Third Aliyah

Third Aliyah

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The third Aliyah refers to the third wave of the Jewish immigration to Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

 from Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

 who came inspired by Zionist motives between the years 1919 and 1923 (from the end of World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 until the start of the economic crisis in the country). A symbol of the start of the third immigration wave is the arrival of the boat "Roselan" in the Jaffa
Jaffa
Jaffa is an ancient port city believed to be one of the oldest in the world. Jaffa was incorporated with Tel Aviv creating the city of Tel Aviv-Yafo, Israel. Jaffa is famous for its association with the biblical story of the prophet Jonah.-Etymology:...

 Port
Port
A port is a location on a coast or shore containing one or more harbors where ships can dock and transfer people or cargo to or from land....

 on December 19, 1919. The boat had 650 new immigrants and other returning inhabitants on board.
During that period about 35,000 new immigrants, arrived in Israel mainly from Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of Europe. The term has widely disparate geopolitical, geographical, cultural and socioeconomic readings, which makes it highly context-dependent and even volatile, and there are "almost as many definitions of Eastern Europe as there are scholars of the region"...

an countries - from those about 45% of the immigrants arrived from Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

, 31% from Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, 5% from Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

 and only three percent from Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

. Most prominent in this immigration wave is the element of the young pioneers who arrived in the country between the years 1919 until 1921, and after those years their numbers became less amongst the immigrants. The importance of those pioneers was just as great as that of the pioneers of the second immigration wave
Second Aliyah
The Second Aliyah was an important and highly influential aliyah that took place between 1904 and 1914, during which approximately 40,000 Jews immigrated into Ottoman Palestine, mostly from the Russian Empire, some from Yemen....

. Their ideology contributed a great deal to the construction of the country and so they imprinted their mark on Zionism
Zionism
Zionism is a Jewish political movement that, in its broadest sense, has supported the self-determination of the Jewish people in a sovereign Jewish national homeland. Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the Zionist movement continues primarily to advocate on behalf of the Jewish state...

 and also on the development of the Jewish settlement
Jewish settlement
Jewish settlement may refer to :* Israeli settlement : Jewish communities currently established in the West Bank or in the Golan Heights, between 1967 and 2006 in the Gaza strip or between 1967 and 1981 in the Sinai....

s in the country of Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

.

Causes of the third Aliyah

  • The Balfour Declaration of 1917, which stated Britain's support for use of the Palestine mandate as a "national home for the Jewish people", inspired hope and opened the way to officially sanctioned colonization in Palestine.
  • The social concussions in Europe
    Europe
    Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

     - after World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

     a national awakening began amongst the eastern European nations following the birth of nine new countries.
  • The revolution and Russian civil war
    Russian Civil War
    The Russian Civil War was a multi-party war that occurred within the former Russian Empire after the Russian provisional government collapsed to the Soviets, under the domination of the Bolshevik party. Soviet forces first assumed power in Petrograd The Russian Civil War (1917–1923) was a...

     led to a wave of pogrom
    Pogrom
    A pogrom is a form of violent riot, a mob attack directed against a minority group, and characterized by killings and destruction of their homes and properties, businesses, and religious centres...

    s. An estimated 100,000 Jews were killed and 500,000 left homeless. Although, the Bolshevik government did abolish the Pale of Settlement
    Pale of Settlement
    The Pale of Settlement was the term given to a region of Imperial Russia, in which permanent residency by Jews was allowed, and beyond which Jewish permanent residency was generally prohibited...

  • In the new countries which were formed after World War I
    World War I
    World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

     there was the "problem of the minorities". Battles erupted between small ethnic groups which had cliquish aspirations. With riots in divided countries like Poland
    Poland
    Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

    .
  • The economic crisis in Europe provided an additional motivating factor for Jews leaving with the hope of starting a new life in Israel
    Israel
    The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

    .
  • The enactment of severe limitations on immigration
    Emergency Quota Act
    The Emergency Quota Act, also known as the Emergency Immigration Act of 1921, the Immigration Restriction Act of 1921, the Per Centum Law, and the Johnson Quota Act restricted immigration into the United States...

     to the United States
    United States
    The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

    .
  • The relative success of the absorption of the second immigration wave
    Second Aliyah
    The Second Aliyah was an important and highly influential aliyah that took place between 1904 and 1914, during which approximately 40,000 Jews immigrated into Ottoman Palestine, mostly from the Russian Empire, some from Yemen....

     to Israel and the socialist ideologies of the wave.


In conclusion, the immigrants did have high hopes to the new future in the Holy Land, but even more than that, they were pushed to immigrate due to the developments in Europe and the growth of the nationalism aspirations of various minority groups.

The official Zionist institutions were opposed to the third immigration wave - they feared that the country would not be able to absorb such a great number of people. They even requested that only the people who have enough economic resources would come to the country. But the harsh reality changed their expectations - the bad economic situation of Jews of Eastern Europe and also the riots, forced many to emigrate to countries which did open their gates - United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, Western Europe
Western Europe
Western Europe is a loose term for the collection of countries in the western most region of the European continents, though this definition is context-dependent and carries cultural and political connotations. One definition describes Western Europe as a geographic entity—the region lying in the...

, and to those who had a pioneering impulse and a Zionist recognition - Israel was suitable as their new home.

Social makeup of the third Aliyah


Few of the new immigrants (about 1/6) were affiliated with the Yishuv
Yishuv
The Yishuv or Ha-Yishuv is the term referring to the body of Jewish residents in Palestine before the establishment of the State of Israel...

 movements of HeHalutz
Hehalutz
Hechalutz was an association of Jewish youth whose aim was to train its members to settle in the Land of Israel, which became an umbrella organization of the pioneering Zionist youth movements....

 and Hashomer Hatzair
Hashomer Hatzair
Hashomer Hatzair is a Socialist–Zionist youth movement founded in 1913 in Galicia, Austria-Hungary, and was also the name of the group's political party in the Yishuv in the pre-1948 British Mandate of Palestine...

. Although most of the new immigrants came from urban backgrounds, and were not affiliated with the major movements, they did align themselves with Zionist ideals.