The Treaty of Guarantee
is a treaty between the Republic of Cyprus, Greece
Greece , officially the Hellenic Republic , and historically Hellas or the Republic of Greece in English, is a country in southeastern Europe....
Turkey , known officially as the Republic of Turkey , is a Eurasian country located in Western Asia and in East Thrace in Southeastern Europe...
and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland promulgated in 1960. Article I bans Cyprus from participating in any political union
A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states. Unlike a personal union, the individual states share a common government and the union is recognized internationally as a single political entity...
or economic union
An economic union is a type of trade bloc which is composed of a common market with a customs union. The participant countries have both common policies on product regulation, freedom of movement of goods, services and the factors of production and a common external trade policy.The countries...
with any other state. Article II requires the other parties to guarantee the independence, territorial integrity and security of Cyprus. Article IV authorizes the use of force to maintain the current state of affairs in Cyprus. The treaty allowed the UK to retain sovereignty over two military bases.
The treaty was used as the basis of Turkish military intervention in Cyprus, in particular article IV of the treaty. This article entitled these three guarantor parties to multi-lateral action among them or as a last resort if no concerted action seemed possible, each guarantor is entitled to unilateral action. These actions should confine only to restore the status according to this Treaty as a democratic Bi-communal, single sovereign independent state.
Whether Turkey's military intervention did violate the Treaty of Guarantee was not clear-cut. As at the time of the intervention, Turkish Cypriots were deprived of constitutional and fundamental rights abridged by the then Cypriot regime, mostly dominated by Greek Cypriots, largely through unconstitutional means and violent force since the beginning of inter-communal riots in 1963. Also in 1974 Cyprus witnessed a coup d'état by Greek Cypriot forces (backed by the military junta then in power in Athens, Greece) against then leader of Cyprus Archbishop Makarios III who had not been seeking "enosis" or union with Greece. "The situation came to a head on 15 July 1974 when the Athens regime instigated a coup by Greek army officers in Cyprus, seeking to achieve 'enosis' - or union with Greece. Makarios was overthrown and fled to Britain. Five days later, Turkey - concerned at the imminent possibility of a unified Greece and Cyprus - sent in troops with the aim of protecting the Turkish Cypriot community."
Current UN conventions mandated that any military intervention must be endorsed by the UN Security Council in order for the intervention to be classified as a justified action to "restore international peace and security" in responding to "threat to the peace, breach of the peace, or act of aggression"
This treaty was concluded the same year that the Cyprus Constitution was finalized and the Treaty of Establishment of the Republic of Cyprus and the Treaty of Alliance between the Republic of Cyprus, Greece and Turkey were written.