Glengarry or Balmoral, red, white, and blue diced border. Green coatee, buff turn-back tails
The Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Mary's)
The Canadian Scottish Regiment (Princess Mary's)
The Canadian Scottish Regiment is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces based on Vancouver Island British Columbia.The regiment is located in Victoria, Nanaimo, and Courtenay, British Columbia...

Feather bonnet, white plume. Pipers add eagle feather. Scarlet doublet, blue facings. Pipers: green doublet Hunting Stewart tartan kilt
Glengarry, red, white, and blue diced border Blue cut-away jacket
The Royal Montreal Regiment
The Royal Montreal Regiment
The Royal Montreal Regiment is a Primary Reserve Infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces based in Westmount, Montréal, Québec.-History:The Royal Montreal Regiment traces its origins to the creation of the 14th Battalion of the Canadian Expeditionary Force on August 27, 1914...

Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket
The Irish Regiment of Canada
The Irish Regiment of Canada
2nd Battalion, The Irish Regiment of Canada is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces based in Sudbury, Ontario. The 1st Battalion was reduced to nil strength and placed on the Supplemental Order of Battle on 31 December 1964....

Feather bonnet, white plume Scarlet cut-away tunic, dark green facings O'Saffron tartan
Caubeen
Caubeen
The caubeen is an Irish beret. It was formerly worn by peasants; however, it has since been adopted as the headdress of the Irish regiments of the British and Commonwealth armies, where its formal name is the "Bonnet, Irish, Green".-Name:...

, green hackle
Green cut-away jacket
The Toronto Scottish Regiment (Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother's Own)
The Toronto Scottish Regiment (Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother's Own)
The Toronto Scottish Regiment is a Primary Reserve infantry regiment of the Canadian Forces. It is part of Land Force Central Area's 32 Canadian Brigade Group.-History:...

Feather bonnet, blue hackle Hodden Grey doublet, blue facings Hodden Grey kilt
Glengarry, white, Skye Blue, and Hodden Grey diced border, Skye Blue toorie Hodden Grey cut-away jacket
Royal Newfoundland Regiment Wolseley helmet, blue puggaree Scarlet tunic, blue facings Blue trousers, scarlet stripe
Forage cap Blue jacket

Air Force


Air Force pipe bands also have an authorized full-dress uniform. There is a ceremonial Air Force full-dress uniform authorized.
Type of unit Headgear Jacket Trousers or kilt
Pipe bands Feather bonnet, blue plume Air force blue doublet, air force blue facings RCAF tartan
Glengarry, light blue toorie

Regulations


Regulations for the wear of uniforms are contained in the CF publication Canadian Forces Dress Instructions. Amendments to dress regulations are issued through the office of the Vice Chief of the Defence Staff (VCDS), initially in the form of a CANFORGEN (Canadian Forces General) message, which is placed in the dress manual until an official publication amendment can be promulgated.

Dress regulations may also be amplified, interpreted, or amended by the commanders of formations and units (depending on the commander's authority) through the issuing of Standing Orders (SOs), Ship's Standing Orders (SSO), Routine Orders (ROs), and Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs). This may include amplification where the regulations are unclear or are not mandatory; amendments or reversal of some existing regulations for special occasions or events; or the promulgation of regulations regarding the wear of traditional regimental articles (such as kilts).

See also


  • Military uniform
    Military uniform
    Military uniforms comprises standardised dress worn by members of the armed forces and paramilitaries of various nations. Military dress and military styles have gone through great changes over the centuries from colourful and elaborate to extremely utilitarian...

  • Canadian military fur wedge cap
    Canadian military fur wedge cap
    The Canadian military fur wedge cap, "envelope busby", or Astrakhan busby is a uniform hat worn by the Canadian military and RCMP. The outside of the cap is entirely covered in real or synthetic fur and is shaped like a wedge. When not being worn the cap folds flat...


External links