Discussion
Ask a question about 'Timeline of Islamic science and technology'
Start a new discussion about 'Timeline of Islamic science and technology'
Answer questions from other users

This
timeline of scienceScience is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...
and engineeringEngineering is the discipline, art, skill and profession of acquiring and applying scientific, mathematical, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design and build structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes that safely realize improvements to the lives of...
in the
Islamic worldThe term Muslim world has several meanings. In a religious sense, it refers to those who adhere to the teachings of Islam, referred to as Muslims. In a cultural sense, it refers to Islamic civilization, inclusive of nonMuslims living in that civilization...
covers the time period from the 7th century AD to the introduction of
EuropeanHistory of Europe describes the history of humans inhabiting the European continent since it was first populated in prehistoric times to present, with the first human settlement between 45,000 and 25,000 BC.Overview:...
scienceScience is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...
to the Islamic world in the 19th and 20th centuries. All year dates are given according to the
Gregorian calendarThe Gregorian calendar, also known as the Western calendar, or Christian calendar, is the internationally accepted civil calendar. It was introduced by Pope Gregory XIII, after whom the calendar was named, by a decree signed on 24 February 1582, a papal bull known by its opening words Inter...
except where noted.
8th century
 8th  9th century  [cosmetics] Ziriyab (Blackbird) starts a beauty institute in Spain.
 770  840  [mathematics] Kharazmi (Persian: خوارزمي, in Arabic became الخوارزمي alKhwarizmi, Latinized name, Algorithm). Developed the "calculus
Calculus is a branch of mathematics focused on limits, functions, derivatives, integrals, and infinite series. This subject constitutes a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches, differential calculus and integral calculus, which are related by the fundamental theorem...
of resolution and juxtaposition" (hisab aljabr w'almuqabala), more briefly referred to as aljabr, or algebraAlgebra is the branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic structures...
.
 776  868  [zoology; language] 'Amr ibn Bahr AlJahiz
AlJāḥiẓ was an Arabic prose writer and author of works of literature, Mu'tazili theology, and politicoreligious polemics.In biology, AlJahiz introduced the concept of food chains and also proposed a scheme of animal evolution that entailed...
. ZoologyZoology zoölogy]]), is the branch of biology that relates to the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct...
, Arabic grammarArabic grammar is the grammar of the Arabic language. Arabic is a Semitic language and its grammar has many similarities with the grammar of other Semitic languages....
, rhetoricRhetoric is the art of discourse, an art that aims to improve the facility of speakers or writers who attempt to inform, persuade, or motivate particular audiences in specific situations. As a subject of formal study and a productive civic practice, rhetoric has played a central role in the Western...
, lexicographyLexicography is divided into two related disciplines:*Practical lexicography is the art or craft of compiling, writing and editing dictionaries....
.
 late 8th century  early 9th century  [music] Mansour Zalzal of Kufa. Musician (luth) and composer of the Abbasid
The Abbasid Caliphate or, more simply, the Abbasids , was the third of the Islamic caliphates. It was ruled by the Abbasid dynasty of caliphs, who built their capital in Baghdad after overthrowing the Umayyad caliphate from all but the alAndalus region....
era. Contributed musical scaleIn music, a scale is a sequence of musical notes in ascending and descending order. Most commonly, especially in the context of the common practice period, the notes of a scale will belong to a single key, thus providing material for or being used to conveniently represent part or all of a musical...
s that were later named after him (the Mansouri scale) and introduced positions (intervals) within scales such as the wasatizalzal that was equidistantA point is said to be equidistant from a set of objects if the distances between that point and each object in the set are equal.In twodimensional Euclidian geometry the locus of points equidistant from two given points is their perpendicular bisector...
from the alwasati alqadima and wasati alfors. Made improvements on the design of the luth instrument and designed the Luth. Teacher of Ishaq alMawsili.
9th century
 800  873  [various] Ibn Ishaq AlKindi
' , known as "the Philosopher of the Arabs", was a Muslim Arab philosopher, mathematician, physician, and musician. AlKindi was the first of the Muslim peripatetic philosophers, and is unanimously hailed as the "father of Islamic or Arabic philosophy" for his synthesis, adaptation and promotion...
(latinized, Alkindus.) PhilosophyPhilosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...
, Physics, Optics, Medicine, Mathematics, Cryptography, MetallurgyMetallurgy is a domain of materials science that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. It is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to their practical use...
. Worked at the House of WisdomThe House of Wisdom was a library and translation institute established in Abbassidera Baghdad, Iraq. It was a key institution in the Translation Movement and considered to have been a major intellectual centre during the Islamic Golden Age...
which was set up in 810.
 803  [chemistry; glass] d. AbuMoussa Jabir ibn Hayyan (Latinized name, Geber,). Famous Persian chemist. First chemist known to produce sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula . Its historical name is oil of vitriol. Pure sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid. The salts of sulfuric acid are called sulfates...
, as well as many other chemicals and instruments. Wrote on adding color to glass by adding small quantities of metallic oxideAn oxide is a chemical compound that contains at least one oxygen atom in its chemical formula. Metal oxides typically contain an anion of oxygen in the oxidation state of −2....
s to the glassGlass is an amorphous solid material. Glasses are typically brittle and optically transparent.The most familiar type of glass, used for centuries in windows and drinking vessels, is sodalime glass, composed of about 75% silica plus Na2O, CaO, and several minor additives...
, such as manganese dioxide (magnesiaMagnesium oxide , or magnesia, is a white hygroscopic solid mineral that occurs naturally as periclase and is a source of magnesium . It has an empirical formula of and consists of a lattice of Mg2+ ions and O2– ions held together by ionic bonds...
). This was a new advancement in glass industry unknown in antiquity. His works include "The elaboration of the Grand Elixir"; "The chest of wisdom" in which he writes on nitric acidNitric acid , also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and toxic strong acid.Colorless when pure, older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of oxides of nitrogen. If the solution contains more than 86% nitric acid, it is referred to as fuming...
; Kitab alistitmam (translated to Latin later as Summa Perfectionis); and others.
 ca. 810 Bayt alHikma (House of Wisdom
The House of Wisdom was a library and translation institute established in Abbassidera Baghdad, Iraq. It was a key institution in the Translation Movement and considered to have been a major intellectual centre during the Islamic Golden Age...
) set up in Baghdad. There GreekGreek is an independent branch of the IndoEuropean family of languages. Native to the southern Balkans, it has the longest documented history of any IndoEuropean language, spanning 34 centuries of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the majority of its history;...
and IndiaIndia , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventhlargest country by geographical area, the secondmost populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...
n mathematical and astronomy works are translated into ArabicArabic is a name applied to the descendants of the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century AD, used most prominently in the Quran, the Islamic Holy Book...
.
 820  [mathematics] Mahani (full name Abu Abdollah Muhammad ibn Isa Mahani  in Arabic AlMahani
AbuAbdullah Muhammad ibn Īsa Māhānī was a Persian mathematician and astronomer from Mahan, Kermān, Persia.A series of observations of lunar and solar eclipses and planetary conjunctions, made by him from 853 to 866, was in fact used by Ibn Yunus....
). Conceived the idea of reducing geometrical problems such as duplicating the cube to problems in algebra. [1]
 836  901 [anatomy; astronomy; mathematics; mechanics] Born Thabit Ibn Qurra
' was a mathematician, physician, astronomer and translator of the Islamic Golden Age.Ibn Qurra made important discoveries in algebra, geometry and astronomy...
(latinized, Thebit.) Studied at Baghdad's House of Wisdom under the Banu MusaThe Banū Mūsā brothers , namely Abū Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir , Abū al‐Qāsim Aḥmad ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir and AlḤasan ibn Mūsā ibn Shākir , were three 9thcentury Persian scholars of Baghdad who are known for their Book of Ingenious Devices on automata and mechanical devices...
brothers. Made many contributions to mathematics, particularly in geometryGeometry arose as the field of knowledge dealing with spatial relationships. Geometry was one of the two fields of premodern mathematics, the other being the study of numbers ....
and number theoryNumber theory is a branch of pure mathematics devoted primarily to the study of the integers. Number theorists study prime numbers as well...
. He discovered the theorem by which pairs of amicable numberAmicable numbers are two different numbers so related that the sum of the proper divisors of each is equal to the other number. A pair of amicable numbers constitutes an aliquot sequence of period 2...
s can be found; i.e., two numbers such that each is the sum of the proper divisors of the other.[1] Later, alBaghdadi (b. 980) and alHaytham (born 965) developed variants of the theorem.
 838  870  Tabari (full name: Ali ibn Sahl Rabban AlTabari
Abu alHasan Ali ibn Sahl Rabban alTabari also given as 810855 and 783858 was a Persian Muslim hakim, Islamic scholar, physician and psychologist of Zoroastrian descent, who produced one of the first encyclopedia of medicine. He was a pioneer of pediatrics and the field of child development...
). Medicine, Mathematics, CalligraphyCalligraphy is a type of visual art. It is often called the art of fancy lettering . A contemporary definition of calligraphic practice is "the art of giving form to signs in an expressive, harmonious and skillful manner"...
, Literature. [4]
 mid 9th century  [chemistry] AlKindi
' , known as "the Philosopher of the Arabs", was a Muslim Arab philosopher, mathematician, physician, and musician. AlKindi was the first of the Muslim peripatetic philosophers, and is unanimously hailed as the "father of Islamic or Arabic philosophy" for his synthesis, adaptation and promotion...
writes on the distillationDistillation is a method of separating mixtures based on differences in volatilities of components in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation is a unit operation, or a physical separation process, and not a chemical reaction....
of wineWine is an alcoholic beverage, made of fermented fruit juice, usually from grapes. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes, or other nutrients. Grape wine is produced by fermenting crushed grapes using various types of yeast. Yeast...
as that of rose water and gives 107 recipes for perfumePerfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and/or aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, animals, objects, and living spaces "a pleasant scent"...
s, in his book Kitab Kimia al`otoor wa altas`eedat (book of the chemistry of perfumes and distillations.)
 850  930 [mathematics] born Abu Kamil
' was an Egyptian Muslim mathematician during the Islamic Golden Age...
of Egypt (full name, Abu Kamil Shuja ibn Aslam ibn Muhammad ibn Shuja) Forms an important link in the development of algebra between alKhwarizmi and alKaraji' was a 10th century Persian Muslim mathematician and engineer. His three major works are AlBadi' fi'lhisab , AlFakhri fi'ljabr wa'lmuqabala , and AlKafi fi'lhisab .Because alKaraji's original works in Arabic are lost, it is not...
. Despite not using symbols, but writing powers of x in words, he had begun to understand what we would write in symbols as .[1]
 858  929  [astronomy  mathematics] AlBattani
Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān alRaqqī alḤarrānī alṢābiʾ alBattānī was a Muslim astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician...
(Albategnius) Works on astronomy, trigonometry etc.
 ca. 860  AlFarghani
' also known as Alfraganus in the West was a Persian astronomer and one of the famous astronomers in 9th century. The crater Alfraganus on the Moon is named after him.Life:...
(AlFraganus) Astronomy, Civil engineeringCivil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works like roads, bridges, canals, dams, and buildings...
.
 864  930  [chemistry; medicine; ...] Razi
Muhammad ibn Zakariyā Rāzī , known as Rhazes or Rasis after medieval Latinists, was a Persian polymath,a prominent figure in Islamic Golden Age, physician, alchemist and chemist, philosopher, and scholar....
(Rhazes) Medicine, OphthalmologyOphthalmology is the branch of medicine that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eye. An ophthalmologist is a specialist in medical and surgical eye problems...
, SmallpoxSmallpox was an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor. The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, which is a derivative of the Latin varius, meaning "spotted", or varus, meaning "pimple"...
, Chemistry, Astronomy. AlRazi wrote on Naft (naphta or petroleumPetroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...
) and its distillates in his book "Kitab sirr alasrar" (book of the secret of secrets.) When choosing a site to build Baghdad's hospital, he hung pieces of fresh meat in different parts of the city. The location where the meat took the longest to rotDecomposition is the process by which organic material is broken down into simpler forms of matter. The process is essential for recycling the finite matter that occupies physical space in the biome. Bodies of living organisms begin to decompose shortly after death...
was the one he chose for building the hospital. Advocated that patients not be told their real condition so that fearFear is a distressing negative sensation induced by a perceived threat. It is a basic survival mechanism occurring in response to a specific stimulus, such as pain or the threat of danger...
or despair do not affect the healingPhysiological healing is the restoration of damaged living tissue, organs and biological system to normal function. It is the process by which the cells in the body regenerate and repair to reduce the size of a damaged or necrotic area....
process. Wrote on alkaliIn chemistry, an alkali is a basic, ionic salt of an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal element. Some authors also define an alkali as a base that dissolves in water. A solution of a soluble base has a pH greater than 7. The adjective alkaline is commonly used in English as a synonym for base,...
, caustic soda, soapIn chemistry, soap is a salt of a fatty acid.IUPAC. "" Compendium of Chemical Terminology, 2nd ed. . Compiled by A. D. McNaught and A. Wilkinson. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford . XML online corrected version: created by M. Nic, J. Jirat, B. Kosata; updates compiled by A. Jenkins. ISBN...
and glycerine. Gave descriptions of equipment processes and methods in his book Kitab alAsrar (book of secrets) in 925.
 870  950  Farabi (AlPharabius) Sociology
Sociology is the study of society. It is a social science—a term with which it is sometimes synonymous—which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity...
, LogicIn philosophy, Logic is the formal systematic study of the principles of valid inference and correct reasoning. Logic is used in most intellectual activities, but is studied primarily in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science...
, PhilosophyPhilosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...
, Political sciencePolitical Science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior...
, Music.
 888  [various] Died 'Abbas Ibn Firnas
Abbas Ibn Firnas , also known as Abbas Qasim Ibn Firnas and عباس بن فرناس , was a Muslim Andalusian polymath: an inventor, engineer, aviator, physician, Arabic poet, and Andalusian musician. Of Berber descent, he was born in IznRand Onda, AlAndalus , and lived in the Emirate of Córdoba...
. Mechanics of FlightFlight is the process by which an object moves either through an atmosphere or beyond it by generating lift or propulsive thrust, or aerostatically using buoyancy, or by simple ballistic movement....
, PlanetariumA planetarium is a theatre built primarily for presenting educational and entertaining shows about astronomy and the night sky, or for training in celestial navigation...
, Artificial Crystals. Ibn Firnas investigated means of flight and was apparently injured due to a trial in which he attempted to fly off of a cliff using wings. One of the earliest records of attempts at flight.
 9th century  [chemistry; petroleum] Oilfields in Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...
, AzerbaijanAzerbaijan , officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is the largest country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia. Located at the crossroads of Western Asia and Eastern Europe, it is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west, and Iran to...
, generate commercial activities and industry. These oilfields, were wells are dug to get the Naft (or naphta, or crude petroleumPetroleum or crude oil is a naturally occurring, flammable liquid consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons of various molecular weights and other liquid organic compounds, that are found in geologic formations beneath the Earth's surface. Petroleum is recovered mostly through oil drilling...
) are described by geographer Masudi in the 10th century and by Marco PoloMarco Polo was a Venetian merchant traveler from the Venetian Republic whose travels are recorded in Il Milione, a book which did much to introduce Europeans to Central Asia and China. He learned about trading whilst his father and uncle, Niccolò and Maffeo, travelled through Asia and apparently...
in the 13th century, who described the output of those wells as hundreds of shiploads.
10th century
 10th century [mathematics; accounting] By this century, three systems of counting
A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using graphemes or symbols in a consistent manner....
are used in the Arab world. Fingerreckoning arithmetic, with numerals written entirely in words, used by the business community; the sexagesimal system, a remnant originating with the Babylonians, with numerals denoted by letters of the arabic alphabetThe Arabic alphabet or Arabic abjad is the Arabic script as it is codified for writing the Arabic language. It is written from right to left, in a cursive style, and includes 28 letters. Because letters usually stand for consonants, it is classified as an abjad.Consonants:The Arabic alphabet has...
and used by Arab mathematicians in astronomical work; and the indian numeral systemMost of the positional base 10 numeral systems in the world have originated from India, where the concept of positional numeration was first developed...
, which was used with various sets of symbols [1]. Its arithmetic at first required the use of a dust board (a sort of handheld blackboardA chalkboard is a reusable writing surface.Blackboard may also refer to:* Blackboards are synonymous with "boards of infamy", an element of agitationpropaganda in the Soviet Union in 1930s, coincidental with Holodomor...
) because "the methods required moving the numbers around in the calculation and rubbing some out as the calculation proceeded." AlUqlidisi (born 920) modified these methods for pen and paper use [1].
 903  986 [astronomy] AlSufi (latinized name, Azophi).
 920 [mathematics] Born alUqlidisi. Modified arithmetic methods for the Indian numeral system to make it possible for pen and paper use. Hitherto, doing calculations with the Indian numerals necessitated the use of a dust board as noted earlier.
 936  1013 [medicine] AlZahrawi (latinized name, Albucasis) Surgery
Surgery is an ancient medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological condition such as disease or injury, or to help improve bodily function or appearance.An act of performing surgery may be called a surgical...
, Medicine. Called the "Father of Modern Surgery." [4]
 940  997 [astronomy; mathematics] Muhammad AlBuzjani. Mathematics, Astronomy, Geometry, Trigonometry.
 940 [mathematics] Born Abu'lWafa alBuzjani. Wrote several treatise
A treatise is a formal and systematic written discourse on some subject, generally longer and treating it in greater depth than an essay, and more concerned with investigating or exposing the principles of the subject.Noteworthy treatises:...
s using the fingercounting system of arithmetic, and was also an expert on the Indian numerals system. About the Indian system he wrote: "[it] did not find application in business circles and among the population of the Eastern CaliphateThe term caliphate, "dominion of a caliph " , refers to the first system of government established in Islam and represented the political unity of the Muslim Ummah...
for a long time." [1] Using the Indian numeral system, abu'l Wafa was able to extract rootIn mathematics, a square root of a number x is a number r such that r2 = x, or, in other words, a number r whose square is x...
s.
 953 [mathematics] Born alKaraji
' was a 10th century Persian Muslim mathematician and engineer. His three major works are AlBadi' fi'lhisab , AlFakhri fi'ljabr wa'lmuqabala , and AlKafi fi'lhisab .Because alKaraji's original works in Arabic are lost, it is not...
of Karaj and Baghdad (full name, Abu Bekr ibn Muhammad ibn alHusayn AlKaraji or alKarkhi). Believed to be the "first person to completely free algebraAlgebra is the branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic structures...
from geometrical operations and to replace them with the arithmetical type of operations which are at the core of algebra today. He was first to define the monomialIn mathematics, in the context of polynomials, the word monomial can have one of two different meanings:*The first is a product of powers of variables, or formally any value obtained by finitely many multiplications of a variable. If only a single variable x is considered, this means that any...
s , , , ... and , , , ... and to give rules for productsIn mathematics, a product is the result of multiplying, or an expression that identifies factors to be multiplied. The order in which real or complex numbers are multiplied has no bearing on the product; this is known as the commutative law of multiplication...
of any two of these. He started a school of algebra which flourished for several hundreds of years" [1]. Discovered the binomial theoremIn elementary algebra, the binomial theorem describes the algebraic expansion of powers of a binomial. According to the theorem, it is possible to expand the power n into a sum involving terms of the form axbyc, where the exponents b and c are nonnegative integers with , and the coefficient a of...
for integerThe integers are formed by the natural numbers together with the negatives of the nonzero natural numbers .They are known as Positive and Negative Integers respectively...
exponents. [1] states that this "was a major factor in the development of numerical analysisNumerical analysis is the study of algorithms that use numerical approximation for the problems of mathematical analysis ....
based on the decimal system."
 957 [geography; cartography; exploration; chemistry] died Abul Hasan Ali AlMasudi, best known as a cartographer, was also a traveler historian, etc. Almas`oudi described his visit to the oilfields of Baku
Baku , sometimes spelled as Baki or Bakou, is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region. It is located on the southern shore of the Absheron Peninsula, which projects into the Caspian Sea. The city consists of two principal...
. Wrote on the reaction of alkali water with zaj (vitriol) water giving sulfuric acidSulfuric acid is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula . Its historical name is oil of vitriol. Pure sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid. The salts of sulfuric acid are called sulfates...
.
 965  1040 [mathematics; optics; physics] Born ibn alHaitham
' was a Muslim, scientist and polymath described in various sources as either Arabic or Persian...
(full name, ; latinized name, Alhazen). Possibly the first to classify all even perfect numberIn number theory, a perfect number is a positive integer that is equal to the sum of its proper positive divisors, that is, the sum of its positive divisors excluding the number itself . Equivalently, a perfect number is a number that is half the sum of all of its positive divisors i.e...
s (i.e., numbers equal to the sum of their proper divisors) as those of the form where is prime numberA prime number is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself. A natural number greater than 1 that is not a prime number is called a composite number. For example 5 is prime, as only 1 and 5 divide it, whereas 6 is composite, since it has the divisors 2...
[1]. AlHaytham is also the first person to state Wilson's theorem. if is prime than is divisible by . [1] says "It is called Wilson's theorem because of a comment by Waring in 1770 that John Wilson had noticed the result. There is no evidence that Wilson knew how to prove it. It was over 750 years later that LagrangeJosephLouis Lagrange , born Giuseppe Lodovico Lagrangia, was a mathematician and astronomer, who was born in Turin, Piedmont, lived part of his life in Prussia and part in France, making significant contributions to all fields of analysis, to number theory, and to classical and celestial mechanics...
gave the first known proof to the statement in 1771.[1]
 972  1058 [humanities] AlMawardi
Abu alHasan Ali Ibn Muhammad Ibn Habib alMawardi , known in Latin as Alboacen , was an Arab Muslim jurist of the Shafi'i school most remembered for his works on religion, government, the caliphate, and public and constitutional law during a time of political turmoil...
(Alboacen) Political sciencePolitical Science is a social science discipline concerned with the study of the state, government and politics. Aristotle defined it as the study of the state. It deals extensively with the theory and practice of politics, and the analysis of political systems and political behavior...
, SociologySociology is the study of society. It is a social science—a term with which it is sometimes synonymous—which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity...
, JurisprudenceJurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. Scholars of jurisprudence, or legal theorists , hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of law, of legal reasoning, legal systems and of legal institutions...
, EthicsEthics, also known as moral philosophy, is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong, virtue and vice, justice and crime, etc.Major branches of ethics include:...
.
 973  1048 [mathematics; physics] Abu Raihan AlBiruni
Abū alRayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad alBīrūnīArabic spelling. . The intermediate form Abū Rayḥān alBīrūnī is often used in academic literature...
; Astronomy, Mathematics. Determined Earth's circumference.
 980 [mathematics] Born alBaghdadi (full name). Studied a slight variant of Thabit ibn Qurra
' was a mathematician, physician, astronomer and translator of the Islamic Golden Age.Ibn Qurra made important discoveries in algebra, geometry and astronomy...
's theorem on amicable numberAmicable numbers are two different numbers so related that the sum of the proper divisors of each is equal to the other number. A pair of amicable numbers constitutes an aliquot sequence of period 2...
s.[1] AlBaghdadi also wrote texts comparing the three systems of counting and arithmetic used in the region during this period. Made improvements on the decimal system.
 981  1037 [astronomy; mathematics; medicine; philosophy] Ibn Sina (Avicenna); Medicine, Philosophy, Mathematics, Astronomy
11th century
 1044 or 1048  1123 [mathematics] Omar AlKhayyam. Persian mathematician and poet. "Gave a complete classification of cubic equations with geometric solutions found by means of intersecting conic section
In mathematics, a conic section is a curve obtained by intersecting a cone with a plane. In analytic geometry, a conic may be defined as a plane algebraic curve of degree 2...
s. Khayyam also wrote that he hoped to give a full description of the algebraic solution of cubic equations in a later work: 'If the opportunity arises and I can succeed, I shall give all these fourteen forms with all their branches and cases, and how to distinguish whatever is possible or impossible so that a paper, containing elements which are greatly useful in this art will be prepared.' " [1]. Extracted rootIn mathematics, a square root of a number x is a number r such that r2 = x, or, in other words, a number r whose square is x...
s using the decimal system (the Indian numeral system). There is dispute whether the MaqamatMaqamat Badi' alZaman alHamadhani, , an Arabic collection from the 9th century of 400 episodic stories, roughly 52 of which have survived. A century later, these maqamat inspired the maqamat of AlHariri of Basra, which in turn inspired the Hebrew Tahkemoni.External links:** English translation...
, a famous diwan of poetry translated to English are actually his work.
 1058  1111 [law; theology] AlGhazali
Abu Hāmed Mohammad ibn Mohammad alGhazzālī , known as Algazel to the western medieval world, born and died in Tus, in the Khorasan province of Persia was a Persian Muslim theologian, jurist, philosopher, and mystic....
(Algazel), judge and prolific thinker and writer on topis such as sociologySociology is the study of society. It is a social science—a term with which it is sometimes synonymous—which uses various methods of empirical investigation and critical analysis to develop a body of knowledge about human social activity...
, theologyTheology is the systematic and rational study of religion and its influences and of the nature of religious truths, or the learned profession acquired by completing specialized training in religious studies, usually at a university or school of divinity or seminary.Definition:Augustine of Hippo...
and philosophyPhilosophy is the study of general and fundamental problems, such as those connected with existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language. Philosophy is distinguished from other ways of addressing such problems by its critical, generally systematic approach and its reliance on rational...
. He critiqued the socalled Greek philosophers Ibn Sina, aka Avicenna and alFarabi' known in the West as Alpharabius , was a scientist and philosopher of the Islamic world...
, aka Farabius. Wrote extensive expositions on Islamic tenets and foundations of jurisprudenceJurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. Scholars of jurisprudence, or legal theorists , hope to obtain a deeper understanding of the nature of law, of legal reasoning, legal systems and of legal institutions...
. Also critiqued the Muslim scholastics (almutakallimun.) Was associated with sufismSufism or ' is defined by its adherents as the inner, mystical dimension of Islam. A practitioner of this tradition is generally known as a '...
but he later critiqued it as well.
 1091  1161 [medicine] Ibn Zuhr
Abū Merwān ’AbdalMalik ibn Zuhr was a Muslim physician, surgeon and teacher in AlAndalus.He was born at Seville...
(Avenzoar) Surgery, Medicine.
 1099  1166 [cartography;geography] Muhammad AlIdrisi
Abu Abd Allah Muhammad alIdrisi alQurtubi alHasani alSabti or simply Al Idrisi was a Moroccan Muslim geographer, cartographer, Egyptologist and traveller who lived in Sicily, at the court of King Roger II. Muhammed alIdrisi was born in Ceuta then belonging to the Almoravid Empire and died in...
(Dreses)
12th century
 1100  1166 (AH 493  560) [cartography, geography] Muhammad alIdrissi, aka Idris alSaqalli aka alsharif alidrissi of Andalusia
Andalusia is the most populous and the second largest in area of the autonomous communities of Spain. The Andalusian autonomous community is officially recognised as a nationality of Spain. The territory is divided into eight provinces: Huelva, Seville, Cádiz, Córdoba, Málaga, Jaén, Granada and...
and SicilySicily is a region of Italy, and is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Along with the surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy, the Regione Autonoma Siciliana Sicily has a rich and unique culture, especially with regard to the arts, music, literature,...
. Known for having drawn some of the most advanced ancient world maps, as well as writing on travels and geography.
 1106  1138 [polymath] Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Yahya (Ibn Bajjah
AbūBakr Muhammad ibn Yahya ibn alSāyigh , known as Ibn Bājjah , was an Andalusian polymath: an astronomer, logician, musician, philosopher, physician, physicist, psychologist, botanist, poet and scientist. He was known in the West by his Latinized name, Avempace...
) Philosophy, Medicine, Mathematics, Astronomy, Poetry, Music.
 1110  1185 [literature, philosophy] Abdubacer Ibn Tufayl of Spain. Philosophy, medicine, poetry, fiction. His most famous work is Hayy ibn Yaqzan, which is a spiritual investigation into the reality of the world narrated by a man who was raised from infancy by a roe or gazelle.
 1128  1198 [philosophy] Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Philosophy, Law, Medicine, Astronomy, Theology.
 1130 [mathematics] Born alSamawal
' commonly known as Samau'al alMaghribi was a Muslim mathematician, astronomer and physician of Jewish descent. Though born to a Jewish family, he converted to Islam in 1163 after he had a dream telling him to do so...
. An important member of alKaraji's school of algebra. Gave this definition of algebra: "[it is concerned] with operating on unknowns using all the arithmetical tools, in the same way as the arithmetician operates on the known." [1]
 1135 [mathematics] Born Sharafeddin Tusi
' was a Persian mathematician and astronomer of the Islamic Golden Age . Biography :...
. Follows alKhayyam's application of algebra of geometry, rather than follow the general development that came through alKaraji's school of algebra. Wrote a treatise on cubic equations which [3] describes thus: "[the treatise] represents an essential contribution to another algebraAlgebra is the branch of mathematics concerning the study of the rules of operations and relations, and the constructions and concepts arising from them, including terms, polynomials, equations and algebraic structures...
which aimed to study curveIn mathematics, a curve is, generally speaking, an object similar to a line but which is not required to be straight...
s by means of equationAn equation is a mathematical statement that asserts the equality of two expressions. In modern notation, this is written by placing the expressions on either side of an equals sign , for examplex + 3 = 5\,asserts that x+3 is equal to 5...
s, thus inaugurating the beginning of algebraic geometryAlgebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics which combines techniques of abstract algebra, especially commutative algebra, with the language and the problems of geometry. It occupies a central place in modern mathematics and has multiple conceptual connections with such diverse fields as complex...
." (quoted in [1]).
13th century
 13th century  [medicine; scientific method] Ibn AlNafis
Alaaldin abu AlHassan Ali ibn AbiHazm alQarshi alDimashqi , known as Ibn alNafis , was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.He was born in 1213 in Damascus...
b. ca. 607AH, d. ca. 689AH. DamasceneDamascus , commonly known in Syria as Al Sham , and as the City of Jasmine , is the capital and the second largest city of Syria after Aleppo, both are part of the country's 14 governorates. In addition to being one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world, Damascus is a major...
physician and anatomist. Discovered the lesser circulatory systemThe circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients , gases, hormones, blood cells, etc...
(the cycle involving the ventricleIn the heart, a ventricle is one of two large chambers that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs. The Atria primes the Pump...
s of the heartThe heart is a myogenic muscular organ found in all animals with a circulatory system , that is responsible for pumping blood throughout the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions...
and the lungs), and described the mechanism of breathingBreathing is the process that moves air in and out of the lungs. Aerobic organisms require oxygen to release energy via respiration, in the form of the metabolism of energyrich molecules such as glucose. Breathing is only one process that delivers oxygen to where it is needed in the body and...
and its relation to the bloodBlood is a specialized bodily fluid in animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells....
and how it nourishes on air in the lungs. Followed a "constructivist" path of the smaller circulatory system: "blood is purified in the lungs for the continuance of life and providing the body with the ability to work". During his time, the common view was that blood originates in the liver then travels to the right ventricle, then on to the organs of the body; another contemporary view was that blood is filtered through the diaphragm where it mixes with the air coming from the lungs. Ibn alNafis discredited all these views including ones by GalenAelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus , better known as Galen of Pergamon , was a prominent Roman physician, surgeon and philosopher...
and AvicennaAbū ʿAlī alḤusayn ibn ʿAbd Allāh ibn Sīnā , commonly known as Ibn Sīnā or by his Latinized name Avicenna, was a Persian polymath, who wrote almost 450 treatises on a wide range of subjects, of which around 240 have survived...
(ibn Sina). At least an illustration of his manuscript is still extant. William HarveyWilliam Harvey was an English physician who was the first person to describe completely and in detail the systemic circulation and properties of blood being pumped to the body by the heart...
explained the circulatory system without reference to ibn alNafis in 1628. Ibn alNafis extolled the study of comparative anatomy in his "Explaining the dissection of [Avicenna's] AlQanoonAlQanoon is the name of a monthly magazine in Pakistan. The name alQanoon when translated from Arabic to English means "The Law".AlQanoon is the first legal magazine of the country also containing political and legal chapters from the famous advocates and analysts of the country.It is owned...
" which includes a prefaces, and citations of sources. Emphasized the rigours of verification by measurement, observation and experiment. Subjected conventional wisdom of his time to a critical review and verified it with experiment and observation, discarding errors.
 13th century  [chemistry] AlJawbari describes the preparation of rose water in the work "Book of Selected Disclosure of Secrets" (Kitab kashf alAsrar).
 13th century  [chemistry; materials; glassmaking] Arabic manuscript on the manufacture of false gemstone
A gemstone or gem is a piece of mineral, which, in cut and polished form, is used to make jewelry or other adornments...
s and diamonds. Also describes spirits of alumAlum is both a specific chemical compound and a class of chemical compounds. The specific compound is the hydrated potassium aluminium sulfate with the formula KAl2.12H2O. The wider class of compounds known as alums have the related empirical formula, AB2.12H2O.Chemical properties:Alums are...
, spirits of saltpetrePotassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−.It occurs as a mineral niter and is a natural solid source of nitrogen. Its common names include saltpetre , from medieval Latin sal petræ: "stone salt" or possibly "Salt...
and spirits of salts (hydrochloric acidHydrochloric acid is a solution of hydrogen chloride in water, that is a highly corrosive, strong mineral acid with many industrial uses. It is found naturally in gastric acid....
).
 13th century  [chemistry] An Arabic manuscript written in syriac script gives description of various chemical materials and their properties such as sulfuric acid
Sulfuric acid is a strong mineral acid with the molecular formula . Its historical name is oil of vitriol. Pure sulfuric acid is a highly corrosive, colorless, viscous liquid. The salts of sulfuric acid are called sulfates...
, salammoniac, saltpetrePotassium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula KNO3. It is an ionic salt of potassium ions K+ and nitrate ions NO3−.It occurs as a mineral niter and is a natural solid source of nitrogen. Its common names include saltpetre , from medieval Latin sal petræ: "stone salt" or possibly "Salt...
and zaj (vitriol).
 1201  1274  [astronomy; mathematics] Nasir AlDin AlTusi
Khawaja Muḥammad ibn Muḥammad ibn Ḥasan Ṭūsī , better known as Naṣīr alDīn alṬūsī , was a Persian polymath and prolific writer: an astronomer, biologist, chemist, mathematician, philosopher, physician, physicist, scientist, theologian and Marja Taqleed...
; Astronomy, NonEuclidean geometryNonEuclidean geometry is the term used to refer to two specific geometries which are, loosely speaking, obtained by negating the Euclidean parallel postulate, namely hyperbolic and elliptic geometry. This is one term which, for historical reasons, has a meaning in mathematics which is much...
.
 1204 [astronomy] Died, AlBitruji (Alpetragius.)
 1207  1273 [sociology; poetry; spirituality] Jalal alDin Muhammad Rumi, one of the best known persian passion poets, famous for poignant poetry on the theme of spiritual enlightenment
Enlightenment broadly means wisdom or understanding enabling clarity of perception. However, the English word covers two concepts which can be quite distinct: religious and spiritual enlightenment and secular or intellectual enlightenment...
and passion.
 1213  1288[anatomy] Ibn AlNafis
Alaaldin abu AlHassan Ali ibn AbiHazm alQarshi alDimashqi , known as Ibn alNafis , was an Arab physician who is mostly famous for being the first to describe the pulmonary circulation of the blood.He was born in 1213 in Damascus...
alDamishqui.
 1248  [pharmacy; veterinary medicine] Died Ibn AlBaitar
Ibn alBayṭār alMālaqī, Ḍiyāʾ AlDīn Abū Muḥammad ʿAbdllāh Ibn Aḥmad was an Andalusian scientist, botanist, pharmacist and physician who worked during the Islamic Golden Age and Arab Agricultural Revolution...
. Studied and wrote on botanyBotany, plant science, or plant biology is a branch of biology that involves the scientific study of plant life. Traditionally, botany also included the study of fungi, algae and viruses...
, pharmacyPharmacy is the health profession that links the health sciences with the chemical sciences and it is charged with ensuring the safe and effective use of pharmaceutical drugs...
and is best known for studying animal anatomy and medicine. The Arabic term for veterinary medicine is named after him.
 1260 [mathematics] Born alFarisi
Kamal alDin Hasan ibn Ali ibn Hasan Farisi or Abu Hasan Muhammad ibn Hasan ) was a prominent Persian born in Tabriz, Iran. He made two major contributions to science, one on optics, the other on number theory...
. Gave a new proof of Thabit ibn Qurra' was a mathematician, physician, astronomer and translator of the Islamic Golden Age.Ibn Qurra made important discoveries in algebra, geometry and astronomy...
's theorem, introducing important new ideas concerning factorizationIn mathematics, factorization or factoring is the decomposition of an object into a product of other objects, or factors, which when multiplied together give the original...
and combinatorial methods. He also gave the pair of amicable numberAmicable numbers are two different numbers so related that the sum of the proper divisors of each is equal to the other number. A pair of amicable numbers constitutes an aliquot sequence of period 2...
s 17296, 18416 which have also been joint attributed to Fermat as well as Thabit ibn Qurra' was a mathematician, physician, astronomer and translator of the Islamic Golden Age.Ibn Qurra made important discoveries in algebra, geometry and astronomy...
.
 1273  1331 [astronomy; geography; history] Abu alFida (Abulfeda).
14th century
 1301  [ceramics] AlKashani promotes a center for ceramics. He also writes a book on Islamic ceramics
In art history, ceramics and ceramic art mean art objects such as figures, tiles, and tableware made from clay and other raw materials by the process of pottery. Some ceramic products are regarded as fine art, while others are regarded as decorative, industrial or applied art objects, or as...
techniques. His name is still associated with ceramics in the Muslim OrientThe Orient means "the East." It is a traditional designation for anything that belongs to the Eastern world or the Far East, in relation to Europe. In English it is a metonym that means various parts of Asia. Derivation :...
today.
 1304  1369 [exploration; travel] Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Battuta
Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Battuta , or simply Ibn Battuta, also known as Shams ad–Din , was a Muslim Moroccan Berber explorer, known for his extensive travels published in the Rihla...
; World Traveler. 75,000 mile voyage from MoroccoMorocco , officially the Kingdom of Morocco , is a country located in North Africa. It has a population of more than 32 million and an area of 710,850 km², and also primarily administers the disputed region of the Western Sahara...
to ChinaChinese civilization may refer to:* China for more general discussion of the country.* Chinese culture* Greater China, the transnational community of ethnic Chinese.* History of China* Sinosphere, the area historically affected by Chinese culture...
and back.
 1332  1395 [history; political science; humanities] Ibn Khaldun
Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun was an Arab Tunisian historiographer and historian who is often viewed as one of the forerunners of modern historiography, sociology and economics...
. Sociology, Philosophy of History, general science, Political Science. His most famous work, alMuqqadima (Prolegomena), encyclopedic in breadth, surveys the state of knowledge of his day, covering geography, accounts of the peoples of the world and their known history, the classification and aims of the sciences and the religious sciences.
 1380 [mathematics] Born alKashi. According to [1], "contributed to the development of decimal fractions not only for approximating algebraic number
In mathematics, an algebraic number is a number that is a root of a nonzero polynomial in one variable with rational coefficients. Numbers such as π that are not algebraic are said to be transcendental; almost all real numbers are transcendental...
s, but also for real numberIn mathematics, a real number is a value that represents a quantity along a continuum, such as 5 , 4/3 , 8.6 , √2 and π...
s such as pi' is a mathematical constant that is the ratio of any circle's circumference to its diameter. is approximately equal to 3.14. Many formulae in mathematics, science, and engineering involve , which makes it one of the most important mathematical constants...
. His contribution to decimal fractions is so major that for many years he was considered as their inventor. Although not the first to do so, alKashi gave an algorithm for calculating nth rootIn mathematics, the nth root of a number x is a number r which, when raised to the power of n, equals xr^n = x,where n is the degree of the root...
s which is a special case of the methods given many centuries later by RuffiniPaolo Ruffini was an Italian mathematician and philosopher.By 1788 he had earned university degrees in philosophy, medicine/surgery, and mathematics...
and HornerWilliam George Horner was a British mathematician and schoolmaster. The invention of the zoetrope, in 1834 and under a different name , has been attributed to him.Life:...
."
 1393  1449  [astronomy] Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Bek was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan. His commonlyknown name is not truly a personal name, but rather a moniker, which can be loosely translated as "Great Ruler" or "Patriarch Ruler" and was the Turkic equivalent of Timur's PersoArabic title Amīre...
commissions an observatory at Samarqand in presentday UzbekistanUzbekistan , officially the Republic of Uzbekistan is a doubly landlocked country in Central Asia and one of the six independent Turkic states. It shares borders with Kazakhstan to the west and to the north, Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan to the east, and Afghanistan and Turkmenistan to the south....
.
15th century
 15th century [mathematics] Ibn alBanna and alQalasadi used symbols for mathematics in the 15th century "and, although we do not know exactly when their use began, we know that symbols were used at least a century before this." [1]
 15th century  [astronomy and mathematics] Ibn Masoud (Ghayyathuddin Jamshid ibn mohamed ibn mas`oud, d. 1424 or 1436.) First to use the decimal point in arithmetic
Arithmetic or arithmetics is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple daytoday counting to advanced science and business calculations. It involves the study of quantity, especially as the result of combining numbers...
. Wrote on the decimal system. First to introduce the zero0 is both a numberand the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.It fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems...
(indian mathematicians had used only nine glyphs for numerals). Computed and observed the solar eclipseAs seen from the Earth, a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and the Earth, and the Moon fully or partially blocks the Sun as viewed from a location on Earth. This can happen only during a new moon, when the Sun and the Moon are in conjunction as seen from Earth. At least...
s of 809AH, 810AH and 811AH, after being invited by Ulugh Bek, based in Samarqand to pursue his study of mathematics, astronomy and physics. His works include "The Key of arithmetics"; "Discoveries in mathematics"; "The Decimal point"; "the benefits of the zero". The contents of the Benefits of the Zero are an introduction followed by five essays: On whole number arithmetic; On fractional arithmetic; on astrology; on areas; on finding the unknowns [unknown variables]. He also wrote a "Thesis on the sine and the chord"; "thesis on the circumference" in which he found the ratio of the circumferenceThe circumference is the distance around a closed curve. Circumference is a special perimeter.Circumference of a circle:The circumference of a circle is the length around it....
to the radiusIn classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any line segment from its center to its perimeter. By extension, the radius of a circle or sphere is the length of any such segment, which is half the diameter. If the object does not have an obvious center, the term may refer to its...
of a circleA circle is a simple shape of Euclidean geometry consisting of those points in a plane that are a given distance from a given point, the centre. The distance between any of the points and the centre is called the radius....
to the 16th decimal; "The garden of gardens" or "promenade of the gardens" describing an instrument he devised and used at the Samarqand observatoryAn observatory is a location used for observing terrestrial or celestial events. Astronomy, climatology/meteorology, geology, oceanography and volcanology are examples of disciplines for which observatories have been constructed...
to compile an ephemerisAn ephemeris is a table of values that gives the positions of astronomical objects in the sky at a given time or times. Different kinds of ephemerides are used for astronomy and astrology...
, and for computing solar and lunar eclipseA lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes behind the Earth so that the Earth blocks the Sun's rays from striking the Moon. This can occur only when the Sun, Earth, and Moon are aligned exactly, or very closely so, with the Earth in the middle. Hence, a lunar eclipse can only occur the night of a...
s; The ephemeresis "Zayj AlKhaqani" which also includes mathematical tables and corrections of the ephemeresis by AlTusi; "Thesis on finding the first degree sine"; and more.
 1411 [mathematics] AlKashi writes Compendium of the Science of Astronomy [5].
 1424 [mathematics] AlKashi writes Treatise on the Circumference giving a remarkably good approximation to pi in both sexagesimal and decimal
The decimal numeral system has ten as its base. It is the numerical base most widely used by modern civilizations....
forms [5].
 1427 [mathematics] AlKashi completes The Key to Arithmetic containing work of great depth on decimal fractions. It applies arithmetical and algebraic methods to the solution of various problems, including several geometric ones and is one of the best textbooks in the whole of medieval literature [5].
 1437 [mathematics] Ulugh Beg
Ulugh Bek was a Timurid ruler as well as an astronomer, mathematician and sultan. His commonlyknown name is not truly a personal name, but rather a moniker, which can be loosely translated as "Great Ruler" or "Patriarch Ruler" and was the Turkic equivalent of Timur's PersoArabic title Amīre...
publishes his star catalogueA star catalogue, or star catalog, is an astronomical catalogue that lists stars. In astronomy, many stars are referred to simply by catalogue numbers. There are a great many different star catalogues which have been produced for different purposes over the years, and this article covers only some...
Ziji Sultani. It contains trigonometric tablesIn mathematics, tables of trigonometric functions are useful in a number of areas. Before the existence of pocket calculators, trigonometric tables were essential for navigation, science and engineering...
correct to eight decimal places based on Ulugh Beg's calculation of the sineIn mathematics, the sine function is a function of an angle. In a right triangle, sine gives the ratio of the length of the side opposite to an angle to the length of the hypotenuse.Sine is usually listed first amongst the trigonometric functions....
of one degree which he calculated correctly to 16 decimal places [5].
17th century
 17th century [mathematics] The Arabic mathematician Mohammed Baqir Yazdi joint discovered the pair of amicable number
Amicable numbers are two different numbers so related that the sum of the proper divisors of each is equal to the other number. A pair of amicable numbers constitutes an aliquot sequence of period 2...
s 9,363,584 and 9,437,056 along with Descartes (1636).
18th century
 1783  1799  [rocketry] Tipu
Tipu Sultan , also known as the Tiger of Mysore, was the de facto ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore. He was the son of Hyder Ali, at that time an officer in the Mysorean army, and his second wife, Fatima or FakhrunNissa...
, SultanSultan is a title with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic language abstract noun meaning "strength", "authority", "rulership", and "dictatorship", derived from the masdar سلطة , meaning "authority" or "power". Later, it came to be used as the title of certain rulers who...
of Mysore [17831799] in the south of IndiaIndia , officially the Republic of India , is a country in South Asia. It is the seventhlargest country by geographical area, the secondmost populous country with over 1.2 billion people, and the most populous democracy in the world...
, was an experimentator with war rocketA rocket is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle which obtains thrust from a rocket engine. In all rockets, the exhaust is formed entirely from propellants carried within the rocket before use. Rocket engines work by action and reaction...
s. Two of his rockets, captured by the British at Srirangapatana, are displayed in the WoolwichWoolwich is a district in south London, England, located in the London Borough of Greenwich. The area is identified in the London Plan as one of 35 major centres in Greater London.Woolwich formed part of Kent until 1889 when the County of London was created...
Royal Artillery Museum in LondonLondon is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...
. The rocket motor casing was made of steel with multiple nozzles. The rocket, 50 mm in diameter and 250 mm long, had a range performance of 900 meters to 1.5 km. (src: http://www.cyberistan.org/islamic/).
19th century
With the adoption of European
scienceScience is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the universe...
in the 19th and 20th centuries, the concept of Islamic science rapidly loses significance.
External links