Toledo, Spain

Toledo, Spain

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Toledo's Alcázar
Alcázar of Toledo
The Alcázar of Toledo is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's...

 (Arabicized Latin word for palace-castle) became renowned in the 19th and 20th centuries as a military academy
Military academy
A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the army, the navy, air force or coast guard, which normally provides education in a service environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.Three...

. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

 in 1936 its garrison was famously besieged
Siege of the Alcázar
The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic Nationalist victory in Toledo in the opening stages of the Spanish Civil War. The Alcázar of Toledo was held by a variety of military forces in favor of the Nationalist uprising. Militias of the parties in the Popular Front began their siege on July 21...

 by Republican
Second Spanish Republic
The Second Spanish Republic was the government of Spain between April 14 1931, and its destruction by a military rebellion, led by General Francisco Franco....

 forces.

Economy


The metal-working industry has historically been Toledo's economic base, with a great tradition in the manufacture of swords and knives and a significant production of razor blades, medical devices and electrical products. Soap and toothpaste manufacture, flour milling, glass and ceramics have also been important.
According to the Statistical Institute of Castilla-La Mancha, in 2007 the distribution of employment by sectors of occupation was as follows: 86.5% of the population engaged in the services, 6.6% in construction, 5.4% in industry and 1.5% in agriculture and livestock.
The manufacture of swords in the city of Toledo goes back to Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 times, but it was under Moorish
Al-Andalus
Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to a nation and territorial region also commonly referred to as Moorish Iberia. The name describes parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims , at various times in the period between 711 and 1492, although the territorial boundaries...

 rule and during the Reconquista
Reconquista
The Reconquista was a period of almost 800 years in the Middle Ages during which several Christian kingdoms succeeded in retaking the Muslim-controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula broadly known as Al-Andalus...

 that Toledo and its guild
Guild
A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. The earliest types of guild were formed as confraternities of workers. They were organized in a manner something between a trade union, a cartel, and a secret society...

 of sword-makers played a key role. Between the 15th and 17th centuries the Toledo sword-making industry enjoyed a great boom, to the point where its products
Toledo Steel
Toledo steel, known historically as unusually hard, is from Toledo, Spain, which has been a traditional sword-making, steel-working center since about 500 BC, and came to the attention of Rome when used by Hannibal in the Punic Wars...

 came to be regarded as the best in Europe. Sword
Sword
A sword is a bladed weapon used primarily for cutting or thrusting. The precise definition of the term varies with the historical epoch or the geographical region under consideration...

s and daggers were made by individual craftsmen, although the sword-makers guild oversaw their quality. In the late 17th and early 18th century production began to decline, prompting the creation of the Royal Arms Factory in 1761 by order of King Carlos III. The Royal Factory brought together all the sword-makers guilds of the city and it was located in the former mint. In 1777, recognizing the need to expand the space, Carlos III commissioned the architect Sabatini
Sabatini
- People :* Bettina Sabatini , Italian marathon runner* Gabriela Sabatini , an Argentine female tennis player* Gaetano Sabatini , Italian draftsman and painter...

 to construct a new building on the outskirts of the city. This was the beginning of several phases of expansion. Its importance was such that it eventually developed into a city within the city of Toledo.
In the 20th century, the production of knives and swords for the army was reduced to cavalry weapons only, and after the Spanish Civil War
Spanish Civil War
The Spanish Civil WarAlso known as The Crusade among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War among Carlists, and The Rebellion or Uprising among Republicans. was a major conflict fought in Spain from 17 July 1936 to 1 April 1939...

, to the supply of swords to the officers and NCOs of the various military units. Following the closure of the factory in the 1980s, the building was renovated to house the campus of the Technological University of Castilla-La Mancha in Toledo.

Unemployment


In the last decade, unemployment in absolute terms has remained fairly stable in the city of Toledo, but in 2009 this figure increased significantly: nearly 62% compared to 2008, with the number of unemployed rising from 2,515 to 4,074 (figures at 31 March each year), according to the Junta de Comunidades de Castilla La Mancha. Of this 62%, one third of the increase took place in the first qua3.39%)

According to other statistics from the same source, almost half the unemployed in the city of Toledo (1,970 persons) are among those whose education does not go beyond the compulsory secondary level. However, there are groups whose level of studies is such that they have not been registered as unemployed, such as those who have completed class 1 professional training, or those with virtually nonexistent unemployment rates (less than 0.1%), which is the case of unemployed with high school degrees or professional expertise.

The largest demographic of the unemployed represents those who have no qualifications (27.27%).

Culture


The old city is located on a mountaintop with a 150 degree view, surrounded on three sides by a bend in the Tagus River
Tagus
The Tagus is the longest river on the Iberian Peninsula. It is long, in Spain, along the border between Portugal and Spain and in Portugal, where it empties into the Atlantic Ocean at Lisbon. It drains an area of . The Tagus is highly utilized for most of its course...

, and contains many historical sites, including the Alcázar
Alcázar of Toledo
The Alcázar of Toledo is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's...

, the cathedral (the primate
Primate (religion)
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. Depending on the particular tradition, it can denote either jurisdictional authority or ceremonial precedence ....

 church of Spain), and the Zocodover, a central market place.

From the 4th century to the 16th century about thirty synod
Synod
A synod historically is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. In modern usage, the word often refers to the governing body of a particular church, whether its members are meeting or not...

s were held at Toledo. The earliest, directed against Priscillian
Priscillian
Priscillian was bishop of Ávila and a theologian from Roman Gallaecia , the first person in the history of Christianity to be executed for heresy . He founded an ascetic group that, in spite of persecution, continued to subsist in Hispania and Gaul until the later 6th century...

, assembled in 400. At the synod of 589 the Visigothic King Reccared declared his conversion from Arianism
Arianism
Arianism is the theological teaching attributed to Arius , a Christian presbyter from Alexandria, Egypt, concerning the relationship of the entities of the Trinity and the precise nature of the Son of God as being a subordinate entity to God the Father...

; the synod of 633 decreed uniformity of liturgy throughout the Visigothic kingdom and took stringent measures against baptized Jews who had relapsed into their former faith. Other councils forbade circumcision, Jewish rites and observance of the Sabbath and festivals. Throughout the seventh century, Jews were flogged, executed, had their property confiscated, were subjected to ruinous taxes, forbidden to trade and, at times, dragged to the baptismal font. The council of 681 assured to the archbishop of Toledo
Archdiocese of Toledo
This is a list of Bishops and Archbishops of Toledo . They are also the Primates of Spain. It was, according to tradition established in the 1st century by St. James the Great and was elevated to an archdiocese in 313 after the Edict of Milan. The incumbent Archbishop also bears the title Primate...

 the primacy
Primate (religion)
Primate is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. Depending on the particular tradition, it can denote either jurisdictional authority or ceremonial precedence ....

 of Spain. At Guadamur
Guadamur
Guadamur is a municipality located in the province of Toledo, Castile-La Mancha, Spain. According to the 2008 census , the municipality has a population of 1819 inhabitants....

, very close to Toledo, was dug in 1858 the Treasure of Guarrazar
Treasure of Guarrazar
The Treasure of Guarrazar is an archeological find composed of twenty-six votive crowns and gold crosses that had originally been offered to the Roman Catholic Church by the Kings of the Visigoths in the seventh century in Hispania, as a gesture of the orthodoxy of their faith and their submission...

, the best example of Visigothic art in Spain.
As nearly one hundred early canons of Toledo found a place in the Decretum Gratiani
Decretum Gratiani
The Decretum Gratiani or Concordia discordantium canonum is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the 12th century as a legal textbook by the jurist known as Gratian. It forms the first part of the collection of six legal texts, which together became known as the Corpus Juris Canonici...

, they exerted an important influence on the development of ecclesiastical law
Canon law
Canon law is the body of laws & regulations made or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members. It is the internal ecclesiastical law governing the Catholic Church , the Eastern and Oriental Orthodox churches, and the Anglican Communion of...

. The synod of 1565–1566 concerned itself with the execution of the decrees of the Council of Trent
Council of Trent
The Council of Trent was the 16th-century Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. It is considered to be one of the Church's most important councils. It convened in Trent between December 13, 1545, and December 4, 1563 in twenty-five sessions for three periods...

; and the last council held at Toledo, 1582–1583, was guided in detail by Philip II
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and, while married to Mary I, King of England and Ireland. He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as duke or count....

.

Toledo was famed for religious tolerance
Religious toleration
Toleration is "the practice of deliberately allowing or permitting a thing of which one disapproves. One can meaningfully speak of tolerating, ie of allowing or permitting, only if one is in a position to disallow”. It has also been defined as "to bear or endure" or "to nourish, sustain or preserve"...

 and had large communities of Muslims and Jews until they were expelled from Spain in 1492
Alhambra decree
The Alhambra Decree was an edict issued on 31 March 1492 by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain ordering the expulsion of Jews from the Kingdom of Spain and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.The edict was formally revoked on 16 December 1968, following the Second...

 (Jews) and 1502 (Muslims). Today's city contains the religious monuments the Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca
Santa María la Blanca
300px|thumb|Interior of Santa María la Blanca.Santa María la Blanca is a museum and former synagogue in Toledo, Spain. Erected in 1180, it is disputably considered the oldest synagogue building in Europe still standing...

, the Synagogue of El Transito
Synagogue of El Transito
The Synagogue of El Transito is a historical building in Toledo, Spain, founded by Samuel ha-Levi in 1336.Samuel ha-Levi was a diplomat and treasurer at the court of Peter of Castile.- History of changes :...

, Mosque of Cristo de la Luz
Mosque of Cristo de la Luz
The Mosque of Cristo de la Luz is a former mosque in Toledo, Spain, the only one of the ten once existing in the city which remains largely as it was in the Moorish period. It was then known as Mezquita Bab-al-Mardum, deriving its name from the city gate Bab al-Mardum...

 and the church of San Sebastián
Church of San Sebastián, Toledo
San Sebastian is one of the oldest churches of Toledo, Spain. It once was close to the former city gate called "Bab-al-Dabbagin" also known by its Spanish name as "Puerta de los Curtidores" . Archeological research shows that it was originally built as a mosque in the 10th century, and enlarged in...

 dating from before the expulsion, still maintained in good condition. Among Ladino
Judaeo-Spanish
Judaeo-Spanish , in Israel commonly referred to as Ladino, and known locally as Judezmo, Djudeo-Espanyol, Djudezmo, Djudeo-Kasteyano, Spaniolit and other names, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish...

-speaking Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews is a general term referring to the descendants of the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula before their expulsion in the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy or would otherwise define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and...

, in their various diasporas, the family name
Family name
A family name is a type of surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs. The use of family names is widespread in cultures around the world...

 Toledano
Toledano
Toledano is a family name derived from the city of Toledo, Spain. Bearers of the name can be found mainly in Spanish-speaking countries, the United States, France, Canada, Israel, and Australia. Among Ladino-speaking Sephardi Jews in their various diasporas, the Toledano surname is still...

 is still prevalent—indicating an ancestry traced back to this city (the name is also attested among non-Jews in various Spanish-speaking countries
Spanish language
Spanish , also known as Castilian , is a Romance language in the Ibero-Romance group that evolved from several languages and dialects in central-northern Iberia around the 9th century and gradually spread with the expansion of the Kingdom of Castile into central and southern Iberia during the...

).

In the 13th century, Toledo was a major cultural center under the guidance of Alfonso X
Alfonso X of Castile
Alfonso X was a Castilian monarch who ruled as the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 1252 until his death...

, called "El Sabio" ("the Wise") for his love of learning. The Toledo School of Translators
Toledo School of Translators
The Toledo School of Translators is the name that commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from classical Arabic, classical Greek, and ancient Hebrew.The School...

, that had commenced under Archbishop Raymond of Toledo
Raymond de Sauvetât
Francis Raymond de Sauvetât, or Raymond of Toledo, was the Archbishop of Toledo from 1125 to 1152. He was a French Benedictine monk, born in Gascony....

, continued to bring vast stores of knowledge to Europe by rendering great academic and philosophical works in Arabic into Latin. The Palacio de Galiana
Palacio de Galiana
The Palacio de Galiana is a palace in Toledo, Spain, on the borders of the Tagus River. It was built on the site of an earlier summer villa and garden of Al-Mamun, the king of the Taifa of Toledo, in the thirteenth century by king Alphonso X.-Palace:...

, built in the Mudéjar
Mudéjar
Mudéjar is the name given to individual Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not converted to Christianity...

 style, is one of the monuments that remain from that period.

The Cathedral of Toledo
Cathedral of Toledo
The Primate Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Toledo, Spain, seat of the Metropolitan Archdiocese of Toledo....

 (Catedral de Toledo) was built between 1226–1493 and modeled after the Bourges Cathedral, though it also combines some characteristics of the Mudéjar
Mudéjar
Mudéjar is the name given to individual Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not converted to Christianity...

 style. It is remarkable for its incorporation of light and features the Baroque
Baroque
The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

 altar called El Transparente
El Transparente
El Transparente is a Baroque altarpiece in the ambulatory of the Cathedral of Toledo. Its name refers to the unique illumination provided by a skylight in the vault above. It was created in 1729-1732 by Narciso Tomé and his 4 sons...

, several stories high, with fantastic figures of stucco, paintings, bronze castings, and multiple colors of marble, a masterpiece of medieval
Middle Ages
The Middle Ages is a periodization of European history from the 5th century to the 15th century. The Middle Ages follows the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 and precedes the Early Modern Era. It is the middle period of a three-period division of Western history: Classic, Medieval and Modern...

 mixed media
Mixed media
Mixed media, in visual art, refers to an artwork in the making of which more than one medium has been employed.There is an important distinction between "mixed-media" artworks and "multimedia art". Mixed media tends to refer to a work of visual art that combines various traditionally distinct...

 by Narciso Tomé
Narciso Tomé
Narciso Tomé was a Spanish architect and sculptor of the late-Baroque or Rococo period.Born in Toro. With his brother, Diego, he sculpted in 1715, the facade of the University of Valladolid...

 topped by the daily effect for just a few minutes of a shaft of light from which this feature of the cathedral derives its name. Two notable bridges secured access to Toledo across the Tajo, the Alcántara bridge and the later built San Martín bridge
Puente de San Martín (Toledo)
The Puente de San Martín is a medieval bridge across the river Tagus in Toledo, Spain. The bridge was constructed in the late 14th century by archbishop Pedro Tenorio to provide access to the old town from the west, complementing the older Puente de Alcántara linking to the east...

.

The Monasterio de San Juan de los Reyes
Monasterio de San Juan de los Reyes, Toledo
The Monasterio de San Juan de los Reyes is a historic monastery in Toledo, Spain, built by the Catholic Monarchs .-A monument to celebrate:...

 is a Franciscan
Franciscan
Most Franciscans are members of Roman Catholic religious orders founded by Saint Francis of Assisi. Besides Roman Catholic communities, there are also Old Catholic, Anglican, Lutheran, ecumenical and Non-denominational Franciscan communities....

 monastery
Monastery
Monastery denotes the building, or complex of buildings, that houses a room reserved for prayer as well as the domestic quarters and workplace of monastics, whether monks or nuns, and whether living in community or alone .Monasteries may vary greatly in size – a small dwelling accommodating only...

, built 1477-1504, in a remarkable combination of Gothic-Spanish-Flemish style with Mudéjar
Mudéjar
Mudéjar is the name given to individual Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not converted to Christianity...

 ornamentation.

Toledo was home to El Greco
El Greco
El Greco was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. "El Greco" was a nickname, a reference to his ethnic Greek origin, and the artist normally signed his paintings with his full birth name in Greek letters, Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος .El Greco was born on Crete, which was at...

 for the latter part of his life, and is the subject of some of his most famous paintings, including The Burial of the Count of Orgaz
The Burial of the Count of Orgaz
The Burial of the Count of Orgaz is a painting by El Greco, a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance. Widely considered among his finest works, it illustrates a popular local legend of his time. An exceptionally large painting, it is very clearly divided into two sections,...

, exhibited in the Church of Santo Tomé.

When Philip II
Philip II of Spain
Philip II was King of Spain, Portugal, Naples, Sicily, and, while married to Mary I, King of England and Ireland. He was lord of the Seventeen Provinces from 1556 until 1581, holding various titles for the individual territories such as duke or count....

 moved the royal court
Royal court
Royal court, as distinguished from a court of law, may refer to:* The Royal Court , Timbaland's production company*Court , the household and entourage of a monarch or other ruler, the princely court...

 from Toledo to Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 in 1561, the old city went into a slow decline from which it never recovered.

Toledo steel


Toledo has been a traditional sword-making, steel-working center since about 500 BC, and came to the attention of Rome when used by Hannibal in the Punic Wars
Punic Wars
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 B.C.E. to 146 B.C.E. At the time, they were probably the largest wars that had ever taken place...

. Soon, it became a standard source of weaponry for Roman Legions http://www.swordsfromtoledo.com/history.htm.

Toledo steel was famed for its very high quality alloy http://www.tf.uni-kiel.de/matwis/amat/def_en/kap_5/advanced/t5_1_1.html#_1, whereas Damascene steel, a competitor from the Middle Ages on, was famed for a specific metal-working technique http://www.aceros-de-hispania.com/toledo-swords.htm.

Gastronomy


The marzipan
Marzipan
Marzipan is a confection consisting primarily of sugar and almond meal. Persipan is a similar, yet less expensive product, in which the almonds are replaced by apricot or peach kernels...

 of Toledo is considered one of its finest food products.

Toledo's cuisine is the cuisine Castilla-rooted in its traditions and is closely linked to hunting and grazing. A good number of recipes are the result of the combination of Moorish and Christian influences.

Its specialties include the lamb roast or stew, as cuchifrito, and beans with partridge or stewed partridge, the carcamusas, the crumbs, the porridge Mancha and the tortilla to the lean. Two of the foods that have brought fame to the city of Toledo are the Manchego cheese and marzipan, which has a denomination of origin itself, the marzipan of Toledo. [40] [41]

Holidays

  • Virgen del Valle: This pilgrimage is celebrated on May 1 at the Ermita de la Virgen del Valle, with a concentration popular holiday in that place.
  • Easter: Declared of National Tourist Interest, is held in spring with various processions, highlighting those that take place on Good Friday, and religious and cultural events. Since the Civil War, most of the steps were burned or destroyed, so it had to create new steps or using images from other churches and convents Toledo. Being a city Toledo Castile, Holy Week is characterized as austere and introspective, as well as beauty, due in part to the beautiful framework in which it takes place: Toledo. Many people take advantage of the Easter break to visit the monastery churches that are only open to the general public at this time of year. [42]
  • Corpus Christi: Feast declared International Tourist Interest. Its origins lie in the thirteenth century and is probably the most beautiful Corpus Christi there. The processional cortege travels around two kilometers of streets and richly decorated awnings. In recent years, following the transfer of the traditional holiday Thursday present Sunday, was chosen to conduct two processions, one each of these days, with certain differences in members and protocol between them. [43]
  • Virgen del Sagrario: On August 15 they celebrate the festival in honor of the Virgen del Sagrario. Procession is held inside the Cathedral and drinking water of the Virgin in jars.


Apart from these festivals should be noted that patterns of Toledo are:
  • San Ildefonso, Toledo Visigoth bishop whose feast day is January 23.
  • Santa Leocadia, virgin and martyr of Roman Hispania, which falls on December 9.

Main sights



The city of Toledo was declared a Historic-Artistic Site in 1940, UNESCO later given the title of World Heritage in 1987. Sights include:
  • Castillo de San Servando
    Castillo de San Servando
    The Castillo de San Servando is a medieval castle in Toledo, Spain, next the Tagus River. It was begun as a monastery in 1088, three years after the city was conquered by the Christian army of Alfonso VI of Castile. Later it was converted into a fortress to protect the puente de Alcántara against...

    . Medieval castle near the banks of the Tagus river and the Infantry Academy.
  • The Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

     Cathedral, dating from the thirteenth century. Inside there is the Clear from Narciso Tome, in Baroque.
  • Monasterio de San Juan de los Reyes
    Monasterio de San Juan de los Reyes, Toledo
    The Monasterio de San Juan de los Reyes is a historic monastery in Toledo, Spain, built by the Catholic Monarchs .-A monument to celebrate:...

    , in Elizabethan Gothic style (15th century)
  • The Renaissance Museo-Hospital de Santa Cruz (16th century)
  • Museo de El Greco. House-museum designed as a recreation of the artist's home, which was lost centuries ago. It houses several important paintings.
  • Santa María la Blanca
    Santa María la Blanca
    300px|thumb|Interior of Santa María la Blanca.Santa María la Blanca is a museum and former synagogue in Toledo, Spain. Erected in 1180, it is disputably considered the oldest synagogue building in Europe still standing...

    , the oldest synagogue building in Europe still standing, now owned by the Catholic Church.
  • Synagogue de el Transito, in the Jewish Quarter. It is home to the Sephardic Museum.
  • Hospital de Tavera Museum Duque de Lerma. Renaissance style, dates from the sixteenth century. Influenced the layout of El Escorial.
  • Church of Santiago del Arrabal, in Mudéjar style.
  • Iglesia de Santo Tome. Mudejar style, the fourteenth century, houses the famous Burial of Count Orgaz, by El Greco.
  • El Cristo de la Luz, a small mosque-oratory built in 999, later extended with Mudejar apse for conversion into a church.
  • Galiana Palace (13th century), in Mudejar style.
  • Tornerías Mosque (11th century).
  • Alcazar
    Alcázar of Toledo
    The Alcázar of Toledo is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. Once used as a Roman palace in the 3rd century, it was restored under Charles I and Philip II of Spain in the 1540's...

     fortress (16th century), located in the highest part of town, overlooking the city. From 2009 it houses the collection of the Army Museum.
  • Puerta de Bisagra Nueva
    Puerta de Bisagra Nueva
    View from the outside of the city.|thumb|250pxThe Puerta de Bisagra Nueva is the best known city gate of Toledo, Spain....

    . The main entrance and face of Toledo.
  • Puerta de Bisagra
    Puerta de Bisagra
    The Puerta de Bisagra is a city gate of Toledo, Spain, built in the 10th century, in the time of the taifa of Toledo. It is also called 'Bisagra Antigua' to distinguish it from the Puerta de Bisagra Nueva which was built in 1559...

     The main entrance to the city in Andalusian times.
  • Puerta del Sol
    Puerta del Sol, Toledo
    Puerta del Sol is a city gate of Toledo, Spain, built in the late 14th century by the Knights Hospitaller.The medallion above the arch of the gate depicts the ordination of the Visigothic Ildephonsus, Toledo's patron saint...

    . Mudejar style and built by the Knights Hospitallers in the fourteenth century.
  • Puerta Bab al-Mardum
    Puerta Bab al-Mardum
    The Puerta Bab al-Mardum, or Puerta de Valmardón, is a city gate of Toledo, Spain. It was built in the 10th century and is probably the oldest gate of the city. Its name 'mardum' is Arabic for 'blocked up'. Perhaps because its function was taken over by the Puerta del Sol. The Spanish name...

    . The oldest city gate of Toledo.
  • New Gate of Hinge, by Alonso de Covarrubias (16th century, based on Arabic structures).
  • Old door hinge or Puerta de Alfonso VI.
  • Cambrón gate, of Muslim-16th century origin.
  • San Román (Museum of the Councils and Visigoth culture).
  • Ermita del Cristo de la Vega, in Mudéjar style (11th century).
  • Alcántara bridge
    Puente de Alcántara, Toledo
    The Puente de Alcántara is an arch bridge in Toledo, Spain, spanning the Tagus River.Located at the feet of the Castillo de San Servando, it was built by the Romans after they founded the city...

    , Roman bridge across the Tagus
  • Puente de San Martin
    Puente de San Martín (Toledo)
    The Puente de San Martín is a medieval bridge across the river Tagus in Toledo, Spain. The bridge was constructed in the late 14th century by archbishop Pedro Tenorio to provide access to the old town from the west, complementing the older Puente de Alcántara linking to the east...

    , medieval bridge across the Tagus.


To mark the fourth centenary of the publication of the first part of Don Quixote, the Council of Communities of Castile-La Mancha designed a series of routes through the region crossing the various points cited in the novel. Known as the Route of Don Quixote, two of the pathways designated, sections 1 and 8, are based in Toledo; those linking the city with La Mancha Castile and Montes de Toledo exploit the natural route which passes through the Cigarrales and heads to Cobisa, Nambroca Burguillos of Toledo, where it takes the Camino Real from Sevilla to suddenly turn towards Mascaraque Almonacid de Toledo, deep into their surroundings, near Mora, in La Mancha.

This stretch, Mascaraque-Toledo, of the Route of Don Quixote has recently been included in an official way on the Camino de Santiago in Levantine branch with origins in Cartagena, Alicante and Valencia, as both routes are declared a European Cultural Route on this stretch.

Infrastructure



Toledo has long been an obligatory stop in the center of the peninsula. The roads leading to historic Toledo are still used and in many cases have provided the basis to existing roads leading into the city.

Roads


From Toledo part of N-400, which links this city with Cuenca by Ocaña and Tarancón. It is currently in the process of transformation in the future A-40 motorway Castilla La Mancha, which will link Maqueda (where it joins the motorway Extremadura), Toledo, Ocaña (where it attaches to the Motorway of Andalusia), Tarancón (where connects with the motorway Levante), Cuenca and Teruel.

The old National Road 401 Madrid-Toledo-Ciudad Real was transformed in the late 80s in the current A-42 as a result of splitting and deleting the path that the various crossings counted (Illescas, Yuncos, etc.. ).

The split path can take 7 km south of Toledo, in effect Ciudad Real, where it continues as conventional road. At this point, the A-42 connects with the Highway of the Vineyard that reaches Tomelloso. It is planned to extend the A-42, by a toll road, to Ciudad Real and Jaén.

In the early twenty-first century was built, in order to decongest the access of Madrid, the toll motorway AP-41.

Another way of State Highway Network that Toledo is part of the N-403, Toledo-Maqueda - Ávila - Adanero. Part of the route of this road will be replaced by that of the aforementioned Highway of Castilla La Mancha.

In addition to these roads, from Toledo depart several regional and provincial-level linking the capital with the regions of Montes de Toledo, La Jara and La Mancha.

Rail



In the mid-nineteenth century Toledo was one of the first Spanish cities to receive rail service, being attached to the Madrid - Aranjuez line which was inaugurated by Elizabeth II on June 12 of 1858. The current station style Neo-Mudéjar, was inaugurated on April 24 of 1919 and is a remarkably beautiful building, especially the paneling in the main hall of the same.

With several ups and downs in terms of technical equipment and services this is the line that served the city until the early twenty-first century: on July 2 of 2003 the last conventional train service between the two capitals ended and work began on the high-speed link, Madrid - Toledo, which entered service on November 16 of 2005, thanks to which travel time to Madrid has been reduced to just under 30 minutes.

Health



In the early 60s of the twentieth century began the construction of the Residence Health Social Security "Virgen de la Salud". The original building still remains in use, although successive extensions were added (maternity, outpatient clinics, operating rooms, etc.). Into the existing complex. The complex was also extended to move the clinic to a new nearby building, now converted into Specialty Center San Ildefonso.

On October 6 of 1974 inaugurated the National Hospital of Paraplegics who becomes the center of reference, both nationally and internationally, in the treatment of these lesions. Also carries out a major work of social integration of their patients.

The transfer of powers from the state health at the Junta de Comunidades de Castilla La Mancha will give new impetus to the health infrastructure, manifested in 2007 with the commencement of construction of the new General Hospital of Toledo in the Santa Mary Benquerencia. Also have been provided to the different parts of the relevant health centers.

In the Toledo Hospital Complex [36] is also integrated Geriatric Hospital Virgen del Valle, a result of reform and modernization of old tuberculosis hospital built in the mid twentieth century. The center is located outside the city, near the Parador Nacional de Turismo Conde de Orgaz.

With regard to private health, at present the city of Toledo has several centers: Hospital de las Tres Culturas, Clínica Nuestra Señora del Rosario, and so on.

Sport


The city of Toledo suffered from a shortage of sports facilities. Much of this problem was resolved when the Central School of Physical Education of Army moved its headquarters to the premises of the Academy of Infantry. In the 90s, the city council took over the old facilities (39 ° 52'10 "N 4 ° 1'42" W / 39.86944, -4.02833) of the military centre, which include in Today: an athletics track, Olympic swimming pool and an indoor sports hall, from the former military installations, and numerous outdoor courts built in the area of the former runway of application, having been demolished and the old gym complex pools (indoor and outdoor).

Besides these facilities, the city of Toledo has covered sports pavilion in the districts of Santa Maria de Benquerencia, Santa Barbara, San Anton (Complejo Deportivo "Leaping Horse"); outdoor pools in sugar, Palomarejos, Santa Maria de Benquerencia, Santa Barbara, Santa Teresa and indoor swimming pools in the gardens of the Alcazar (old town), St. Mary of Benquerencia and St. Anton.

Toledo has a football team, the Club Deportivo Toledo
CD Toledo
Club Deportivo Toledo, S.A.D. is a Spanish football team based in Toledo, in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. Founded in 1928, it plays in Segunda División B – Group 1, holding home games at Estadio Salto del Caballo, with a seating capacity of 5,300.Home uniforms consist of green...

, which returns in 2009-2010 to the Second Division B, after 7 Third season. The club plays its matches in the municipal field Leaping Horse, opened in 1973. The team played for 7 seasons in second division and reached the promotion play with Real Valladolid for promotion to First Division in 1993/94, but was defeated on aggregate 4-1. They have been part of the player and Abel Resino, Luis Garcia, Rufete or Casquero.

Toledo also has teams of handball. The Toledo Handball, after 5 years in the Division de Honor B, start the 2009-2010 season as ASOBAL new club for the first time in its history. A refurbished town hall "Javier Lozano Cid ', with capacity for around 1,500 spectators, is its new headquarters. Moreover, the city has two other Division II team in the National, the Toledo Handball Lábaro-B and Club Deportivo Amibal. [37]

Toledo has two basketball teams: the CIS Toledo, with a long history that has gone through ups and downs in both regional and in national leagues (EBA) and has just promoted to 1st Autonomic, and CB polygon [38], in Currently the most representative, whose team has promoted male, 7 years after leaving, to EBA League to start the 09/10 season. This club based in the Santa Maria de Benquerencua has one of the largest quarries of Castilla-La Mancha.

Another sport representative of the Imperial City is athletics. This striking sport has since 2 April 1979 with the Toledo Athletic Club, [39] that is characterized by its actions, mainly in cross-country, where he managed a large number of medals in the championships team Spain's specialty, in addition to their combined male and female military in the late 90s in the 1st division league national track. Among the athletes who have passed through its lanes are great athletes as Julio Rey, Roberto Parra, Chema Martinez and Julia Lobato.

Cycling, meanwhile, after the mythical victory in the Tour de France in 1959 by Federico Bahamontes, 'The Eagle of Toledo', has been one of the sports with more followers in the city, although, at present, no school despite having a velodrome in the Santa Maria de Benquerencia. Other leading professional cyclists in the city have been Nemesio Jiménez (Mexico Olympic 68) and Angel de las Heras.

The FS and Volleyball Toledo Toledo Association Toledo complete representation in the National League of First and Second Division, after a brief journey in Fantasy-, respectively, while the Toledo Rugby Club, with many noisy fans, is immersed in the League Madrid's Primera Liga.

At the individual level, the swimmer Javier Noriega and Julio Rey marathon athletes are more representative of the city, both in Athens Olympics 2004 and Beijing 2008, in recent years. Rey, Spanish current marathon record holder, with 2h.06: 52, announced his retirement in October 2009.

Toledo Other sports are famous footballers Roberto Fresnedoso, Miguel Angel Ruiz, Luis Laguna, Pedro Pablo Braojos (now coach) and Luis Garcia, the latter serving goalkeeper on the CD Tenerife, and the indoor football players international Javier Lorente-champion Antonio Adeva Europe and World champion, not forgetting the former Spain coach Javier Lozano Cid world champion.

In handball, highlighted in the goalkeepers 09.10 ASOBAL Fermin Ballesteros (Toledo Handball Lábaro) and Gonzalo Perez-Vargas (FC Barcelona).

Media


Various local and provincial newspapers are published in the city. In addition, national newspapers such as the daily ABC publish unique local editions. Among the local newspapers that should be highlighted are the subscription-based La Tribuna de Toledo, and Toledo Day, as well as the free Global Castilla la Mancha and Toledo News. The general information weekly magazines Echoes and Here are also published.

There is also local media in television, radio and Internet. The regional public television headquarters, CMT, are in Toledo. In addition, there are several local television stations, as well as local fare: the diocesan Popular TV, Teletoledo, Canal Regional de Noticia and La Tribuna TV.

For radio stations, there is the dean of radio Radio Toledo (Onda Cero), as well as COPE, Cadena SER, RNE, RCM and Radio Aquí, and the local fare Onda Polígono and the diocesan station Radio Santa Maria. Within the digital and social media, Onda Toledo, Toledo Magic, Toledo Digital, and La Cerca.

Twin towns — Sister cities


Toledo is twinned
Town twinning
Twin towns and sister cities are two of many terms used to describe the cooperative agreements between towns, cities, and even counties in geographically and politically distinct areas to promote cultural and commercial ties.- Terminology :...

 with:
Agen
Agen
Agen is a commune in the Lot-et-Garonne department in Aquitaine in south-western France. It lies on the river Garonne southeast of Bordeaux. It is the capital of the department.-Economy:The town has a higher level of unemployment than the national average...

, France
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

, since June 22, 1973 Aachen
Aachen
Aachen has historically been a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost town of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, ...

, Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

, since October 13, 1984 Corpus Christi
Corpus Christi, Texas
Corpus Christi is a coastal city in the South Texas region of the U.S. state of Texas. The county seat of Nueces County, it also extends into Aransas, Kleberg, and San Patricio counties. The MSA population in 2008 was 416,376. The population was 305,215 at the 2010 census making it the...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, since September 5, 1989 Damascus
Damascus
Damascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...

, Syria
Syria
Syria , officially the Syrian Arab Republic , is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the West, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest....

, since April 19, 1994 Guanajuato
Guanajuato, Guanajuato
Guanajuato is a city and municipality in central Mexico and the capital of the state of the same name. It is located in a narrow valley, which makes the streets of the city narrow and winding. Most are alleys that cars cannot pass through, and some are long sets of stairs up the mountainsides....

, Mexico
Mexico
The United Mexican States , commonly known as Mexico , is a federal constitutional republic in North America. It is bordered on the north by the United States; on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean; on the southeast by Guatemala, Belize, and the Caribbean Sea; and on the east by the Gulf of...

, since October 20, 1978 Havana
Havana
Havana is the capital city, province, major port, and leading commercial centre of Cuba. The city proper has a population of 2.1 million inhabitants, and it spans a total of — making it the largest city in the Caribbean region, and the most populous...

, Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

, since 2006 Nara
Nara, Nara
is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. The city occupies the northern part of Nara Prefecture, directly bordering Kyoto Prefecture...

, Japan
Japan
Japan is an island nation in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies to the east of the Sea of Japan, China, North Korea, South Korea and Russia, stretching from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and Taiwan in the south...

, since September 11, 1972 Safed
Safed
Safed , is a city in the Northern District of Israel. Located at an elevation of , Safed is the highest city in the Galilee and of Israel. Due to its high elevation, Safed experiences warm summers and cold, often snowy, winters...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, since September 8, 1981 Toledo
Toledo, Ohio
Toledo is the fourth most populous city in the U.S. state of Ohio and is the county seat of Lucas County. Toledo is in northwest Ohio, on the western end of Lake Erie, and borders the State of Michigan...

, United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, since 1931 Veliko Tarnovo
Veliko Tarnovo
Veliko Tarnovo is a city in north central Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. Often referred to as the "City of the Tsars", Veliko Tarnovo is located on the Yantra River and is famous as the historical capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire, attracting many tourists...

, Bulgaria
Bulgaria
Bulgaria , officially the Republic of Bulgaria , is a parliamentary democracy within a unitary constitutional republic in Southeast Europe. The country borders Romania to the north, Serbia and Macedonia to the west, Greece and Turkey to the south, as well as the Black Sea to the east...

, March 25, 1983

See also

  • Spain
    Spain
    Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

  • Iberian Peninsula
    Iberian Peninsula
    The Iberian Peninsula , sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states of Spain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar...

  • Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula
  • Palacio de Galiana
    Palacio de Galiana
    The Palacio de Galiana is a palace in Toledo, Spain, on the borders of the Tagus River. It was built on the site of an earlier summer villa and garden of Al-Mamun, the king of the Taifa of Toledo, in the thirteenth century by king Alphonso X.-Palace:...

  • Kingdom of Toledo
    Kingdom of Toledo
    The Kingdom of Toledo was the juridical definition of a Christian medieval kingdom in what is now central Spain, created after Alfonso VI of León's capture of Toledo in 1085.-Background:...


External links