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Tiberius Julius Cotys I

Tiberius Julius Cotys I

Overview
Tiberius Julius Cotys I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys I or Kotys I was a prince and Roman Client King
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 of the Bosporan Kingdom
Bosporan Kingdom
The Bosporan Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus was an ancient state, located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus...

.

Cotys I was the second son of Roman Client Monarchs Aspurgus
Tiberius Julius Aspurgus
Tiberius Julius Aspurgus Philoromaios was a Prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.The name Aspurgus is a name of Iranian origin. His name goes back to the Iranian words aspa and aspabara . Aspurgus was a monarch of Greek and Iranian ancestry.Aspurgus was the son born to the ruling...

 and Gepaepyris
Gepaepyris
Gepaepyris was a Thracian Princess and a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom.Gepaepyris was the first daughter and was among the children of Roman Client Rulers of Thrace, Cotys VIII and Antonia Tryphaena...

. His eldest brother was prince and King Mithridates
Tiberius Julius Mithridates
Tiberius Julius Mithridates Philogermanicus Philopatris, sometimes known as Mithridates III of the Bosporan was a Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom....

. He was a prince of Greek
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

, Iranian
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

 and Roman ancestry
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

. Cotys I was the second grandchild and grandson of Bosporan Monarchs Asander
Asander (Bosporan King)
Asander named Philocaesar Philoromaios was an aristocrat and a man of high rank of the Bosporan Kingdom.Asander was of Greek and possibly of Persian ancestry. There is not much is known on his family and early life. He started his political and military career as a general under Pharnaces II, King...

 and Dynamis
Dynamis (Bosporan queen)
Dynamis named Philoromaios was a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom during the Roman Republic and the reign of the first Roman Emperor Augustus.-Life:...

 and Roman Client Rulers of Thrace
Thrace
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

, Cotys VIII and Antonia Tryphaena
Antonia Tryphaena
Antonia Tryphaena also known as Tryphaena of Thrace or Tryphaena was a Princess of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia, Cappadocia and a Roman Client Queen of Thrace....

.

Through his maternal grandmother Antonia Tryphaena, he was a descendant of Roman triumvir Mark Antony
Mark Antony
Marcus Antonius , known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar...

.
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Encyclopedia
Tiberius Julius Cotys I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Cotys I or Kotys I was a prince and Roman Client King
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 of the Bosporan Kingdom
Bosporan Kingdom
The Bosporan Kingdom or the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus was an ancient state, located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus...

.

Cotys I was the second son of Roman Client Monarchs Aspurgus
Tiberius Julius Aspurgus
Tiberius Julius Aspurgus Philoromaios was a Prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom.The name Aspurgus is a name of Iranian origin. His name goes back to the Iranian words aspa and aspabara . Aspurgus was a monarch of Greek and Iranian ancestry.Aspurgus was the son born to the ruling...

 and Gepaepyris
Gepaepyris
Gepaepyris was a Thracian Princess and a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom.Gepaepyris was the first daughter and was among the children of Roman Client Rulers of Thrace, Cotys VIII and Antonia Tryphaena...

. His eldest brother was prince and King Mithridates
Tiberius Julius Mithridates
Tiberius Julius Mithridates Philogermanicus Philopatris, sometimes known as Mithridates III of the Bosporan was a Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom....

. He was a prince of Greek
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

, Iranian
Iranian peoples
The Iranian peoples are an Indo-European ethnic-linguistic group, consisting of the speakers of Iranian languages, a major branch of the Indo-European language family, as such forming a branch of Indo-European-speaking peoples...

 and Roman ancestry
Ancient Rome
Ancient Rome was a thriving civilization that grew on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC. Located along the Mediterranean Sea and centered on the city of Rome, it expanded to one of the largest empires in the ancient world....

. Cotys I was the second grandchild and grandson of Bosporan Monarchs Asander
Asander (Bosporan King)
Asander named Philocaesar Philoromaios was an aristocrat and a man of high rank of the Bosporan Kingdom.Asander was of Greek and possibly of Persian ancestry. There is not much is known on his family and early life. He started his political and military career as a general under Pharnaces II, King...

 and Dynamis
Dynamis (Bosporan queen)
Dynamis named Philoromaios was a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom during the Roman Republic and the reign of the first Roman Emperor Augustus.-Life:...

 and Roman Client Rulers of Thrace
Thrace
Thrace is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. As a geographical concept, Thrace designates a region bounded by the Balkan Mountains on the north, Rhodope Mountains and the Aegean Sea on the south, and by the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara on the east...

, Cotys VIII and Antonia Tryphaena
Antonia Tryphaena
Antonia Tryphaena also known as Tryphaena of Thrace or Tryphaena was a Princess of the Bosporan, Pontus, Cilicia, Cappadocia and a Roman Client Queen of Thrace....

.

Through his maternal grandmother Antonia Tryphaena, he was a descendant of Roman triumvir Mark Antony
Mark Antony
Marcus Antonius , known in English as Mark Antony, was a Roman politician and general. As a military commander and administrator, he was an important supporter and loyal friend of his mother's cousin Julius Caesar...

. Tryphaena was the first great granddaughter born to the triumvir. Through Tryphaena, Cotys I was also related to various members of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
Julio-Claudian Dynasty
The Julio-Claudian dynasty normally refers to the first five Roman Emperors: Augustus, Tiberius, Caligula , Claudius, and Nero, or the family to which they belonged; they ruled the Roman Empire from its formation, in the second half of the 1st century BC, until AD 68, when the last of the line,...

. Through Aspurgus, Cotys I was a descendant of the Greek Macedonian Kings:
Macedonia (Greece)
Macedonia is a geographical and historical region of Greece in Southern Europe. Macedonia is the largest and second most populous Greek region...

 Antigonus I Monophthalmus
Antigonus I Monophthalmus
Antigonus I Monophthalmus , son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great. During his early life he served under Philip II, and he was a major figure in the Wars of the Diadochi after Alexander's death, declaring himself king in 306 BC and...

, Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I Nicator
Seleucus I was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi. In the Wars of the Diadochi that took place after Alexander's death, Seleucus established the Seleucid dynasty and the Seleucid Empire...

 and Regent
Regent
A regent, from the Latin regens "one who reigns", is a person selected to act as head of state because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated. Currently there are only two ruling Regencies in the world, sovereign Liechtenstein and the Malaysian constitutive state of Terengganu...

, Antipater
Antipater
Antipater was a Macedonian general and a supporter of kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great. In 320 BC, he became Regent of all of Alexander's Empire. Antipater was one of the sons of a Macedonian nobleman called Iollas or Iolaus and his family were distant collateral relatives to the...

. These three men served under King Alexander the Great. Cotys I was named in honor of his late maternal grandfather, Roman Client Ruler of Thrace, Cotys VIII.

Little is known on the life of Cotys I. When Aspurgus died in 38, his brother had become joint rulers with his mother. Sometime before 45, the Roman Emperor
Roman Emperor
The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period . The Romans had no single term for the office although at any given time, a given title was associated with the emperor...

 Claudius
Claudius
Claudius , was Roman Emperor from 41 to 54. A member of the Julio-Claudian dynasty, he was the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor. He was born at Lugdunum in Gaul and was the first Roman Emperor to be born outside Italy...

, had given his brother the whole Bosporan Kingdom to rule. Claudius recognised and appointed Mithridates as the legitimate Bosporan King. In 45 for unknown reasons Claudius, deposed Mithridates from the Bosporan throne and Claudius replaced Mithridates with him. Claudius had withdrawn the Roman garrison
Garrison
Garrison is the collective term for a body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but now often simply using it as a home base....

 under Aulus Didius Gallus
Aulus Didius Gallus
Aulus Didius Gallus was a Roman general and politician of the 1st century AD. He was governor of Britain between 52 and 57 AD.-Career:The career of Aulus Didius Gallus up to 51 can be partly reconstructed from an inscription from Olympia. He was quaestor under Tiberius, probably in 19...

 from the Bosporan Kingdom and a few Roman cohort
Cohort (military unit)
A cohort was the basic tactical unit of a Roman legion following the reforms of Gaius Marius in 107 BC.-Legionary cohort:...

s were left with the Roman Knight Gaius Julius Aquila in the Bosporan.

Cotys I’s brother despised the situation and mistrusted him and Aquila. Mithridates attempted to regain his throne. Mithridates was able to entice the leaders of the local tribes and deserters into his allies. He was able to seize control of the local tribes and collect an army to declare was on Cotys I and Aquila.

When Cotys I and Aquila heard news of this war, they feared that the invasion was imminent. Both men knew they had the support of Claudius. Mithridates with his army, engaged in war with Cotys I’s army and Aquila’s battalion
Battalion
A battalion is a military unit of around 300–1,200 soldiers usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by either a Lieutenant Colonel or a Colonel...

s, in a three-day war, which Cotys I and Aquila won unscathed and triumphant at the Don River
Don River (Russia)
The Don River is one of the major rivers of Russia. It rises in the town of Novomoskovsk 60 kilometres southeast from Tula, southeast of Moscow, and flows for a distance of about 1,950 kilometres to the Sea of Azov....

.

Mithridates was forced by Claudius to surrender. Mithridates was captured and taken to Rome
Rome
Rome is the capital of Italy and the country's largest and most populated city and comune, with over 2.7 million residents in . The city is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, on the Tiber River within the Lazio region of Italy.Rome's history spans two and a half...

 as a prisoner. He was displayed as a public figure beside the platform in the Roman Forum
Roman Forum
The Roman Forum is a rectangular forum surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome. Citizens of the ancient city referred to this space, originally a marketplace, as the Forum Magnum, or simply the Forum...

 along with his guards and his expression remained undoubted. Mithridates appealed to the Emperor for mercy to be spared from a triumphal procession or capital punishment. Claudius was impressed with Mithridates’ mercy from his letter and allowed Mithridates to live. He was spared from any capital punishment and was exiled. Cotys I’s brother lived as a destitute exiled monarch until his death.

From 45 until 63, Cotys I reigned as Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom. Sometime during his reign, Cotys I had married a Greek noblewoman called Eunice
Eunice (Bosporan queen)
Eunice was the wife of the Roman Client King, Cotys I and through her marriage was a Roman Client Queen of the Bosporan Kingdom.Eunice was a Greek noblewoman of obscure origins. At an unknown date in the reign of Cotys I, 45-63, he married Eunice as his Queen. Cotys I was a monarch of Greek,...

, through whom had a son called Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I. Cotys I named his son, after Rhescuporis II
Rhescuporis II
Rhescuporis II was king of half of the Odrysian kingdom of Thrace from 12 to 18, in succession to his brother Rhoemetalces I, and briefly ruler of the entire realm thereafter, usurping the other half from nephew Cotys VIII. He was a son of the earlier Thracian king Cotys VI and the younger brother...

, a Thracian prince and king, who was a paternal uncle of his maternal grandfather.

In 63 for unknown reasons, the Roman Emperor Nero
Nero
Nero , was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty. Nero was adopted by his great-uncle Claudius to become his heir and successor, and succeeded to the throne in 54 following Claudius' death....

 disposed Cotys I from his throne. Perhaps Nero wanted to minimise the role, power and influence of local client rulers and desired the Bosporan Kingdom to be completely governed by the Roman state. His fate afterwards is unknown. The Bosporan Kingdom was incorporated as a part of the Roman Province of Moesia
Moesia
Moesia was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River. It included territories of modern-day Southern Serbia , Northern Republic of Macedonia, Northern Bulgaria, Romanian Dobrudja, Southern Moldova, and Budjak .-History:In ancient...

 Inferior from 63-68. In 68, the new Roman Emperor Galba
Galba
Galba , was Roman Emperor for seven months from 68 to 69. Galba was the governor of Hispania Tarraconensis, and made a bid for the throne during the rebellion of Julius Vindex...

 had restored the Bosporan Kingdom to Rhescuporis I. Rhescuporis I reign from 68 until at least 90. Rhescuporis I was a contemporary of the ruling Flavian dynasty
Flavian dynasty
The Flavian dynasty was a Roman Imperial Dynasty, which ruled the Roman Empire between 69 and 96 AD, encompassing the reigns of Vespasian , and his two sons Titus and Domitian . The Flavians rose to power during the civil war of 69, known as the Year of the Four Emperors...

, in particular the reign of Domitian
Domitian
Domitian was Roman Emperor from 81 to 96. Domitian was the third and last emperor of the Flavian dynasty.Domitian's youth and early career were largely spent in the shadow of his brother Titus, who gained military renown during the First Jewish-Roman War...

. Through Rhescuporis I
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I
Tiberius Julius Rhescuporis I Philocaesar Philoromaios Eusebes, also known as Rhescuporis I was a prince and Roman Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom....

, Cotys I would have various descendants ruling on the Bosporan throne until the mid-4th century and among his descendants would have at least two kings, who bore his name.

External links


Sources

  • Tacitus
    Tacitus
    Publius Cornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. The surviving portions of his two major works—the Annals and the Histories—examine the reigns of the Roman Emperors Tiberius, Claudius, Nero and those who reigned in the Year of the Four Emperors...

    , Annals of Imperial Rome
  • French version of Wikipedia
  • http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/0879.html
  • http://www.ancientlibrary.com/smith-bio/2983.html
  • Bosporus: Roman control of ancient Crimea
  • http://www.wildwinds.com/coins/greece/bosporos/kings/i.html
  • http://www.american-pictures.com/genealogy/persons/per01397.htm