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U.S. 1st Infantry Division

U.S. 1st Infantry Division

Encyclopedia
The 1st Infantry Division of the United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

 is the oldest division
Division (military)
A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers. In most armies, a division is composed of several regiments or brigades, and in turn several divisions typically make up a corps...

 in the United States Army
United States Army
The United States Army is the main branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations. It is the largest and oldest established branch of the U.S. military, and is one of seven U.S. uniformed services...

. It has seen continuous service since its organization in 1917. It was officially nicknamed the The Big Red One after its shoulder patch
Shoulder patch
A shoulder sleeve insignia, is an embroidered patch used by major formations of the United States Army. Each formation has a unique formation patch, and the US Army is unique among the US armed services in that all soldiers are required to wear the patch of their headquarters as part of their...

 and is also nicknamed The Fighting First However, with typical soldier gallows humor, the division has also received troop monikers of The Big Dead One and The Bloody First as puns on the respective officially-sanctioned nicknames. It is currently based at Fort Riley, Kansas.

World War I



The First Expeditionary Division, later designated the 1st Infantry Division, was constituted on 24 May 1917, in the Regular Army
Regular Army
The Regular Army of the United States was and is the successor to the Continental Army as the country's permanent, professional military establishment. Even in modern times the professional core of the United States Army continues to be called the Regular Army...

, and was organized on 8 June 1917, at Fort Jay
Fort Jay
Fort Jay is a harbor fortification and the name of the former Army post located on Governors Island in New York Harbor. Fort Jay is the oldest defensive structure on the island, built to defend Upper New York Bay, but has served other purposes...

, on Governors Island
Governors Island
Governors Island is a island in Upper New York Bay, approximately one-half mile from the southern tip of Manhattan Island and separated from Brooklyn by Buttermilk Channel. It is legally part of the borough of Manhattan in New York City...

 in New York harbor under the command of Brigadier General
Brigadier General
Brigadier general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000...

 William L. Sibert
William L. Sibert
William Luther Sibert was born in Gadsden, Alabama on October 12, 1860. After attending the University of Alabama from 1879 to 1880, he entered the U.S. Military Academy and was appointed a Second Lieutenant of Engineers on June 15, 1884...

, from Army units then in service on the U.S.-Mexico border and at various Army posts throughout the United States. The original Table of Organization and Equipment
Table of Organization and Equipment
A table of organization and equipment is a document published by the U.S. Department of Defense which prescribes the organization, staffing, and equippage of units. Also used in acronyms as 'T/O' and 'T/E'....

 included two organic infantry brigades of two infantry regiments each, one engineer battalion; one signal battalion; one trench mortar battery; one field artillery brigade of three field artillery regiments; one air squadron; and a full division train. The total authorized strength of this TO&E was 18,919 officers and enlisted men. George S. Patton
George S. Patton
George Smith Patton, Jr. was a United States Army officer best known for his leadership while commanding corps and armies as a general during World War II. He was also well known for his eccentricity and controversial outspokenness.Patton was commissioned in the U.S. Army after his graduation from...

, who served as the first Headquarters commandant for the American Expeditionary Force
American Expeditionary Force
The American Expeditionary Forces or AEF were the United States Armed Forces sent to Europe in World War I. During the United States campaigns in World War I the AEF fought in France alongside British and French allied forces in the last year of the war, against Imperial German forces...

 oversaw much of the arrangements for the movement of the 1st Division to France, and their organization in-country.

The first units sailed from New York City and Hoboken
Hoboken, New Jersey
Hoboken is a city in Hudson County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, the city's population was 50,005. The city is part of the New York metropolitan area and contains Hoboken Terminal, a major transportation hub for the region...

, New Jersey on 14 June 1917. Throughout the remainder of the year, the rest of the division followed, landing at St. Nazaire, France, and Liverpool
Liverpool
Liverpool is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880...

, England. After a brief stay in rest camps, the troops in England proceeded to France, landing at Le Havre
Le Havre
Le Havre is a city in the Seine-Maritime department of the Haute-Normandie region in France. It is situated in north-western France, on the right bank of the mouth of the river Seine on the English Channel. Le Havre is the most populous commune in the Haute-Normandie region, although the total...

. The last unit arrived in St. Nazaire 22 December. Upon arrival in France, the division, less its artillery, was assembled in the First (Gondrecourt) training area, and the artillery was at Le Valdahon.

On 4 July (Independence Day in the United States), the 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry, paraded through the streets of Paris to bolster the sagging French spirits. At Lafayette's tomb, one of General John J. Pershing
John J. Pershing
John Joseph "Black Jack" Pershing, GCB , was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I...

's staff uttered the famous words, "Lafayette, we are here!" Two days later, 6 July, Headquarters, First Expeditionary Division was redesignated as Headquarters, First Division.

On 8 August 1917, the 1st Division adopted the Square Table of Organization and Equipment, which included two organic infantry brigades of two infantry regiments each; one engineer regiment; one signal battalion; one machine gun battalion; one field artillery brigade of three field artillery regiments, and a complete division train. The total authorized strength of this new TO&E was 27,120 officers and enlisted men.

On the morning of 23 October, the first American shell of the war was fired toward German lines by a First Division artillery unit. Two days later, the 2nd Battalion of the 16th Infantry suffered the first American casualties of the war.

By April 1918, the Germans had pushed to within 40 miles (64.4 km) of Paris. In reaction to this thrust, the Big Red One moved into the Picardy
Picardy
This article is about the historical French province. For other uses, see Picardy .Picardy is a historical province of France, in the north of France...

 Sector to bolster the exhausted French First Army. To the division's front lay the small village of Cantigny
Cantigny
Cantigny is a park in Wheaton, Illinois, 30 miles west of Chicago. It is the former estate of Joseph Medill, and his grandson Colonel Robert R. McCormick, publishers of the Chicago Tribune, and is open to the public...

, situated on the high ground overlooking a forested countryside. The 28th Infantry Regiment attacked the town
Battle of Cantigny
The Battle of Cantigny, fought on 28 May 1918 was the first American offensive of World War I. The U.S. 1st Division, the most experienced of the seven American divisions then in France and in reserve for the French Army near the village of Cantigny, was selected for the attack...

, and within 45 minutes captured it along with 250 German soldiers. It was the first American victory of the war. The 28th was thereafter named the "Black Lions of Cantigny."

Soissons
Soissons
Soissons is a commune in the Aisne department in Picardy in northern France, located on the Aisne River, about northeast of Paris. It is one of the most ancient towns of France, and is probably the ancient capital of the Suessiones...

 was taken by the First Division in July 1918. The Soissons victory was costly — 700 men were killed or wounded. (One of them, Private Francis Lupo
Francis Lupo
Private Francis Lupo, United States Army is the U.S. service member who was, possibly, missing in action for the longest known period, his remains being recovered in 2003 and repatriated...

 of Cincinnati, was missing in action
Missing in action
Missing in action is a casualty Category assigned under the Status of Missing to armed services personnel who are reported missing during active service. They may have been killed, wounded, become a prisoner of war, or deserted. If deceased, neither their remains nor grave can be positively...

 for 85 years, until his remains were discovered on the former battlefield in 2003). The First Infantry helped to clear the St. Mihiel
Battle of Saint-Mihiel
The Battle of Saint-Mihiel was a World War I battle fought between September 12–15, 1918, involving the American Expeditionary Force and 48,000 French troops under the command of U.S. general John J. Pershing against German positions...

 salient by fighting continuously from 11–13 September 1918. The last major World War I battle was fought in the Meuse-Argonne Forest
Meuse-Argonne Offensive
The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, or Maas-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front.-Overview:...

. The division advanced seven kilometers and defeated, in whole or part, eight German divisions. The war was over when the Armistice
Armistice with Germany (Compiègne)
The armistice between the Allies and Germany was an agreement that ended the fighting in the First World War. It was signed in a railway carriage in Compiègne Forest on 11 November 1918 and marked a victory for the Allies and a complete defeat for Germany, although not technically a surrender...

 was signed. The division was at Sedan
Sedan, France
Sedan is a commune in France, a sub-prefecture of the Ardennes department in northern France.-Geography:The historic centre is built on a peninsula formed by an arc of the Meuse River. It is around from the Belgian border.-History:...

, the farthest American penetration of the war, and was the first to cross the Rhine into occupied Germany.
By the end of the war, the division had suffered 22,668 casualties and boasted five Medal of Honor
Medal of Honor
The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States government. It is bestowed by the President, in the name of Congress, upon members of the United States Armed Forces who distinguish themselves through "conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his or her...

 recipients.

The division's famous dog-mascot was a cairn terrier
Cairn Terrier
The Cairn Terrier is the oldest of the terrier breeds, originating in the Scottish Highlands and recognized as one of Scotland's earliest working dogs...

 known as Rags
Rags (dog)
Rags , born in Paris, France, was a mixed breed terrier who became the U.S. 1st Infantry Division's dog-mascot in World War I....

. Rags was adopted by the division in 1918 and remained its mascot until his death in 1936. Rags achieved notoriety and celebrity as a war dog
War dog
Dogs in warfare have a long history starting in ancient times. From 'war dogs' trained in combat to their use as scouts, sentries and trackers, their uses have been varied and some continue to exist in modern military usage.-History:...

, after saving many lives in the crucial Argonne
Meuse-Argonne Offensive
The Meuse-Argonne Offensive, or Maas-Argonne Offensive, also called the Battle of the Argonne Forest, was a part of the final Allied offensive of World War I that stretched along the entire western front.-Overview:...

 Campaign by delivering a vital message despite being bombed and gassed.
  • Casualties
  1. 4,411 Killed in Action
  2. 17,201 Wounded in Action
  3. 1,056 Missing or Died of Wounds

Assigned

  • 1st Infantry Brigade
    • 16th Infantry
      16th Infantry Regiment (United States)
      The 16th Infantry Regiment is a regiment in the United States Army.-Formation:The 34th Infantry Regiment and 11th Infantry Regiment consolidated into the 16th Infantry Regiment on 3 March 1869. The 11th Infantry's history prior to the consolidation is normally included with the 16th's.-U.S...

    • 18th Infantry
    • 2nd Machine Gun Battalion
  • 2nd Infantry Brigade
    • 26th Infantry
    • 28th Infantry
      28th Infantry Regiment (United States)
      Since the establishment of the United States Army in 1775, three regiments have held the designation 28th Infantry Regiment. The first was a Provisional unit that was constituted on 29 January 1813 and served during The War of 1812. The second was a reorganization and redesignation of 2nd...

    • 3rd Machine Gun Battalion
  • 1st Field Artillery Brigade
    • 5th Field Artillery (155mm)
    • 6th Field Artillery (75mm)
    • 7th Field Artillery (75mm)
    • 1st Trench Mortar Battery
  • Divisional Troops
    • 1st Machine Gun Battalion
    • 1st Engineers
    • 2nd Field Signal Battalion
    • Headquarters Troop
  • Trains
    • 1st Train Headquarters and Military Police
    • 1st Ammunition Train
    • 1st Supply Train
    • 1st Engineer Train
    • 1st Sanitary Train (Ambulance Companies and Field Hospitals 2, 3, 12, 13)

Attached Units

  • en route to France and in 1st (Gondrecourt) Training Area 9 June – 23 September 1917
  1. 5th Regt USMC
    • Ménil-la-Tour Area 28 February – 3 April 1918
  2. 1st Bn 2nd Engrs (2nd Div)
    • Cantigny Sector, at times from 27 April – 7 July 1918
  3. Fr 228th FA Regiment (75mm)
  4. Fr 253d FA Regiment (75mm)
  5. 1st and 2nd Bns Fr 258th FA Regiment (75mm)
  6. 4th Bn Fr 301st Arty Regiment (155mm)
  7. 1 btry Fr 3d Cl Arty Regiment (155mm)
  8. 3d and 4th Bns Fr 284th Arty Regiment (220mm)
  9. 2d Bn Fr 289th Arty Regiment (220mm)
  10. 1 btry Fr 3d Cl Arty Regiment (220mm)
  11. 6th Bn Fr 289th Arty Regiment (280mm)
  12. 2 btrys Fr TM (58mm)
  13. 1 btry Fr TM (150mm)
  14. 1 btry Fr TM (240mm)
  15. Fr 5th Tank Bn (12 tanks)
    • Aisne-Marne Operation, at times from 18–23 July 1918
  16. Fr 42d Aero Sq
  17. Fr 83d Bln Co
  18. Fr 253d FA-Portée (75mm)
  19. Fr 11th and 12th Groups of Tanks
    • Saizerais Sector, at times from 8–24 August 1918
  20. Fr 258th Aero Sq
  21. 6th and 7th Bln Cos
  22. 3 btrys Fr 247th FA- Portée
    • Preceding and during St-Mihiel Operation, at times from 8–14 September 1918
  23. 8th Obsn Sq
  24. 9th Bln Co
  25. 58th FA Brig and 108th Am Tn (33d Div)
  26. 76th FA (3d Div)
    76th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
    The 76th Field Artillery Regiment is an Field Artillery regiment of the United States Army. first Constituted 1916 in the Regular Army.-Lineage:Constituted 1 July 1916 in the Regular Army as the 18th Cavalry...

     (75mm)
  27. 2 btrys 44th CA (8")
  28. Troops D, F, and H, 2d Cav
  29. 2 platoons Co A 1st Gas Regt (8 mortars)
  30. 2 bns of Inf (42d Div)
  31. 6th Inf Brig (3d Div)
  32. 2 cos 51st Pion Inf
  33. 7th MG Bn (3d Div)
  34. 49 tanks of 1st Tank Brig
    • Meuse-Argonne Operation 1–2 October 1918
  35. 60th FA Brig
  36. 110th Am Tn (35th Div)
    • Meuse-Argonne Operation, at times from 1–12 October 1918
  37. 1st Aero Sq
  38. 2d Bln Co
  39. Fr 219th FA (75mm)
  40. Fr 247th FA (6 btrys 75mm)
  41. Fr 5th Bn 282d Arty (220mm)
  42. Provisional Sq 2d Cav
  43. Co C 1st Gas Regt
  44. Co C 344th Tank Bn, 1st Tank Brigade (16 tanks)
  45. Cos B and C 345th Tank Bn, 1st Tank Brigade (16 tanks)
    • Meuse-Argonne Operation 7 October 1918
  46. 362d Inf (91st Div)
    • Meuse-Argonne Operation 8–11 October 1918
  47. 181st Inf Brigade (91st Div)
    • Coblenz Bridgehead, at times from 18–30 June 1919
  48. 14th Bln Co
  49. MG elements Fr 2d Cavalry Division
    • Coblenz Bridgehead 18–29 June 1919
  50. 4th MG Bn (2d Div)
    • Coblenz Bridgehead 20–30 June 1919
  51. 7th MG Bn (3d Div)

Detached Service

  • at Le Valdahon 22 August – 18 October 1917 with 15th (Scottish) Division during the Second Battle of the Aisne
    Second Battle of the Aisne
    The Second Battle of the Aisne , was the massive main assault of the French military's Nivelle Offensive or Chemin des Dames Offensive in 1917 during World War I....

     24 July 1918 with US 90th Division
  1. 1st FA Brig
  2. 1st Am Tn
    • with the 15th (Scottish) Division during Aisne-Marne Operation 24 July 1918 in Saizerais
      Saizerais
      Saizerais is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.-See also:*Communes of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department*Parc naturel régional de Lorraine...

       (Villers-en-Haye
      Villers-en-Haye
      Villers-en-Haye is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in north-eastern France.-See also:*Communes of the Meurthe-et-Moselle department*Parc naturel régional de Lorraine...

      ) Sector 24–28 August 1918;
      with 42d Division in Meuse-Argonne Operation 13–31 October 1918;
      with 2nd Division in Meuse-Argonne Operation 1–04 November 1918.
  3. 1st Sn Tn
    • with III Corps 28 September – 2 October 1918
  4. 1st Engineers
    • with American Forces in Germany after 9 August 1919.
  5. 2d 6th FA
  6. Co A 1st Engrs
  7. Cos A, B, C, D, 1st Sup Tn
  8. F Hosp 13

Chiefs of Staff

  1. 8 June 1917 COL Frank W. Coe
  2. 23 August 1917 CPT George C. Marshall, Jr. (Acting)
  3. 3 September 1917 COL Hanson E. Ely
  4. 23 November 1917 LTC Campbell King (Acting)
  5. 7 January 1918 LTC Campbell King
  6. 7 June 1918 COL Campbell King
  7. 23 September 1918 LTC John N. Greely
  8. 17 October 1918 COL John N. Greely
  9. 7 November 1918 COL Stephen O. Fuqua
  10. 17 June 1919 COL William F. Harrell (Acting)
  11. 23 June 1919 COL Stephen O. Fuqua
  12. 12 July 1919 LTC Paul E. Peabody (Acting)
  13. 19 July 1919 COL Stephen O. Fuqua
  14. 2 August 1919 LTC Paul E. Peabody (Acting)
  15. 9 August 1919 COL Stephen O. Fuqua
  16. 19 August 1919 LTC William R. Scott (Acting)
  17. 24 August to 5 September 1919 COL Stephen O. Fuqua

Commanders 1st Field Artillery Brigade

  • 1917
  1. 16 August BG Peyton C. March
    Peyton C. March
    Peyton Conway March was an American soldier and Army Chief of Staff.March was the son of Francis Andrew March, considered the principal founder of modern comparative linguistics in Anglo-Saxon and one of the first professors to advocate and teach English in colleges and universities...

  2. 3 September MG Peyton C. March
  3. 7 September MG William S. McNair (ad interim)
  4. 24 September MG Peyton C. March
    Peyton C. March
    Peyton Conway March was an American soldier and Army Chief of Staff.March was the son of Francis Andrew March, considered the principal founder of modern comparative linguistics in Anglo-Saxon and one of the first professors to advocate and teach English in colleges and universities...

  5. 12 October BG Charles H. McKinstry
  6. 23 December BG Charles P. Summerall

  • 1918
  1. 17 July COL Lucius R. Holbrook (ad interim)
  2. 16 August COL Henry W. Butner
    Henry W. Butner
    Henry Wolfe Butner was a United States Army general in World War I and onetime commanding officer of Fort Bragg...

     (ad interim)
  3. 21 October BG Henry W. Butner
    Henry W. Butner
    Henry Wolfe Butner was a United States Army general in World War I and onetime commanding officer of Fort Bragg...


  • 1919
  1. 31 March COL William H. Dodds, Jr. (ad interim)
  2. 21 April COL Thomas W. Hollyday (ad interim)
  3. 4 May COL William H. Dodds, Jr. (ad interim)
  4. 6 May BG Henry W. Butner
    Henry W. Butner
    Henry Wolfe Butner was a United States Army general in World War I and onetime commanding officer of Fort Bragg...

  5. 15 May COL Nelson E. Margetts (ad interim)
  6. 17 May BG Lesley J. McNair
    Lesley J. McNair
    General Lesley James McNair was an American Army officer who served during World War I and World War II. He was killed by friendly fire when a USAAF Eighth Air Force bomb landed in his foxhole near Saint-Lô during Operation Cobra as part of the Battle of Normandy.McNair, Frank Maxwell Andrews and...

  7. 23 June BG Augustine McIntyre
  8. 12 July COL Nelson E. Margetts (ad interim)
  9. 16 July BG Augustine McIntyre
  10. 21 July COL Nelson E. Margetts (ad interim)
  11. 24 July BG Augustine McIntyre
  12. 5 August COL Nelson E. Margetts (ad interim)
  13. 12 August to 5 September BG Augustine McIntyre

Interwar period


The 1st Division returned to the Continental U.S. in September 1919, demobilized its war-time TO&E at Camp Zachary Taylor
Camp Zachary Taylor
Camp Zachary Taylor was a military training camp in Louisville, Kentucky. It opened in 1917, to train soldiers for U.S. involvement in World War I, and was closed three years later. Its name live on as the Camp Taylor neighborhood of Louisville...

 at Louisville
Louisville, Kentucky
Louisville is the largest city in the U.S. state of Kentucky, and the county seat of Jefferson County. Since 2003, the city's borders have been coterminous with those of the county because of a city-county merger. The city's population at the 2010 census was 741,096...

, Kentucky, and then returned to New York, with its headquarters located at Fort Hamilton
Fort Hamilton
Historic Fort Hamilton is located in the southwestern corner of the New York City borough of Brooklyn surrounded by the communities of Bay Ridge, Dyker Heights, and Bensonhurst, and is one of several posts that are part of the region which is headquartered by the Military District of Washington...

 in Brooklyn.

On 7 October 1920, the 1st Division organized under the peacetime TO&E, which included two organic infantry brigades of two infantry regiments each, one engineer regiment; one observation squadron; one field artillery brigade of two Field Artillery Regiments; one Medical Regiment; one Division Quartermaster Train; and a Special Troops Command replacing the remainder of the division Train. The total authorized strength of this TO&E was 19,385. 1st Division was one of three Infantry Divisions and one Cavalry Division that was authorized to remain at full peacetime strength, and it was the only Regular Army division assigned to the Second Corps Area
Corps area
A Corps area was a geographically-based organizational structure of the United States Army used to accomplish domestic administrative, training and tactical tasks from 1920 to 1942. Each corps area included divisions of the Regular Army, Organized Reserve and National Guard of the United States...

, which also included the 27th Infantry Division of the New York National Guard; the 44th Infantry Division of the New Jersey, New York, and Delaware National Guards; the 21st Cavalry Division of the New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and New Jersey National Guards; and the 77th, 78th, and 98th Infantry Divisions and the 61st Cavalry Division of the Organized Reserves. This was the organization that existed in the Second Corps Area for the duration of the peace period.

1st Division adopted a new peacetime TO&E in preparation for war on 8 January 1940, which included three infantry regiments, one military police company, one engineer battalion, one signal company, one Light Field Artillery Regiment of three Field Artillery Battalions and one Medium Field Artillery Regiment of two Field Artillery Battalions, one Medical Battalion, and one Quartermaster Battalion. The authorized strength of this TO&E was 9,057 officers and enlisted men. 1st Infantry Division reorganized again on 1 November 1940 to a new TO&E, which added a Reconnaissance Troop, and organized the two Field Artillery Regiments into a Division Artillery Command, and beefed up the strength to a total Authorized Strength of 15,245 officers and enlisted men.

World War II


Shortly after the beginning of World War II in Europe, the 1st Division was moved to Fort Benning, Georgia, on 19 November 1939 where it supported the Infantry School as part of American mobilization preparations. It then moved to the Sabine Parish
Sabine Parish, Louisiana
Sabine Parish is a parish located in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The seat of the parish is Many. In 2010, the parish's population was 24,233....

, Louisiana area on 11 May 1940 to participate in the Louisiana Maneuvers
Louisiana Maneuvers
The Louisiana Maneuvers were a series of military exercises held all over north and west-central Louisiana, including Fort Polk, Camp Claiborne and Camp Livingston, in August and September 1941...

. The division next relocated to Fort Hamilton
Fort Hamilton
Historic Fort Hamilton is located in the southwestern corner of the New York City borough of Brooklyn surrounded by the communities of Bay Ridge, Dyker Heights, and Bensonhurst, and is one of several posts that are part of the region which is headquartered by the Military District of Washington...

 on 5 June 1940, where it spent over six months before moving to Fort Devens
Fort Devens, Massachusetts
Devens, Massachusetts is an unincorporated village and census-designated place in the towns of Ayer and Shirley, in Middlesex County and Harvard in Worcester County in the U.S. state of Massachusetts. It is the successor to Fort Devens, a military post that operated from 1917 to 1996. The area...

, Massachusetts, on 4 February 1941. As part of its training that year, the division participated in both Carolina Maneuvers of October and November before returning to Fort Devens on 6 December, 1941.

A day later, on December 7, 1941, the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor, known to Hawaiians as Puuloa, is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet...

 and then the United States declared war. The division was ordered to Camp Blanding, Florida, as quickly as trains could be gathered and winter weather permitted, and arrived on 21 February 1942. The division was there reorganized and refurbished with new equipment, being re-designated as the 1st Infantry Division on 15 May 1942. Within a week, the division was returned to its former post at Fort Benning, from where it was expedited on 21 Jun 1942 to Indiantown Gap Military Reservation
Fort Indiantown Gap
Fort Indiantown Gap, also referred to as "The Gap" or "FIG", is a census-designated place and U.S. Army post primarily located in Lebanon County, Pennsylvania. A portion of the installation is located in eastern Dauphin County...

 for wartime overseas deployment final preparation. The division departed New York Port of Embarkation on 1 August 1942, arrived in Beaminster
Beaminster
Beaminster is a small town and civil parish in the West Dorset district of Dorset in South West England, at the head of the valley of the River Brit. Beaminster is south of Bristol, west of Bournemouth, east of Exeter and northwest of the county town of Dorchester...

 in south-west England about a week later, and departed 22 October 1942 for the combat amphibious assault of North Africa.

As part of II Corps, the division landed in Oran
Oran
Oran is a major city on the northwestern Mediterranean coast of Algeria, and the second largest city of the country.It is the capital of the Oran Province . The city has a population of 759,645 , while the metropolitan area has a population of approximately 1,500,000, making it the second largest...

, Algeria on 8 November 1942 as part of Operation Torch
Operation Torch
Operation Torch was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started on 8 November 1942....

, the Allied invasion of French North-Africa. Elements then took part in combat at Maktar
Maktar
Maktar , or Makthar, is a town and Roman site in Siliana Governorate, Tunisia, located at . It is 140 km southwest of Tunis and 60 km southeast of El Kef. The population in 2004 was 12,942....

, Tebourba
Tebourba
Tebourba is a town in Tunisia, located about 20 miles from the capital Tunis.-Thuburbo Minus:Historically Thuburbo Minus was a settlement in Africa Proconsularis, located at present-day Tebourba. Thuburbo Minus is mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary, 44, and the Tabula Peutinger...

, Medjez el Bab, the Battle of the Kasserine Pass
Battle of the Kasserine Pass
The Battle of the Kasserine Pass was a battle that took place during the Tunisia Campaign of World War II in February 1943. It was a series of battles fought around Kasserine Pass, a wide gap in the Grand Dorsal chain of the Atlas Mountains in west central Tunisia...

 (where American forces were pushed back), Gafsa
Gafsa
Gafsa is the capital of Gafsa Governorate of Tunisia. Its name was appropriated by archaeologists for the Mesolithic Capsian culture. With a population of 84,676, it is the 9th Tunisian city.-Overview:...

, El Guettar
Battle of El Guettar
The Battle of El Guettar was a World War II battle that took place during the Tunisia Campaign, fought between elements of the Army Group Afrika under Jürgen von Arnim and U.S. II Corps under Lieutenant General George Patton in south-central Tunisia. It was the first battle in which U.S...

, Béja
Béja
Beja is a town in Tunisia, Africa. It is the capital of the Béja Governorate. It is located 105 km from Tunis, between the Medjerdah River and the Mediterranean, against the foothills of the Khroumire, the town of Beja is situated on the sides of Djebel Acheb, facing the greening meadows,...

, and Mateur
Mateur
Mateur is a town in northern Tunisia. It is located at around , close to the Lac Ichkeul National Park.- Overview :Located in the southwest of the governorate of Bizerte, Mateur is the county seat of a delegation of 57,562 inhabitants while its town counts 44,345 inhabitants divided in 8315...

, from 21 January 1943 – 9 May 1943, helping secure Tunisia.

In July 1943, the division took part in Operation Husky invading Sicily
Sicily
Sicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...

 under the command of Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen
Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr.
Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr. was a division-level United States Army officer during World War II. Allen was a decorated World War I veteran who commanded the First Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily during 1942-43...

. It was assigned to the II Corps
U.S. II Corps
The II Corps was a corps of the United States Army and the first US formation of any size to see combat in Europe or Africa during World War II.-World War I:...

. It was in Sicily that the 1st saw heavy action when making amphibious landings on Gela, the most fortified German beachhead positions. The 1st then moved up through the center of Sicily, slogging it out through the mountains along with the 45th Infantry Division. In these mountains, the division saw some of the heaviest fighting in the entire Sicilian campaign at the Battle of Troina
Battle of Troina
The Battle of Troina took place between 31 July and 6 August 1943, a part of the Allied invasion of Sicily during World War II. Forces of the US II Corps, part of the US Seventh Army, engaged in fierce fighting around the town of Troina in the central portion of Sicily along the Caronie Mountains...

; some units losing more than half their strength in assaulting the mountain town. On 7 August 1943, command was assumed by Major General Clarence R. Huebner
Clarence R. Huebner
Clarence Ralph Huebner was a Lieutenant General of the United States Army.-World War I:A farm boy from Bushton, Kansas who spent almost seven years serving from private to sergeant in the 18th Infantry, Huebner received a regular commission in November 1916...

.

When that campaign was over, the division returned to England 5 November 1943 to prepare for the eventual Normandy invasion. It was one of the two divisions that landed at Omaha Beach
Omaha Beach
Omaha Beach is the code name for one of the five sectors of the Allied invasion of German-occupied France in the Normandy landings on 6 June 1944, during World War II...

 on D-Day
, with some of the division's units suffering 30 percent casualties in the first hour of the assault, and secured Formigny
Formigny
-External links:*...

 and Caumont
Caumont-l'Éventé
Caumont-l'Éventé is a commune in the Calvados department in northwestern France.-Population:-Administration:Caumont-l'Éventé is the seat of the canton of Caumont-l'Éventé, which includes 14 communes with 6373 inhabitants .-References:*...

 in the beachhead by the end of the day. The division followed up the Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô
Saint-Lô is a commune in north-western France, the capital of the Manche department in Normandy.-History:Originally called Briovère , the town is built on and around ramparts. Originally it was a Gaul fortified settlement...

 break-through
Operation Cobra
Operation Cobra was the codename for an offensive launched by the First United States Army seven weeks after the D-Day landings, during the Normandy Campaign of World War II...

 with an attack on Marigny
Marigny, Manche
Marigny is a commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.-Heraldry:-See also:*Communes of the Manche department...

, 27 July 1944, and then drove across France in a continuous offensive, reaching the German border at Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

 in September. The division laid siege to Aachen, taking the city after a a direct assault on 21 October 1944
Battle of Aachen
The Battle of Aachen was a battle in Aachen, Germany, which occurred between 2–21 October 1944. By September 1944, the Wehrmacht had been pushed into Germany proper, after being defeated in France by the Western Allies...

. The First then attacked east of Aachen through the Hurtgen Forest
Battle of Hurtgen Forest
The Battle of Hürtgen Forest is the name given to the series of fierce battles fought between U.S. and German forces during World War II in the Hürtgen Forest, which became the longest battle on German ground during World War II, and the longest single battle the U.S. Army has ever fought...

, driving to the Rur
Rur
The Rur , — not to be confused with the Ruhr — is a river which flows through portions of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands. It is a right tributary to the river Meuse...

, and was moved to a rear area 7 December 1944 for refitting and rest following 6 months of combat. When the German Wacht Am Rhein offensive (commonly called the Battle of the Bulge
Battle of the Bulge
The Battle of the Bulge was a major German offensive , launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes mountain region of Wallonia in Belgium, hence its French name , and France and...

) was launched on 16 December 1944., the division was quickly moved to the Ardennes
Ardennes
The Ardennes is a region of extensive forests, rolling hills and ridges formed within the Givetian Ardennes mountain range, primarily in Belgium and Luxembourg, but stretching into France , and geologically into the Eifel...

 front. Fighting continuously from 17 December 1944 to 28 January 1945, the division helped to blunt and reverse the German offensive. Thereupon, the division attacked and again breached the Siegfried Line
Siegfried Line
The original Siegfried line was a line of defensive forts and tank defences built by Germany as a section of the Hindenburg Line 1916–1917 in northern France during World War I...

, fought across the Ruhr, 23 February 1945, and drove on to the Rhine, crossing at the Remagen
Remagen
Remagen is a town in Germany in Rhineland-Palatinate, in the district of Ahrweiler. It is about a one hour drive from Cologne , just south of Bonn, the former West German capital. It is situated on the River Rhine. There is a ferry across the Rhine from Remagen every 10–15 minutes in the summer...

 bridgehead, 15–16 March. The division broke out of the bridgehead, took part in the encirclement of the Ruhr Pocket
Ruhr Pocket
The Ruhr Pocket was a battle of encirclement that took place in late March and early April 1945, near the end of World War II, in the Ruhr Area of Germany. For all intents and purposes, it marked the end of major organized resistance on Nazi Germany's Western Front, as more than 300,000 troops were...

, captured Paderborn
Paderborn
Paderborn is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. The name of the city derives from the river Pader, which originates in more than 200 springs near Paderborn Cathedral, where St. Liborius is buried.-History:...

, pushed through the Harz Mountains, and was in Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia
Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia was a sovereign state in Central Europe which existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992...

, fighting at Kinsperk, Sangerberg, and Mnichov when the war in Europe ended. Sixteen members of the division were awarded the Medal of Honor.

World War II – casualties


Killed in Action: 3,616

Wounded in Action: 15,208

Died of Wounds: 664

Wartime commanders


MG Norman Cota
Norman Cota
Norman Daniel "Dutch" Cota, Sr. was a United States Army general during World War II. Cota was heavily involved in the planning and execution of the invasion of France, codenamed Operation Neptune, and the subsequent Battle of Normandy.-Early life:Cota was born in Chelsea, Massachusetts, the son...

: Mar 1941 – Jun 1942

MG Donald C. Cubbison: Jun 1942 – Jul 1942

MG Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr.
Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr.
Major General Terry de la Mesa Allen, Sr. was a division-level United States Army officer during World War II. Allen was a decorated World War I veteran who commanded the First Infantry Division in North Africa and Sicily during 1942-43...

: Jun 1942 – Jul 1943

MG Clarence R. Huebner
Clarence R. Huebner
Clarence Ralph Huebner was a Lieutenant General of the United States Army.-World War I:A farm boy from Bushton, Kansas who spent almost seven years serving from private to sergeant in the 18th Infantry, Huebner received a regular commission in November 1916...

: Jul 1943 – Dec 1944

MG Clift Andrus: Dec 1944 – VE Day

Order of battle 1944–1945


1st Infantry Division – Order of Battle 1944–1945



HQs & HQs Co 1st Infantry Division

HQs & HQs Battery Division Artillery

Headquarters Special Troops

Military Police Platoon

1st Cav Recon Squadron

1st CIC Detachment

1st Engineer Combat Battalion

1st Medical Battalion

1st Quartermaster Company

1st Signal Corps Company

5th Field Artillery Battalion (155-MM)

7th Field Artillery Battalion (105-MM)

16th Infantry Regiment

18th Infantry Regiment

26th Infantry Regiment

32nd Field Artillery Battalion (105-MM)

33rd Field Artillery Battalion (105-MM)

701st OD Light Maint Company

745th Tank Battalion – at : 6 June 1944 – 8 May 1945

634th Tank Destroyer Battalion – at : 1 August 1944 – 2 May 1945

635th Tank Destroyer Battalion – at : 7 June 1944 – 30 September 1944

703rd Tank Destroyer Battalion – at : 18 December 1944 – 31 December 1944

103rd AAAA-W Battalion – at : 16 June 1944 – 7 February 1945

103rd AAAA-W Battalion – at : 24 February 1945 – 8 May 1945


Assignments in the European and North African theaters

  1. 1 February 1943: II Corps, British First Army, 18th Army Group
  2. July 1943: US II Corps, U.S. Seventh Army, 15th Army Group
  3. 1 November 1943: US First Army.In these tabulations, the army and higher headquarters to which the division is assigned or attached is not repeated when the division is assigned or attached to a different corps in the same army.

On 6 November 1943, for example, the 1st Infantry Division was assigned to the VII Corps which was itself assigned to First Army; on 1 August 1944, the 12th Army Group became operational; and on 6 May 1945, the 1st Infantry Division left First Army for the first time during the operations on the Continent for reassignment to the Third Army.
  1. 6 November 1943: VII Corps.
  2. 2 February 1944: V Corps, First Army, British 21st Army Group
  3. 14 July 1944: US First Army.
  4. 15 July 1944: VII Corps.
  5. 1 August 1944: VII Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group.
  6. 16 December 1944: V Corps.
  7. 20 December 1944: Attached, with the entire First Army, to the British 21st Army Group.
  8. 26 January 1945: XVIII Airborne Corps, First Army, 12th Army Group.
  9. 12 February 1945: III Corps.
  10. 8 March 1945: VII Corps.
  11. 27 April 1945: VIII Corps
    VIII Corps (United States)
    The U.S. VIII Corps was a corps of the United States Army that saw service during various times over a fifty-year period during the twentieth century. The VIII Corps was organized 26–29 November 1918 in the Regular Army in France and demobilized on 20 April 1919. The VIII Corps was soon...

    .
  12. 30 April 1945: V Corps.
  13. 6 May 1945: United States Third Army, 12th Army Group.

Korean War


During the Korean War
Korean War
The Korean War was a conventional war between South Korea, supported by the United Nations, and North Korea, supported by the People's Republic of China , with military material aid from the Soviet Union...

, the Big Red One was assigned to occupation duty in Germany, while acting as a strategic deterrent against Soviet designs on Europe. 1st Infantry Division troops secured the Nuremberg War Crimes Trials and later transported seven convicted Nazi war criminals to Spandau Prison
Spandau Prison
Spandau Prison was a prison situated in the borough of Spandau in western Berlin, constructed in 1876 and demolished in 1987 after the death of its last prisoner, Rudolf Hess, to prevent it from becoming a neo-Nazi shrine. The prison was near, though not part of, the Renaissance-era Spandau Citadel...

 in Berlin.

In 1955 the division colors left Germany and were relocated to Fort Riley
Fort Riley
Fort Riley is a United States Army installation located in Northeast Kansas, on the Kansas River, between Junction City and Manhattan. The Fort Riley Military Reservation covers 100,656 acres in Geary and Riley counties and includes two census-designated places: Fort Riley North and Fort...

, Kansas
Kansas
Kansas is a US state located in the Midwestern United States. It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south...

.

1950s–1970s


Following its return from Germany, the 1st Infantry Division established headquarters at Fort Riley, Kansas. Its troops reorganized and trained for war at Fort Riley and at other posts.
In 1962 and 1963, four 1st Infantry Division Pentomic battle groups (2nd Battle Group, 12th Infantry; 1st Battle Group, 13th Infantry; 1st Battle Group, 28th Infantry; and 2nd Battle Group, 26th Infantry) rotated, in turn, to West Berlin
West Berlin
West Berlin was a political exclave that existed between 1949 and 1990. It comprised the western regions of Berlin, which were bordered by East Berlin and parts of East Germany. West Berlin consisted of the American, British, and French occupation sectors, which had been established in 1945...

, Germany to augment the U.S. Army's Berlin Brigade
Berlin Brigade
After the end of World War II, under the conditions of the Yalta and Potsdam agreements, Allied forces occupied West Berlin. This occupation lasted throughout the Cold War...

 during an international crisis initiated by construction of the Berlin Wall
Berlin Wall
The Berlin Wall was a barrier constructed by the German Democratic Republic starting on 13 August 1961, that completely cut off West Berlin from surrounding East Germany and from East Berlin...

. These "Long Thrust Operations" were the most significant deployments conducted by 1st Infantry Division troops during the Cold War, placing Big Red One troops in confrontation with hostile communist forces. While the bulk of the division was stationed at Fort Riley, its 3rd Brigade, a mixture of cavalry and infantry, was forward-deployed and stationed in the Stuttgart
Stuttgart
Stuttgart is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million ....

 region of Germany.

Vietnam


The division fought in the Vietnam War
Vietnam War
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of...

 from 1965 to 1970.
Arriving in July 1965, the division began combat operations within two weeks. By the end of 1965 the division had participated in three major operations: Hump, M242 Bushmaster
M242 Bushmaster
The M242 Bushmaster is a 25 mm chain-fed autocannon. It is used extensively by the US armed forces, as well as by NATO's and some other nations' forces in ground combat vehicles and watercraft...

 (Bushmaster I) and Bushmaster II
Bushmaster II
The Mk44 Bushmaster II is a 30 mm chain gun manufactured by Alliant Techsystems. It is a derivative of the 25 mm M242 Bushmaster, and uses some 70% of the same parts as the M242 while increasing the firepower by as much as 50% with the 20% increase in caliber size. The barrel is chromium-plated...

, under the command of MG Jonathan O. Seaman
Jonathan O. Seaman
-External links:***...

.

In 1966, the division took part in Operation Marauder, Operation Crimp II, and Operation Rolling Stone, all in the early part of the year. In March, MG William E. DePuy
William E. DePuy
William Eugene DePuy was a U.S. Army general and the first commander of the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command. He is widely regarded as one of the principal architects of the restructuring of U.S. Army doctrine after the American withdrawal from Vietnam.-Early life and career:DePuy...

 took command. In June and July the division took part in the battles of Ap Tau O, Srok Dong and Minh Thanh Road. In November 1966, the division participated in Operation Attleboro
Operation Attleboro
Operation Attleboro was a search and destroy operation by the 196th Light Infantry Brigade. The operation was named after Attleboro, Massachusetts, where the brigade had been formed...

.

1967 saw the division in Operation Cedar Falls
Operation Cedar Falls
Operation Cedar Falls was a military operation of the Vietnam War conducted primarily by US forces. The aim of this massive search and destroy operation was to eradicate the so-called "Iron Triangle", an area located in close proximity to Saigon which had become a major stronghold of the communist...

, Operation Junction City
Operation Junction City
Operation Junction City was an 82-day military operation conducted by United States and Republic of Vietnam forces begun on 22 February 1967 during the Vietnam War. It was the largest U.S. airborne operation since Operation Market Garden during World War II, the only major airborne operation of...

, Operation Manhattan, and Operation Shenandoah II. MG John H. Hay assumed command in February. On 17 October 1967, the 1st I.D suffered heavy casualties at the Battle of Ong Thanh
Battle of Ong Thanh
The Battle of Ong Thanh was fought on the morning of October 17, 1967, in Binh Duong Province, South Vietnam. During the first few months of 1967, the Viet Cong absorbed heavy losses as a result of large-scale search and destroy missions conducted by the United States Army, and it prompted North...

 with 58 killed.

The division involved in the Tet Offensive of 1968, securing the massive Tan Son Nhut Air Base
Tan Son Nhut Air Base
Tan Son Nhut Air Base was a Republic of Vietnam Air Force facility. It is located near the city of Saigon in southern Vietnam. The United States used it as a major base during the Vietnam War , stationing Army, Air Force, Navy, and Marine units there...

. In March, MG Keith L. Ware
Keith L. Ware
Major General Keith Lincoln Ware was an United States Army officer, who received the Medal of Honor in World War II, and was killed in action while commanding a division during the Vietnam War.-Biography:...

 took command. That same month the division took part in Operation Quyet Thang ("Resolve to Win") and in April the division participated in the largest operation of the Vietnam War, Operation Toan Thang ("Certain Victory"). On 13 September, the division Commander, Maj. Gen. Ware, was killed in action when his command helicopter was shot down by enemy anti-aircraft fire. MG Orwin C. Talbott moved up from his position of Assistant Division Commander to assume command of the division.

In the first half of 1969, The Big Red One conducted reconnaissance-in-force and ambush operations, including a multi-divisional operation, Atlas Wedge. The last part of the year saw the division take part in Dong Tien ("Progress Together") operations. These operations were intended to assist South Vietnamese forces to take a more active role in combat. In August, MG A. E. Milloy took command of the 1st I.D. while the division took part in battles along National Highway 13, known as "Thunder Road" to the end of the year.

In January 1970 it was announced that the division would return to Fort Riley. 11 members of the division were awarded the Medal of Honor.

During its involvement in the Vietnam war, the division lost 6,146 killed in action, with a further 16,019 wounded. Twenty of its number were taken as prisoners-of-war.

Commanders

  1. MG Jonathan O. Seaman
    Jonathan O. Seaman
    -External links:***...

     (February 1964)
  2. MG William E. DePuy
    William E. DePuy
    William Eugene DePuy was a U.S. Army general and the first commander of the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command. He is widely regarded as one of the principal architects of the restructuring of U.S. Army doctrine after the American withdrawal from Vietnam.-Early life and career:DePuy...

     (March 1966)
  3. MG John H. Hay, Jr. (January 1967)
  4. MG Keith L. Ware
    Keith L. Ware
    Major General Keith Lincoln Ware was an United States Army officer, who received the Medal of Honor in World War II, and was killed in action while commanding a division during the Vietnam War.-Biography:...

     (February 1968)
  5. MG Orwin C. Talbott (September 1968)
  6. MG Albert E. Milloy (August 1969)

First Gulf War


The division, commanded by Major General
Major General
Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general...

 Thomas G. Rhame, also participated in Operation Desert Storm
Gulf War
The Persian Gulf War , commonly referred to as simply the Gulf War, was a war waged by a U.N.-authorized coalition force from 34 nations led by the United States, against Iraq in response to Iraq's invasion and annexation of Kuwait.The war is also known under other names, such as the First Gulf...

. The division's two maneuver brigades from Ft. Riley were rounded out by the addition of two tank battalions (2nd and 3rd of the 66th Armor Reg.), an infantry battalion (1–41st Infantry Regiment
41st Infantry Regiment (United States)
The U.S. 41st Infantry Regiment is a regiment of the United States Army. Its 1st Battalion is currently assigned to the 3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team, 1st Armored Division...

), and a field artillery battalion (4-3 FA) from 2nd Armored Division (Forward) in Germany. It was responsible for the initial breach of the Iraqi defenses, consequently rolling over the Iraqi 26th Infantry Division and taking 2,600 prisoners of war. The Big Red One continued with the subsequent 260 kilometres (161.6 mi) long assault on enemy-held territory over 100 hours, engaging eleven Iraqi divisions, destroying 550 enemy tanks, 480 armored personnel carriers and taking 11,400 prisoners. By the early morning of 28 February 1991, the division had taken position along the "Highway of Death
Highway of Death
The Highway of Death refers to a six-lane highway between Kuwait and Iraq, officially known as Highway 80. It runs from Kuwait City to the border town of Safwan and then on to Basra....

", preventing any Iraqi retreat. The division's First squadron, fourth cavalry regiment
2nd Brigade (US 1st Infantry Division)
The 2nd Brigade Combat Team, also known as the Dagger Brigade, is a maneuver brigade combat team in the U.S. 1st Infantry Division. The brigade is stationed in Fort Riley, Kansas.-Distinctive Unit:...

, (1/4 CAV) was then tasked with securing town of Safwan
Safwan
Safwan is a town in southeast Iraq on the border with Kuwait. It was the site of an Iraqi Air Force base.-Gulf War:Safwan is located in the south of Iraq at Iraqi Kuwaiti border , along the infamous Highway of Death from the Gulf War of 1991. The cease-fire negotiations between Gen...

, and the airfield there where the Iraqis were later forced to sign the surrender agreement. Iraq
Iraq
Iraq ; officially the Republic of Iraq is a country in Western Asia spanning most of the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, the eastern part of the Syrian Desert and the northern part of the Arabian Desert....

, which was to be the site for the permanent cease-fire negotiations.

There was also the "bulldozer assault", wherein the 1st & 2nd brigades from the 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized) used mine plow
Mine plow
A mine plow is a tank-mounted device designed to clear a lane through a minefield, allowing other vehicles to follow. Buried land mines are plowed up and pushed outside the tank's track path or tipped over...

s mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers to bury Iraqi soldiers defending the fortified "Saddam Line
Saddam Line
The Saddam Line consisted of defensive fortifications constructed by Saddam Hussein's Iraqi Army on Kuwait's border with Saudi Arabia after Iraq had invaded and occupied its neighbor in August 1990...

." While approximately 2,000 of the troops surrendered, escaping burial, one newspaper story reported that the U.S. commanders estimated thousands of Iraqi soldiers had been buried alive during the two-day assault 24–25 February 1991.

In 1996 the division colors were relocated to the German city of Würzburg
Würzburg
Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. Located at the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk Lower Franconia. The regional dialect is Franconian....

.

Balkans


2nd (Dagger) Brigade Combat Team deployed to Bosnia
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosnia and Herzegovina , sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the...

 as part of IFOR
IFOR
The Implementation Force was a NATO-led multinational peacekeeping force in Bosnia and Herzegovina under a one-year mandate from 20 December 1995 to 20 December 1996 under the codename Operation Joint Endeavour. Its task was to implement the military Annexes of The General Framework Agreement for...

 (and subsequent SFOR
SFOR
The Stabilisation Force was a NATO-led multinational peacekeeping force in Bosnia and Herzegovina which was tasked with upholding the Dayton Agreement. It replaced the previous force IFOR...

) from October 1996 to April 1997. 2nd Brigade was replaced by element from 3rd Brigade and the division's aviation brigade. Units from the 1st (Devil) Brigade Combat Team also deployed to Bosnia as part of SFOR6 ("Operation Joint Forge") from August 1999 to April 2000.

Elements of the division, to include personnel and units from the 2nd, 3rd and aviation brigades, served in Kosovo
Kosovo
Kosovo is a region in southeastern Europe. Part of the Ottoman Empire for more than five centuries, later the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija within Serbia...

. During the Kosovo War three soldiers were captured by Serbian forces but were later released after peace talks.

Units of the 1st Infantry Division served in Kosovo as part of the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR) 1A and KFOR 1B from June 1999 to June 2000, then again for KFOR 4A and 4B from May 2002 to July 2003.

2003 Deployments to Iraq


One battalion of the 3rd (Duke) Brigade, 1–63 Armor, deployed to Kirkuk, Iraq from their base in Rose Barracks, Germany, during the first-ever deployment of the USAREUR (United States Army Europe) Immediate Ready Task Force (IRTF) in March 2003, in support of the 173rd Airborne Brigade. The battalion redeployed to Europe with the 173rd in March 2004.

The 1st (Devil) Brigade, 1st Infantry Division deployed from Fort Riley
Fort Riley
Fort Riley is a United States Army installation located in Northeast Kansas, on the Kansas River, between Junction City and Manhattan. The Fort Riley Military Reservation covers 100,656 acres in Geary and Riley counties and includes two census-designated places: Fort Riley North and Fort...

, Kansas
Kansas
Kansas is a US state located in the Midwestern United States. It is named after the Kansas River which flows through it, which in turn was named after the Kansa Native American tribe, which inhabited the area. The tribe's name is often said to mean "people of the wind" or "people of the south...

 in September 2003 to provide support to the 82nd Airborne Division in the city of Ramadi
Ramadi
Ramadi is a city in central Iraq, about west of Baghdad. It is the capital of Al Anbar Governorate.-History:Ramadi is located in a fertile, irrigated, alluvial plain.The Ottoman Empire founded Ramadi in 1869...

, Iraq. In February 2004, the Division deployed to Iraq, where it conducted a relief in place of the 4th Infantry Division
U.S. 4th Infantry Division
The 4th Infantry Division is a modular division of the United States Army based at Fort Carson, Colorado, with four brigade combat teams. It is a very technically advanced combat division in the U.S. Army....

, primarily in Salah ad-Din and Diyala provinces, with the Division headquarters being located on Forward Operating Base
Forward Operating Base
A forward operating base is any secured forward military position, commonly a military base, that is used to support tactical operations. A FOB may or may not contain an airfield, hospital, or other facilities. The base may be used for an extended period of time. FOBs are traditionally supported...

 Danger, near Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti was the fifth President of Iraq, serving in this capacity from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003...

's hometown of Tikrit
Tikrit
Tikrit is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river . The town, with an estimated population in 2002 of about 260,000 is the administrative center of the Salah ad Din Governorate.-Ancient times:...

. Task Force Danger, as the Division was called during OIF2, also had a light infantry brigade from the 25th Infantry Division
U.S. 25th Infantry Division
The 25th Infantry Division is a U.S. Army division based in Hawaii. The division, which was activated on 1 October 1941 in Hawaii, conducts military operations in the Asia-Pacific region...

, another brigade the 30th Armored Brigade (Enhanced) (Separate) "Old Hickory"
30th Heavy Brigade Combat Team (United States)
The 30th Heavy Brigade Combat Team is a modular heavy brigade of the United States Army National Guard.The unit is composed of units from North Carolina and West Virginia. It was formed from the remains of the downsized 30th Infantry Division of World War II fame...

 of the North Carolina National Guard
North Carolina National Guard
The North Carolina National Guard consists of the:*North Carolina Army National Guard*North Carolina Air National GuardThe NCNG is an all-volunteer force of nearly 12,000 soldiers and airmen who serve in both federal and state capacities...

, and the 264th Engineer Group of the Wisconsin Army National Guard. In September 2004, the 1st Brigade was replaced by elements from the 2nd Infantry Division in Ramadi and redeployed to Ft. Riley. In February 2005, the division was replaced by the 42d Infantry Division, New York National Guard, and elements of the 3rd Infantry Division and returned to its home in Germany.

1st Infantry Division rebasing to CONUS


In July 2006 the division was withdrawn from Germany back to Fort Riley
Fort Riley
Fort Riley is a United States Army installation located in Northeast Kansas, on the Kansas River, between Junction City and Manhattan. The Fort Riley Military Reservation covers 100,656 acres in Geary and Riley counties and includes two census-designated places: Fort Riley North and Fort...

 in CONUS, leaving only 2nd (Dagger) Brigade in Schweinfurt, Germany until 28 March 2008 when the 3rd Brigade, 1st Armored Division reflagged as the 2nd Brigade, 1st Infantry Division.
Currently there are three maneuver (1st, 2nd and 4th BDE), one CAB and one sustainment brigade are based at Fort Riley, Kan., with one brigade (3rd BDE) based out of Ft Knox, KY.

Operation Iraqi Freedom 06-08


The 2nd (Dagger) Brigade Combat Team deployed to Iraq from mid-August 2006 to late November 2007. 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment was the first to embark and was sent to the Adhamiya district of Baghdad to assist in suppressing the widespread sectarian violence. The 1st Battalion, 77th Armor Regiment
77th Armor Regiment (United States)
The 77th Armor is an armored regiment of the United States Army. The 77th Armor Regiment is part of the U.S. Army Regimental System with only a single battalion, the 1st Battalion, 77th Armor Regiment, and is therefore classified as both a single battalion, and the remainder of the Regiment itself...

 was deployed to Ramadi and the 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment was sent to Forward Operating Base Falcon
Forward Operating Base Falcon
Forward Operating Base Falcon, referred to by some media sources as Camp Falcon, is a United States military forward operating base in Iraq a short distance outside of Baghdad, some south of the Green Zone. For a time it was designated as "Camp Ferrin-Huggins"...

 in the Al Rashid district of southwest Baghdad
Baghdad
Baghdad is the capital of Iraq, as well as the coterminous Baghdad Governorate. The population of Baghdad in 2011 is approximately 7,216,040...

. HQ and HQ Company 2BCT, 1st ID, 9th Engineer BN, 1st Battalion, 7th Field Artillery Regiment, 299th Support Battalion, and 57th Signal Company were all (Dagger) units occupying Camp Liberty, a sprawling encampment of 30,000+ military and DoD civilians located just east of Baghdad International Airport
Baghdad International Airport
Baghdad International Airport, originally Saddam International Airport, , BIAP is Iraq's largest airport, located in a suburb about west of downtown Baghdad in the Baghdad Governorate...

 (BIAP). 2nd plt 1st Military Police Company was located at FOB(Forward Operating Base) Justice.

Elements from Fort Riley's 1st (Devil) Brigade deployed in the fall of 2006 to other area of operations in Iraq. Units include companies from the 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry; 1st Battalion, 34th Armor
34th Armor Regiment (United States)
The 34th Armor Regiment is an armored regiment of the United States Army formed in 1941.-Lineage:Constituted 28 August 1941 in the Regular Army as the 34th Armored Regiment and assigned to the 5th Armored Division...

; 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery; 1st Engineer Battalion; and D Troop, 4th Cavalry.

Transition Team training mission


State-side training for the Military Transition Teams
Military transition team
A Military Transition Team, or Transition Team, is a 10-15 soldier team that and trains local forces. The term has been used in the context of the "War on Terror" to design groups training in particular the Iraqi Security Forces, Afghan Army and other Afghan security forces.- Mission :The primary...

 (MiTTs) is located at Fort Riley, Kansas. Training began 1 June 2006. Some of the units such as the 18th Infantry Regiment, the 26th Infantry Regiment, and the 16th Infantry Regiment
16th Infantry Regiment (United States)
The 16th Infantry Regiment is a regiment in the United States Army.-Formation:The 34th Infantry Regiment and 11th Infantry Regiment consolidated into the 16th Infantry Regiment on 3 March 1869. The 11th Infantry's history prior to the consolidation is normally included with the 16th's.-U.S...

 have already gone into Afghanistan along with some reconnaissance units. Those units have been in the Kunar Province since mid 2006. As of fall 2009 the transition team training mission has moved to Fort Polk, and the 1st Brigade has transitioned into a combat ready force with possible plans to deploy in the next few years.

2007 Deployments to Iraq



In February 2007, the 4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team deployed to southern Baghdad in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom. the second unit tasked with the "surge" announced earlier in the year by President Bush. The main force of the Brigade under Col "Ricky" Gibbs. 2nd Bn 16th Infantry was put under operational control of 2nd Brigade 2nd Infantry Division, and located at FOB Rustamiyah (Featured in the Book "the Good Soldiers" by Washington Post reporter David Finkel)

In the fall of 2007, the Combat Aviation Brigade
Combat Aviation Brigade
A Combat Aviation Brigade is a multi-functional brigade-sized unit in the United States Army that fields military helicopters, offering a combination of attack helicopters , reconnaissance helicopters , medium-lift helicopters , heavy-lift helicopters , and MEDEVAC capability.- History :Combat...

 (Demon Brigade), 1st Infantry Division deployed to Iraq and was placed under the command of Multinational Division – North located at COB Spiecher. The majority of the CAB is stationed at COB Spiecher, with the 1st Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment and some supporting elements stationed at FOB Warrior.

Afghanistan 2008-09


In June and July 2008, 3rd Brigade deployed to Eastern Afghanistan under the command of CJTF-101, relieving the 173rd Airborne Brigade and taking control of the Kunar, Nuristan, Nangarhar, and Laghman provinces. One of the brigades infantry battalions, 2-2, was tasked out down South in the Kandahar province outside of the brigade command. Main focuses of the brigade and PRT was to protect population centers such as Jalalabad and Asadabad and help develop the local economy through the construction of roads, and provide security while doing so. The brigade returned to Ft. Hood, Texas in July 2009 after a year of combat in which they recorded over 1000 firefights, over 1000 enemy killed, over 500 bombs dropped, 26,000 rounds of artillery fire and over 400 purple hearts awarded, giving them the highest casualty rate of any Army or Marine Corps unit during their year-long tour.

Iraq 2008-09


In October 2008, the 2nd Heavy Brigade Combat Team deployed to northwest Baghdad in support of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
During this deployment soldiers of the 1st CAB 18th Infantry Regiment were located on FOB justice, The 1st CAB 63rd Armor was located in Mah-Muh-Diyah, the 1st Battalion 7th Field Artillery was located on Prosperity, and the 2nd Brigade Special Troops Battalion located in the victory base complex. The most notable events which occurred during this time were the Iraqi elections, the SOFA (status of forces agreement) and "Bloody Wednesday" 19 August 2009 coordinated bombing of the finance ministry and the foreign ministry, with rocket attacks in the green zone. The bombings resulted in 101 dead and over 560 wounded.

Iraq 2009-10


4th Infantry Brigade Combat Team (Dragons) deployed in August 2009 as one of the last combat units to be deployed to Iraq.

Iraq 2010–11


1st Heavy Brigade Combat Team headquarters with the BSB deployed to Kirkuk, Iraq in October 2010 as part of the 1-1 Advise and Assist task force. 2nd Heavy Brigade Combat Team deployed to Baghdad, Iraq in November 2010 in an advise and assist role. 1–5 FA battalion will deploy to Iraq in late spring 2011.

Afghanistan 2011–12


From 1st Heavy Brigade Combat Team, 1–16 IN (CAB) and 4-4 CAV deployed to Afghanistan in the winter of 2011, with 2–34 AR (CAB) later deploying in the spring of 2011.
3rd Infantry Brigade Combat Team deployed to Khost and Paktya provinces in Eastern Afghanistan in January 2011. 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment was once again detached from the brigade and deployed to Ghazni province under Polish command.

Insignia


The insignia of the 1st Infantry Division originated in World War I. There are two theories as to how the idea of the patch came about.

The first theory states that the 1st Division supply trucks were manufactured in England. To make sure the 1st Division's trucks were not confused with other allies, the drivers would paint a huge "1" on the side of each truck. Later, the division engineers would go even farther and put a red number one on their sleeves.

The second theory claims that a general of the division decided the unit should have a shoulder insignia. He decided to cut a red numeral "1" from his flannel underwear. When he showed his prototype to his men, one lieutenant said, "the general's underwear is showing!" Offended, the general challenged the young lieutenant to come up with something better. So, the young officer cut a piece of gray cloth from the uniform of a captured soldier, and placed the red "1" on top.

Current structure



1st Infantry Division consists of the following elements:
  • Division Special Troops Battalion
  • 1st Brigade Combat Team (Heavy) "Devil Brigade"
    1st Brigade (US 1st Infantry Division)
    The 1st Brigade Combat Team, 1st Infantry Division is the oldest permanent brigade in the United States Army and has some of the oldest units in the United States Army. HHC, 1st Brigade has participated in Campaigns of World War I, Vietnam, Desert Shield and Desert Storm...

    • 1st Brigade Special Troops Battalion "Defiant"
    • 4th Squadron, 4th Cavalry Regiment "Pale Riders"
    • 2nd Battalion, 34th Armor Regiment
      34th Armor Regiment (United States)
      The 34th Armor Regiment is an armored regiment of the United States Army formed in 1941.-Lineage:Constituted 28 August 1941 in the Regular Army as the 34th Armored Regiment and assigned to the 5th Armored Division...

       "Dreadnaughts"
    • 1st Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment
      16th Infantry Regiment (United States)
      The 16th Infantry Regiment is a regiment in the United States Army.-Formation:The 34th Infantry Regiment and 11th Infantry Regiment consolidated into the 16th Infantry Regiment on 3 March 1869. The 11th Infantry's history prior to the consolidation is normally included with the 16th's.-U.S...

       "Iron Rangers"
    • 1st Battalion, 5th Field Artillery Regiment
      5th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
      The 5th Field Artillery Regiment was constituted as part of the Regular Army in January 1907. Individual battalions have lineages that date back further.-Distinctive Unit Insignia:*Description...

    • 101st Brigade Support Battalion

  • 2nd Brigade Combat Team (Heavy) "Dagger Brigade"
    2nd Brigade (US 1st Infantry Division)
    The 2nd Brigade Combat Team, also known as the Dagger Brigade, is a maneuver brigade combat team in the U.S. 1st Infantry Division. The brigade is stationed in Fort Riley, Kansas.-Distinctive Unit:...

    • 2nd Brigade Special Troops Battalion "Griffins"
    • 5th Squadron, 4th Cavalry Regiment
    • 1st Battalion, 63rd Armor Regiment
      63rd Armor Regiment (United States)
      The 63rd Armor Regiment is an armored regiment of the United States Army formed in 1942.-Lineage:Constituted 3 May 1942 in the Army of the United States as the 745th Tank BattalionActivated 15 August 1942 at Camp Bowie, Texas...

       "Dragons"
    • 1st Battalion, 18th Infantry Regiment Vanguards
    • 1st Battalion, 7th Field Artillery Regiment
      7th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
      The 7th Field Artillery Regiment is a United States Army field artillery regiment, whose lineage traces back to the early 20th century.-World War I:...

       First Lightning
    • 299th Brigade Support Battalion
      299th Brigade Support Battalion (United States)
      The 299th Brigade Support Battalion, also known as the Lifeline, is a support battalion in the 2nd Brigade Combat Team of the 1st Infantry Division...

       "Lifeline

  • 3rd Brigade Combat Team (Infantry) "Duke Brigade" at Fort Knox
    Fort Knox
    Fort Knox is a United States Army post in Kentucky south of Louisville and north of Elizabethtown. The base covers parts of Bullitt, Hardin, and Meade counties. It currently holds the Army Human Resources Center of Excellence to include the Army Human Resources Command, United States Army Cadet...

    , Kentucky
    Kentucky
    The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

    • 3rd Brigade Special Troops Battalion
    • 6th Squadron, 4th Cavalry Regiment
    • 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment
    • 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Regiment
      2nd Infantry Regiment (United States)
      The 2nd Infantry Regiment is an infantry regiment in the United States Army. It has served the United States for more than two hundred years. It is the third oldest regiment in the US Army with a Lineage date of 1808 and a history extending back to 1791...

    • 1st Battalion, 6th Field Artillery Regiment
      6th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
      The 6th Field Artillery Regiment is an Field Artillery regiment of the United States Army first formed in 1907-History:The 6th Field Artillery Regiment was first activated in 1907 from numbered companies of artillery...

    • 201st Brigade Support Battalion

  • 4th Brigade Combat Team (Infantry) "Dragon Brigade"
    4th Brigade (US 1st Infantry Division)
    The Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Infantry Division is the formation bundling all Army Aviation assets of the US Army's 1st Infantry Division.-1980s History:...

    • 4th Brigade Special Troops Battalion
      Special Troops Battalion
      A Special Troops Battalion is an organic unit of a modular brigade, Division , corps or higher echelon United States Army organization...

    • 1st Squadron, 4th Cavalry Regiment
    • 1st Battalion, 28th Infantry Regiment
      28th Infantry Regiment (United States)
      Since the establishment of the United States Army in 1775, three regiments have held the designation 28th Infantry Regiment. The first was a Provisional unit that was constituted on 29 January 1813 and served during The War of 1812. The second was a reorganization and redesignation of 2nd...

    • 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry Regiment
      16th Infantry Regiment (United States)
      The 16th Infantry Regiment is a regiment in the United States Army.-Formation:The 34th Infantry Regiment and 11th Infantry Regiment consolidated into the 16th Infantry Regiment on 3 March 1869. The 11th Infantry's history prior to the consolidation is normally included with the 16th's.-U.S...

    • 2nd Battalion, 32nd Field Artillery Regiment
      32nd Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
      The 32nd Field Artillery Regiment is an Field Artillery regiment of the United States Army. first Constituted in 1918-Lineage:Constituted in the Regular Army as the 32nd Field Artillery and assigned to the 11th Infantry Division 5 July 1918...

    • 701st Brigade Support Battalion

  • Combat Aviation Brigade, 1st Infantry Division "Demon Brigade"
    • Headquarters and Headquarters Company
      Headquarters and Headquarters Company
      In United States Army units, a headquarters and headquarters company is a company sized military unit, found at the battalion level and higher. In identifying a specific headquarters unit, it is usually referred to by its abbreviation as an HHC...

    • 1st Battalion (Attack), 1st Aviation
      1st Aviation Regiment (United States)
      The 1st Aviation Regiment is an aviation regiment of the U.S. Army.-Distinctive Unit Insignia:* DescriptionA silver color metal and enamel device 1 1/8 inches in height overall consisting of a shield blazoned: Per nebuly Argent and Azure in base a mullet of 11 points of the first and in...

       with 24 AH-64D Apache Longbow
      AH-64 Apache
      The Boeing AH-64 Apache is a four-blade, twin-engine attack helicopter with a tailwheel-type landing gear arrangement, and a tandem cockpit for a two-man crew. The Apache was developed as Model 77 by Hughes Helicopters for the United States Army's Advanced Attack Helicopter program to replace the...

    • 1st Squadron, 6th Cavalry Regiment with 24 OH-58 Kiowa
      OH-58 Kiowa
      The Bell OH-58 Kiowa is a family of single-engine, single-rotor, military helicopters used for observation, utility, and direct fire support. Bell Helicopter manufactured the OH-58 for the United States Army based on the 206A JetRanger helicopter. The OH-58 has been in continuous use by the U.S...

    • 2nd Battalion (General Support), 1st Aviation Regiment with 8 UH-60L/M Black Hawk, 10 CH-47D Chinook
      CH-47 Chinook
      The Boeing CH-47 Chinook is an American twin-engine, tandem rotor heavy-lift helicopter. Its top speed of 170 knots is faster than contemporary utility and attack helicopters of the 1960s...

       and 10 HH-60L/M Black Hawk
      HH-60 Pave Hawk
      The Sikorsky MH-60G/HH-60G Pave Hawk is a twin turboshaft engine helicopter in service with the United States Air Force. It is a derivative of the UH-60 Black Hawk and incorporates the US Air Force PAVE electronic systems program...

    • 3rd Battalion (Assault), 1st Aviation Regiment with 30 UH-60M Black Hawk
    • 601st Aviation Support Battalion
  • 75th Fires Brigade
    75th Fires Brigade (United States)
    The 75th Fires Brigade is an artillery brigade in the United States Army. It is currently based in Fort Sill, Oklahoma and supports the 1st Infantry Division at Fort Riley, Kansas.- Mission :...

     "Diamond Brigade" at Fort Sill
    Fort Sill
    Fort Sill is a United States Army post near Lawton, Oklahoma, about 85 miles southwest of Oklahoma City.Today, Fort Sill remains the only active Army installation of all the forts on the South Plains built during the Indian Wars...

    , Oklahoma
    • 1st Battalion, 17th Field Artillery Regiment
      17th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
      The 17th Field Artillery Regiment is an Field Artillery regiment of the United States Army first formed in 1916-History:The 17th Field Artillery was Constituted 1 July 1916 in the Regular Army at Camp Robinson, Wisconsin-Lineage:...

       "Copperheads", firing Paladin
      M109 howitzer
      The M109 is an American-made self-propelled 155 mm howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s. It was upgraded a number of times to today's M109A6 Paladin...

      .
    • 2nd battalion, 18th Field Artillery Regiment
      18th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
      The 18th Field Artillery Regiment is an Field Artillery regiment of the United States Army first formed in 1916-Distinctive Unit Insignia:*Description...

      , firing MLRS
      M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System
      The M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System is an armored, self-propelled, multiple rocket launcher; a type of rocket artillery.Since the first M270s were delivered to the U.S. Army in 1983, the MLRS has been adopted by several NATO countries. Some 1,300 M270 systems have been manufactured in the...

      .
    • 3rd Battalion, 13th Field Artillery Regiment
      13th Field Artillery Regiment (United States)
      The 13th Field Artillery Regiment is an Field Artillery regiment of the United States Army first formed in 1916-History:The 13th Field Artillery was Constituted 1 July 1916 in the Regular Army at Camp Stewart, Texas-Lineage:...

       "Red Dragons", firing MLRS
      M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System
      The M270 Multiple Launch Rocket System is an armored, self-propelled, multiple rocket launcher; a type of rocket artillery.Since the first M270s were delivered to the U.S. Army in 1983, the MLRS has been adopted by several NATO countries. Some 1,300 M270 systems have been manufactured in the...

      .
    • 00th Brigade Support Battalion.


The division is supported by the 1st Sustainment Brigade
1st Sustainment Brigade (United States)
The 1st Sustainment Brigade is a sustainment brigade of the United States Army based at Fort Riley, Kansas. It provides logistics support to the 1st Infantry Division.Activated in 2007, the unit is a modular brigade capable of a variety of actions...

 at Fort Riley
Fort Riley
Fort Riley is a United States Army installation located in Northeast Kansas, on the Kansas River, between Junction City and Manhattan. The Fort Riley Military Reservation covers 100,656 acres in Geary and Riley counties and includes two census-designated places: Fort Riley North and Fort...

.

Campaign participation credit

  • World War I:
  1. Montdidier-Noyon
  2. Aisne-Marne
  3. St. Mihiel
  4. Meuse-Argonne
  5. Lorraine 1917
  6. Lorraine 1918
  7. Picardy 1918
    • World War II:
  8. Algeria-French Morocco
    Operation Torch
    Operation Torch was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in World War II during the North African Campaign, started on 8 November 1942....

     (with arrowhead)
  9. Tunisia
    Tunisia Campaign
    The Tunisia Campaign was a series of battles that took place in Tunisia during the North African Campaign of the Second World War, between Axis and Allied forces. The Allies consisted of British Imperial Forces, including Polish and Greek contingents, with American and French corps...

  10. Sicily (with arrowhead)
  11. Normandy
    Operation Overlord
    Operation Overlord was the code name for the Battle of Normandy, the operation that launched the invasion of German-occupied western Europe during World War II by Allied forces. The operation commenced on 6 June 1944 with the Normandy landings...

     (with arrowhead)
  12. Northern France
  13. Rhineland
  14. Ardennes-Alsace
    Battle of the Bulge
    The Battle of the Bulge was a major German offensive , launched toward the end of World War II through the densely forested Ardennes mountain region of Wallonia in Belgium, hence its French name , and France and...

  15. Central Europe
    Central Europe Campaign
    After crossing the Rhine the Western Allies fanned out overrunning all of western Germany from the Baltic in the north to Austria in the south before the Germans surrendered on 8 May 1945. This is known as the "Central Europe Campaign" in United States military histories.By the early spring of...

    • Vietnam:
  16. Defense
  17. Counteroffensive
  18. Counteroffensive, Phase II
  19. Counteroffensive, Phase III
  20. Tet Counteroffensive
  21. Counteroffensive, Phase IV
  22. Counteroffensive, Phase V
  23. Counteroffensive, Phase VI
  24. Tet 69/Counteroffensive
    Tet 1969
    Tet 1969 refers to the attacks mounted by principally North Vietnamese forces in February 1969 in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War, one year after the original Tet Offensive....

  25. Summer-Fall 1969
  26. Winter-Spring 1970
    • Southwest Asia:
  27. Defense of Saudi Arabia
  28. Liberation and Defense of Kuwait
  29. Cease-Fire
    • Global War on Terrorism
  30. Operation Iraqi Freedom II
  31. Operation Iraqi Freedom VI-VIII
  32. Operation Iraqi Freedom VIII-IX
  33. Operation Enduring Freedom 08-09

Decorations

  1. Meritorious Unit Commendation
    Meritorious Unit Commendation
    The Meritorious Unit Commendation is a mid-level unit award of the United States military which is awarded to any military command which displays exceptionally meritorious conduct in the performance of outstanding service, heroic deeds, or valorous actions....

     (Army) for VIETNAM 1968
  2. Meritorious Unit Commendation (Army) for SOUTHWEST ASIA
  3. Army Superior Unit Award for 1997
  4. French Croix de guerre with Palm, World War II for KASSERINE
  5. French Croix de guerre with Palm, World War II for NORMANDY
  6. French Croix de guerre, World War II, Fourragere
  7. Belgian Fourragere 1940
  8. Cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army for action at MONS
  9. Cited in the Order of the Day of the Belgian Army for action at EUPEN-MALMEDY
  10. Republic of Vietnam Cross of Gallantry with Palm for VIETNAM 1965–1968
  11. Republic of Vietnam Civil Action Honor Medal, First Class for VIETNAM 1965–1970

Commanding generals

  • MG William L. Sibert June–December 1917
  • MG Robert L. Bullard December 1917 – July 1918
  • MG Charles P. Summerall July–October 1918
  • BG Frank Parker
    Frank Parker (general)
    Frank Parker was a Major General in the United States Army.-Early life:Frank Parker was born September 21, 1872 in Georgetown County, South Carolina. He attended the U.S. Military Academy and graduated in 1894, after which he served in the Spanish American War in 1898 and Puerto Rico, 1899-1900...

     October–November 1918
  • MG Edward F. McGlachlin
    Edward McGlachlin, Jr.
    Edward McGlachlin, Jr. was a Major General in the United States Army during World War I. He would be awarded the Army Distinguished Service Medal for his services, including during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel and while commanding the 1st Infantry Division....

     November 1918 – September 1919
  • MG Charles P. Summerall October 1919 – June 1921
  • MG David C. Shanks July–November 1921
  • MG Charles T. Menoher
    Charles T. Menoher
    Major General Charles Thomas Menoher was a U.S. Army general, first Chief of the United States Army Air Service, and commanded the U.S. Army Hawaiian Department from 1924-1925...

     November 1921 – January 1922
  • MG Harry C. Hale February–December 1922
  • BG William S. Graves
    William S. Graves
    Major General William Sidney Graves . The commander of American forces in Siberia during the Allied Intervention in Russia.-Biography:...

     December 1922 – July 1925
  • BG Preston Brown July 1925 – January 1926
  • BG Frank Parker
    Frank Parker (general)
    Frank Parker was a Major General in the United States Army.-Early life:Frank Parker was born September 21, 1872 in Georgetown County, South Carolina. He attended the U.S. Military Academy and graduated in 1894, after which he served in the Spanish American War in 1898 and Puerto Rico, 1899-1900...

     January–May 1926
  • BG Hugh A. Drum
    Hugh A. Drum
    Hugh Aloysius Drum September 19, 1879 – October 3, 1951 was a U.S. general.Born in Fort Brady, Chippewa County, Michigan, he graduated from Boston College in 1898.Joining the United States Army, he was made a second lieutenant in the 12th Infantry Regiment...

     May 1926 – May 1927
  • MG Fox Conner
    Fox Conner
    Fox Conner was a major general of the United States Army. He served as operations officer for the American Expeditionary Force during World War I, but is best remembered as "the man who made Eisenhower".-Early career:...

     May–September 1927
  • BG Hugh A. Drum September 1927 – January 1930
  • BG William P. Jackson January–March 1930
  • MG Briant H. Wells March–September 1930
  • BG Lucius R. Holbrook October 1930 – November 1935
  • BG Charles D. Roberts November 1935 – February 1936
  • MG Frank Parker
    Frank Parker (general)
    Frank Parker was a Major General in the United States Army.-Early life:Frank Parker was born September 21, 1872 in Georgetown County, South Carolina. He attended the U.S. Military Academy and graduated in 1894, after which he served in the Spanish American War in 1898 and Puerto Rico, 1899-1900...

     February–March 1936
  • MG Stanley H. Ford
    Stanley H. Ford
    Stanley Hamer Ford was a United States Army General. He was prominent as commander of the Philippine Department, 1st Infantry Division, VII Corps, VI Corps, and the Second United States Army.-Early life:Ford was born on January 30, 1877 in Columbus, Ohio...

     March–October 1936
  • BG Perry L. Miles October 1936 – October 1937
  • COL William P. Ennis November–December 1937
  • BG Laurence Halstead December 1937 – January 1938
  • MG Walter C. Short October 1938 – September 1940
  • MG Karl Truesdell October–December 1940
  • MG Donald Cubbison January 1941 – May 1942
  • MG Terry Allen May 1942 – August 1943
  • MG Clarence R. Huebner
    Clarence R. Huebner
    Clarence Ralph Huebner was a Lieutenant General of the United States Army.-World War I:A farm boy from Bushton, Kansas who spent almost seven years serving from private to sergeant in the 18th Infantry, Huebner received a regular commission in November 1916...

     August 1943 – December 1944
  • MG Clift Andrus December 1944 – May 1946
  • MG Frank W. Milburn
    Frank W. Milburn
    Frank William Milburn was a general in the United States Army during World War II and the Korean War....

     June 1946 – May 1949
  • BG Ralph J. Canine May–September 1949
  • MG John E. Dahlquist
    John E. Dahlquist
    John Ernest Dahlquist was a United States Army general and World War II division commander. In the course of his career, he commanded three different army divisions, commanded at the corps and field army level, and rose to the rank of four-star general.-Biography:Dahlquist was born on March 12,...

     September 1949 – July 1951
  • MG Thomas S. Timberman July 1951 – December 1952
  • MG Charles T. Lanham January 1953 – June 1954
  • MG Guy S. Meloy, Jr.
    Guy S. Meloy, Jr.
    General Guy Stanley Meloy, Jr. was a U.S. Army general, World War II and Korean War veteran, and served as commander of all U.S. forces in Korea during the Cold War.-Biography:...

     June 1954 – December 1955
  • MG Willis S. Matthews January 1956 – April 1957
  • MG David H. Buchanan April 1957 – October 1958
  • BG Forrest Caraway October 1958 – December 1958
  • MG Harvey H. Fischer December 1958 – January 1960
  • BG John A. Seitz
    John A. Seitz
    Brigadier General John "Andy" Andrew Seitz was the commanding general of the 1st Infantry Division and the XVIII Airborne Corps.-Family and Education:...

     January 1960 – February 1960
  • MG Theodore W. Parker
    Theodore W. Parker
    Theodore William Parker was a United States Army four star general who served as Chief of Staff, Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe from 1963 to 1969-Military career:...

     February 1960 – May 1961
  • BG John A. Berry, Jr. May 1961 – June 1961
  • BG William B. Kunzig July 1961 – August 1961
  • MG John F. Ruggles August 1961 – January 1963
  • MG Arthur W. Oberbeck January 1963 – January 1964
  • MG Jonathan O. Seaman February 1964 – March 1966
  • MG William E. DePuy
    William E. DePuy
    William Eugene DePuy was a U.S. Army general and the first commander of the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command. He is widely regarded as one of the principal architects of the restructuring of U.S. Army doctrine after the American withdrawal from Vietnam.-Early life and career:DePuy...

     March 1966 – December 1966
  • MG John H. Hay, Jr. January 1967 – February 1968
  • MG Keith L. Ware
    Keith L. Ware
    Major General Keith Lincoln Ware was an United States Army officer, who received the Medal of Honor in World War II, and was killed in action while commanding a division during the Vietnam War.-Biography:...

     February–September 1968
  • MG Orwin C. Talbott September 1968 – August 1969
  • MG Albert E. Milloy August 1969 – February 1970
  • BG John Q. Henion March 1970 – April 1970
  • MG Robert R. Linvill April 1970 – January 1971
  • MG Edward M. Flanagan, Jr. January 1971 – December 1972
  • MG G. J. Duquemin January 1973 – August 1974
  • MG Marvin D. Fuller August 1974 – May 1976
  • MG Calvert P. Benedict May 1976 – May 1978
  • MG Phillip Kaplan May 1978 – July 1980
  • MG Edward A. Partain July 1980 – December 1982
  • MG Neal Creighton December 1982 – June 1984
  • MG Ronald L. Watts June 1984 – April 1986
  • MG Leonard P. Wishart III April 1986 – July 1988
  • MG Gordon R. Sullivan
    Gordon R. Sullivan
    General Gordon Russell Sullivan is a retired Army general officer, who served as the 32nd Chief of Staff of the United States Army and as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.-Background and education:...

     July 1988 – July 1989
  • MG Thomas Rhame July 1989 – August 1991
  • MG William W. Hartzog
    William W. Hartzog
    General William White Hartzog was a four-star U.S. Army general whose commands during his 35-year career include the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command, the 1st Infantry Division, and United States Army South....

     August 1991 – July 1993
  • MG Josue Robles, Jr. July 1993 – June 1994
  • MG Randolph W. House June 1994 – February 1996
  • MG Montgomery Meigs
    Montgomery Meigs
    Montgomery Cunningham Meigs is a retired United States Army General. He is the great-great-great grandnephew of Montgomery C. Meigs...

     March 1996 – July 1997
  • MG David L. Grange
    David L. Grange
    David L. Grange is a retired United States Army Brigadier General, son of retired Lieutenant General David E. Grange, Jr. After retiring in 1999, David L. Grange served as the executive vice president and chief operating officer of the McCormick Foundation in Chicago. In September 2005, Grange...

     August 1997 – August 1999
  • MG John P. Abizaid August 1999 – September 2000
  • MG Bantz J. Craddock
    Bantz J. Craddock
    Bantz John Craddock is a retired United States Army four-star general. His last military assignment was as Commander, U.S. European Command and the NATO's Supreme Allied Commander Europe as well as the commanding officer of Allied Command Operations from December 2006 to June 30, 2009. He also...

     September 2000 – August 2002
  • MG John R.S. Batiste
    John Batiste
    Major General John Batiste is a retired officer of the United States Army.John Batiste was commissioned as an infantry officer from West Point and served in five US Army heavy divisions over the next 31 years...

     August 2002 – June 2005
  • MG Kenneth W. Hunzeker June 2005 – August 2006
  • MG Carter F. Ham August 2006 – August 2007
  • MG Robert E. Durbin July 2007 – July 2008
  • BG Perry L. Wiggins July 2008 – March 2009
  • MG Danger Main March 2009 – April 2009
  • MG Vincent K. Brooks April 2009 – May 2011
  • MG William C. Mayville May 2011 - Present

  • See also


    • The Big Red One
      The Big Red One
      The Big Red One is a World War II war film starring Lee Marvin and Mark Hamill. Written and directed by Samuel Fuller, it was produced by Lorimar and released by United Artists in the US on July 18, 1980...

      (1980), a movie about the division's experiences in World War II written by Samuel Fuller
      Samuel Fuller
      Samuel Michael Fuller was an American screenwriter, novelist, and film director known for low-budget genre movies with controversial themes.-Personal life:...

       who served in the division during World War II.
    • Cantigny
      Cantigny
      Cantigny is a park in Wheaton, Illinois, 30 miles west of Chicago. It is the former estate of Joseph Medill, and his grandson Colonel Robert R. McCormick, publishers of the Chicago Tribune, and is open to the public...

      , the former estate of Col. Robert R. McCormick, is where the 1st Infantry Division Museum is located. The museum showcases the history of the 1st Infantry Division, from their involvement in World War I to the present, along with several tanks situated outside the museum dating from World War I to the present.
    • First Division Monument
      First Division Monument
      The First Division Monument is located in President's Park, south of State Place Northwest between 17th Street Northwest and West Executive Avenue Northwest in Washington, DC, United States. The Monument commemorates those who died while serving in the 1st Infantry Division of the U. S....

    • Iraq Assistance Group, a former joint command coordinating the coalition military transition team
      Military transition team
      A Military Transition Team, or Transition Team, is a 10-15 soldier team that and trains local forces. The term has been used in the context of the "War on Terror" to design groups training in particular the Iraqi Security Forces, Afghan Army and other Afghan security forces.- Mission :The primary...

      mission in Iraq which was formed from the 1st Infantry Division.

    Further reading

    • Rohan, John Rags, The Dog Who Went to War, , Diggory Press, ISBN 978-1-84685-364-7
    • Gantter, Raymond Roll Me Over, An Infantryman's World War II, , Ivy Books, ISBN 0-8041-1605-9
    • Stanton, Shelby, Vietnam Order of Battle: A Complete Illustrated Reference to the U.S. Army and Allied Ground Forces in Vietnam, 1961-1973, Stackpole Books 2006 ISBN 0811700712
    • Stanton, Shelby, World War II Order of Battle: An Encyclopedic Reference to U.S. Army Ground Forces from Battalion through Division, 1939-1946 (Revised Edition, 2006), Stackpole Books ISBN 978-0811701570

    External links