is the process whereby a single point cutting tool is parallel to the surface. It can be done manually, in a traditional form of lathe
A lathe is a machine tool which rotates the workpiece on its axis to perform various operations such as cutting, sanding, knurling, drilling, or deformation with tools that are applied to the workpiece to create an object which has symmetry about an axis of rotation.Lathes are used in woodturning,...
, which frequently requires continuous supervision by the operator, or by using a computer controlled and automated lathe which does not. This type of machine tool is referred to as having computer numerical control, better known as CNC. and is commonly used with many other types of machine tool
A machine tool is a machine, typically powered other than by human muscle , used to make manufactured parts in various ways that include cutting or certain other kinds of deformation...
besides the lathe.
When turning, a piece of material (wood, metal, plastic, or stone) is rotated and a cutting tool
The term tool bit generally refers to a non-rotary cutting tool used in metal lathes, shapers, and planers. Such cutters are also often referred to by the set-phrase name of single-point cutting tool. The cutting edge is ground to suit a particular machining operation and may be resharpened or...
is traversed along 2 axes of motion to produce precise diameters and depths. Turning can be either on the outside of the cylinder or on the inside (also known as boring
Boring often refers to anything that causes boredom.Boring may also refer to:Making holes*Boring , the drilling of holes or tunnels in the earth**Tunnel boring machine machine used in boring tunnels or shafts...
) to produce tubular components to various geometries. Although now quite rare, early lathes could even be used to produce complex geometric figures, even the platonic solids; although until the advent of CNC it had become unusual to use one for this purpose for the last three quarters of the twentieth century. It is said that the lathe is the only machine tool that can reproduce itself.
The turning processes are typically carried out on a lathe, considered to be the oldest machine tools, and can be of four different types such as straight turning
, taper turning
grooving. Those types of turning processes can produce various shapes of materials such as straight
, or grooved
In general, turning uses simple single-point cutting
tools. Each group of workpiece materials has an optimum set of tools angles which have been developed through the years.
The bits of waste metal from turning operations are known as chips (North America), or swarf
Swarf, also known as turnings, chips, or filings, are shavings and chippings of metal — the debris or waste resulting from metalworking operations including milling and grinding. It can usually be recycled, and this is the preferred method of disposal due to the environmental concerns regarding...
(Britain). In some areas they may be known as turnings
Turning specific operations include:
This operation is one of the most basic machining
Conventional machining is a form of subtractive manufacturing, in which a collection of material-working processes utilizing power-driven machine tools, such as saws, lathes, milling machines, and drill presses, are used with a sharp cutting tool to physical remove material to achieve a desired...
processes. That is, the part is rotated while a single point cutting tool is moved parallel to the axis of rotation. Turning can be done on the external surface of the part as well as internally (boring). The starting material is generally a workpiece generated by other processes such as casting
In metalworking, casting involves pouring liquid metal into a mold, which contains a hollow cavity of the desired shape, and then allowing it to cool and solidify. The solidified part is also known as a casting, which is ejected or broken out of the mold to complete the process...
Forging is a manufacturing process involving the shaping of metal using localized compressive forces. Forging is often classified according to the temperature at which it is performed: '"cold," "warm," or "hot" forging. Forged parts can range in weight from less than a kilogram to 580 metric tons...
Extrusion is a process used to create objects of a fixed cross-sectional profile. A material is pushed or drawn through a die of the desired cross-section...
, or drawing
Drawing is a metalworking process which uses tensile forces to stretch metal. It is broken up into two types: sheet metal drawing and wire, bar, and tube drawing. The specific definition for sheet metal drawing is that it involves plastic deformation over a curved axis...
- Tapered turning : a) from the compound slide b) from taper turning attachment c) using a hydraulic copy attachment d) using a C.N.C. lathe e) using a form tool f) by the offsetting of the tailstock - this method more suited for shallow tapers
- Spherical generation : The proper expression for making or turning a shape is to generate as in to generate a form around a fixed axis of revolution. a) using hydraulic copy attachment b) C.N.C. (computerised numerically controlled) lathe c) using a form tool (a rough and ready method) d) using bed jig (need drawing to explain)
- : Hard turning is a turning done on materials with a Rockwell C
The Rockwell scale is a hardness scale based on the indentation hardness of a material. The Rockwell test determines the hardness by measuring the depth of penetration of an indenter under a large load compared to the penetration made by a preload. There are different scales, denoted by a single...
hardness greater than 45. It is typically performed after the workpiece is heat treated
Heat treating is a group of industrial and metalworking processes used to alter the physical, and sometimes chemical, properties of a material. The most common application is metallurgical. Heat treatments are also used in the manufacture of many other materials, such as glass...
- The process is intended to replace or limit traditional grinding operations
Grinding is an abrasive machining process that uses a grinding wheel as the cutting tool.A wide variety of machines are used for grinding:* Hand-cranked knife-sharpening stones * Handheld power tools such as angle grinders and die grinders...
. Hard turning, when applied for purely stock removal purposes, competes favorably with rough grinding. However, when it is applied for finishing where form and dimension are critical, grinding is superior. Grinding produces higher dimensional accuracy of roundness and cylindricity. In addition, polished surface finishes of Rz=0.3-0.8z cannot be achieved with hard turning alone. Hard turning is appropriate for parts requiring roundness accuracy of 0.5-12 micrometres, and/or surface roughness of Rz 0.8–7.0 micrometres. It is used for gears, injection pump components, hydraulic components, among other applications.
: is part of the turning process. It involves moving the cutting tool at right angles to the axis of rotation of the rotating workpiece. This can be performed by the operation of the cross-slide, if one is fitted, as distinct from the longitudinal feed (turning). It is frequently the first operation performed in the production of the workpiece, and often the last- hence the phrase "ending up".
This process is used to create deep grooves which will remove a completed or part-complete component from its parent stock.
|| is like parting, except that grooves are cut to a specific depth by a form tool instead of severing a completed/part-complete component from the stock. Grooving can be performed on internal and external surfaces, as well as on the face of the part (face grooving or trepanning).
Non-specific operations include:
Boring : i.e. the machining of internal cylindrical forms (generating) a) by mounting workpiece to the spindle via a chuck or faceplate b) by mounting workpiece onto the cross slide and placing cutting tool into the chuck. This work is suitable for castings that are to awkward to mount in the face plate. On long bed lathes large workpiece can be bolted to a fixture on the bed and a shaft passed between two lugs on the workpiece and these lugs can be bored out to size. A limited application but one that is available to the skilled turner/machinist
Drilling is a cutting process that uses a drill bit to cut or enlarge a hole in solid materials. The drill bit is a multipoint, end cutting tool...
: is used to remove material from the inside of a workpiece. This process utilizes standard drill bits held stationary in the tail stock or tool turret of the lathe.
Knurling is a manufacturing process, typically conducted on a lathe, whereby a visually attractive diamond-shaped pattern is cut or rolled into metal.- Uses :...
: The cutting of a serrated pattern onto the surface of a part to use as a hand grip using a special purpose knurling tool
Threading : both standard and non-standard screw threads can be turned on a lathe using an appropriate cutting tool. (Usually having a 60, or 55° nose angle) Either externally, or within a bore. Generally referred to as single-point threading.
- tapping of threaded nuts and holes a) using hand taps and tailstock centre b)using a tapping device with a slipping clutch to reduce risk of breakage of the tap
- threading operations include a)all types of external and internal thread forms using a single point tool also taper threads, double start threads, multi start threads, worms as used in worm wheel reduction boxes, leadscrew with single or multistart threads. b) by the use of threading boxes fitted with 4 form tools, up to 2" diameter threads but it is possible to find larger boxes than this
A lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping pieces of metal, wood, or other materials by causing the workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a tool bit is advanced into the work causing the cutting action. Lathes can be divided into three types for easy identification: engine lathe, turret lathe
The turret lathe is a form of metalworking lathe that is used for repetitive production of duplicate parts, which by the nature of their cutting process are usually interchangeable...
, and special purpose lathes
. Some smaller ones are bench mounted and semi-portable. The larger lathes are floor mounted and may require special transportation if they must be moved.
Field and maintenance shops generally use a lathe that can be adapted to many operations and that is not too large to be moved from one work site to another. The engine lathe is ideally suited for this purpose. A trained operator can accomplish more machining jobs with the engine lathe than with any other machine tool. Turret lathes and special purpose lathes are usually used in production or job shops for mass production
Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardized products, including and especially on assembly lines...
or specialized parts, while basic engine lathes are usually used for any type of lathe work.
A chuck is a specialized type of clamp used to hold an object, usually an object with radial symmetry, especially a cylindrical object. It is most commonly used to hold a rotating tool or a rotating workpiece...
: Chucks are a very common workholding method. There are many types, some for round and square stock, and other for irregular shapes.
A collet is a holding device—specifically, a subtype of chuck—that forms a collar around the object to be held and exerts a strong clamping force on the object when it is tightened, usually via a tapered outer collar. It may be used to hold a workpiece or a tool.A collet is a sleeve with a ...
: Primarily used for small round workpieces.
A lathe faceplate is the basic workholding accessory for a wood or metal turning lathe. It is a circular metal plate which fixes to the end of the lathe spindle...
: A faceplate, drive dog, and mandrel may be used to turn workpieces such as gear blanks.
- Drive center: Use hydraulic or spring-loaded teeth that "bite" into the end of workpieces and can be used when the entire length of the workpiece must be machined.
The various angles, shapes, and sizes of a single-point cutting
tool have direct relation to the resulting surface of a workpiece in machining operations. Different types of angle such as rake angle
Rake angle is a parameter used in various cutting and machining processes, describing the angle of the cutting face relative to the work. There are three types of rake angles: positive, negative, and zero...
, side rake angle
, cutting-edge angle
, relief angle
, nose radius
exist and may be different with respect to the workpiece. Also, there are many shapes of single-point cutting
tools, such as V-shaped
Usually, a special toolholder is used to hold the cutting tool firmly during operation.
Dynamics of turning
The relative forces in a turning operation are important in the design of machine tools. The machine tool and its components must be able to withstand these forces without causing significant deflections, vibrations, or chatter during the operation. There are three principal forces during a turning process:
- The cutting or tangential force acts downward on the tool tip allowing deflection of the workpiece upward. It supplies the energy required for the cutting operation.
- The axial, thrust or feed force acts in the longitudinal direction. It is also called the feed force because it is in the feed direction of the tool. This force tends to push the tool away from the chuck.
- The radial force acts in the radial direction and tends to push the tool away from the workpiece.
Although it requires less-skilled labor, the engine lathes do need skilled labor and the production is somewhat slow. Moreover, it can be accelerated by using a turret lathe (In a turret lathe, a longitudinally feedable, hexagon turret replaces the tailstock. The turret, on which six tools can be mounted, can be rotated about a vertical axis to bring each tool into operating position, and the entire unit can be moved longitudinally, either manually or by power, to provide feed for the tools) and automated machines.