Thai numerals

# Thai numerals

Discussion

Encyclopedia
Thai numerals constitute a numeral system
Numeral system
A numeral system is a writing system for expressing numbers, that is a mathematical notation for representing numbers of a given set, using graphemes or symbols in a consistent manner....

of Thai number names
Number names
In linguistics, number names are specific words in a natural language that represent numbers.In writing, numerals are symbols also representing numbers...

for the Khmer numerals
Khmer numerals
Khmer numerals are characters used for writing numbers for several languages in Cambodia, most notably Cambodia's official language, Khmer. They date back to at least the oldest known epigraphical inscription of the Khmer numerals in 604 AD, found on a stele in Prasat Bayang, Cambodia, located not...

Thailand
Thailand , officially the Kingdom of Thailand , formerly known as Siam , is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula and Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the...

, also used for the more common Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals
Arabic numerals or Hindu numerals or Hindu-Arabic numerals or Indo-Arabic numerals are the ten digits . They are descended from the Hindu-Arabic numeral system developed by Indian mathematicians, in which a sequence of digits such as "975" is read as a numeral...

, and which follow the Hindu-Arabic numeral system
Hindu-Arabic numeral system
The Hindu–Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system is a positional decimal numeral system developed between the 1st and 5th centuries by Indian mathematicians, adopted by Persian and Arab mathematicians , and spread to the western world...

.

## Usage

The Thai language lacks grammatical number
Grammatical number
In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions ....

. A count
Counting
Counting is the action of finding the number of elements of a finite set of objects. The traditional way of counting consists of continually increasing a counter by a unit for every element of the set, in some order, while marking those elements to avoid visiting the same element more than once,...

is usually expressed in the form of an uninflected noun followed by a number and a classifier. "Five teachers" is expressed as "teacher five person" (.) "person" is a type of referent noun that is also used as the Thai part of speech called a linguistic classifier
Classifier (linguistics)
A classifier, in linguistics, sometimes called a measure word, is a word or morpheme used in some languages to classify the referent of a countable noun according to its meaning. In languages that have classifiers, they are often used when the noun is being counted or specified...

, or measure word
Measure word
In linguistics, measure words are words that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate an amount of some noun. They denote a unit or measurement and are used with nouns that are not countable. For instance, in English, is a mass noun and thus one cannot say *"three muds", but one can say...

. Variations to this pattern do occur, and there really is no hierarchy
Hierarchical classifier
A hierarchical classifier is a classifier that maps input data into defined subsumptive output categories. The classification occurs first on a low-level with highly-specific pieces of input data. The classifications of the individual pieces of data are then combined systematically and classified...

among Thai classifiers.
A partial list of Thai words that also classify nouns can be found in Wiktionary category: Thai classifiers.

### Zero to nine

Thai sūn is written as oval 0 (number)
0 (number)
0 is both a numberand the numerical digit used to represent that number in numerals.It fulfills a central role in mathematics as the additive identity of the integers, real numbers, and many other algebraic structures. As a digit, 0 is used as a placeholder in place value systems...

when using arabic numerals, but a small circle when using traditional numerals, and also means centre in other contexts. It is from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

śūnya, as are the (context-driven) alternate names for numbers one to four given below; but not the counting 1 (number). Thai names for N +1 and the regular digits 2-9 as shown in the table, below, resemble those in Cantonese as spoken in Southern China, putative homeland of the Tai
Tai peoples
The Tai ethnicity refers collectively to the ethnic groups of southern China and Southeast Asia, stretching from Hainan to eastern India and from southern Sichuan to Laos, Thailand, and parts of Vietnam, which speak languages in the Tai family and share similar traditions and festivals, including...

. That they are even closer to Minnan (Teochew/Hokkien
Hokkien
Hokkien is a Hokkien word corresponding to Standard Chinese "Fujian". It may refer to:* Hokkien dialect, a dialect of Min Nan Chinese spoken in Southern Fujian , Taiwan, South-east Asia, and elsewhere....

), may be because most Thai Chinese
Thai Chinese
The Thai Chinese are an overseas Chinese community who live in Thailand. Thailand is home to the largest, oldest, most prominent, and most integrated overseas Chinese community in the world with a population of approximately 9.5 million people...

are Teochew. Numerical digit
Numerical digit
A digit is a symbol used in combinations to represent numbers in positional numeral systems. The name "digit" comes from the fact that the 10 digits of the hands correspond to the 10 symbols of the common base 10 number system, i.e...

characters, however, are almost identical to Khmer numerals
Khmer numerals
Khmer numerals are characters used for writing numbers for several languages in Cambodia, most notably Cambodia's official language, Khmer. They date back to at least the oldest known epigraphical inscription of the Khmer numerals in 604 AD, found on a stele in Prasat Bayang, Cambodia, located not...

. Shown below is a comparison between three languages using Cantonese
Standard Cantonese
Cantonese, or Standard Cantonese, is a language that originated in the vicinity of Canton in southern China, and is often regarded as the prestige dialect of Yue Chinese....

and Minnan characters and pronunciations. The Thai transliteration
Transliteration
Transliteration is a subset of the science of hermeneutics. It is a form of translation, and is the practice of converting a text from one script into another...

uses the Royal Thai General System of Transcription
Royal Thai General System of Transcription
The Royal Thai General System of Transcription is the official system for rendering Thai language words in the Latin alphabet, published by the Royal Institute of Thailand...

(RTGS).
Number | Thai | Khmer | Cantonese | Minnan
Numeral Written RTGS IPA Archaic
0 ศูนย์ sun sǔːn (Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

śūnya)

1 หนึ่ง nueng nɯ̀ŋ อ้าย (âai) 一 (yat1) 一 (it4)
2 สอง song sɔ̌ːŋ ยี่ (yîi) 二 (yi2) [雙 (seung1) = pair] 二 (ji7) [雙 (song1, lit.)]
3 สาม sam sǎːm สาม (sǎam) 三 (saam1) 三 (sam1, lit.)
4 สี่ si sìː ไส (sǎi) 四 (sei3) 四 (si3)
5 ห้า ha hâː งั่ว (ngûa) 五 (ng5) 五 (go.7; ngo. lit.)
6 หก hok hòk ลก (lók) 六 (luk6) 六 (liok8, lit.)
7 เจ็ด chet t͡ɕèt เจ็ด (jèd) 七 (chat1) 七 (chit4)
8 แปด paet pɛ̀ːt แปด (pàed) 八 (baat3) 八 (pat4, lit.)
9 เก้า kao kâːw เจา (jao) 九 (gau2) 九 (kau2)
10 ๑๐ สิบ sip sìp จ๋ง (jǒng) ១០ 十 (sap6) 十 (tzhap8; sip8 lit.)

[lit. = literary pronunciation]

### Ten to a million

Sanskrit lakh
Lakh
A lakh is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand . It is widely used both in official and other contexts in Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and is often used in Indian English.-Usage:...

designates the place value
Positional notation
Positional notation or place-value notation is a method of representing or encoding numbers. Positional notation is distinguished from other notations for its use of the same symbol for the different orders of magnitude...

of a digit (tam naeng khong thua lek, ตําแหน่งของตัวเลข), which are named for the powers of ten: the unit's place is lakh nuay (หลักหน่วย); ten's place, lakh sip (หลักสิบ); hundred's place, lakh roi (หลักร้อย), and so forth. The number one following any power of ten becomes et (Cantonese: 一, yat1; Minnan: 一, it4). The number ten (sip) is the same as Minnan 十 (sip8, lit.). Numbers from twenty to twenty nine begin with yi sip (Cantonese: 二十, yi6sap6; Minnan: 二十, lit. ji7sip8). Names of the lakh sip for 30 to 90, and for the lakh of 100, 1000, 10,000, 100,000 and million, are almost identical to those of the like Khmer numerals
Khmer numerals
Khmer numerals are characters used for writing numbers for several languages in Cambodia, most notably Cambodia's official language, Khmer. They date back to at least the oldest known epigraphical inscription of the Khmer numerals in 604 AD, found on a stele in Prasat Bayang, Cambodia, located not...

.
Number | Thai RTGS IPA
10 ๑๐ สิบ sip sìp
11 ๑๑ สิบเอ็ด sip et sìp èt
12 ๑๒ สิบสอง sip song sìp sɔ̌ːŋ
20 ๒๐ ยี่สิบ yi sip jîː sìp
21 ๒๑ ยี่สิบเอ็ด yi sip et jîː sìp èt
22 ๒๒ ยี่สิบสอง yi sip song jîː sìp sɔ̌ːŋ
100 ๑๐๐ ร้อย roi rɔ́ːj
1 000 ๑๐๐๐ พัน phan pʰan
10 000 ๑๐๐๐๐ หมื่น muen mɯ̀ːn
100 000 ๑๐๐๐๐๐ แสน saen sɛ̌ːn
1 000 000 ๑๐๐๐๐๐๐ ล้าน lan láːn

For the numbers twenty-one through twenty-nine, the part signifying twenty: yi sip (ยี่สิบ), may be colloquially shortened
Contraction (grammar)
A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters....

to yip (ยีบ, ยิบ). See the alternate numbers section below.

The hundreds are formed by combining roi with the tens and ones values. For example, two hundred and thirty-two is song roi sam sip song. The words roi, phan, muen, and saen should occur with a preceding numeral (nueng is optional), so two hundred ten, for example, is song roi sip, and one hundred is either roi or nueng roi. Nueng never precedes sip, so song roi nueng sip is incorrect. Native speakers will sometimes use roi nueng (or phan nueng, etc.) with different tones on nueng to distinguish one hundred from one hundred and one. However, such distinction is often not made, and ambiguity may follow. To resolve this problem, if the number 101 (or 1001, 10001, etc.) is intended, one should say roi et (or phan et, muen et, etc.).

### Numbers above a million

Numbers above a million are constructed by prefixing lan with a multiplier. For example, ten million is sip lan, and a trillion (1012, a long scale billion) is lan lan.

### Decimal and fractional numbers

Colloquially, decimal numbers are formed by saying chut (จุด, dot) where the decimal separator
Decimal separator
Different symbols have been and are used for the decimal mark. The choice of symbol for the decimal mark affects the choice of symbol for the thousands separator used in digit grouping. Consequently the latter is treated in this article as well....

is located. For example, 1.01 is nueng chut sun nueng (หนึ่งจุดศูนย์หนึ่ง).

Fractional numbers
Fraction (mathematics)
A fraction represents a part of a whole or, more generally, any number of equal parts. When spoken in everyday English, we specify how many parts of a certain size there are, for example, one-half, five-eighths and three-quarters.A common or "vulgar" fraction, such as 1/2, 5/8, 3/4, etc., consists...

are formed by placing nai (ใน, in, of) between the numerator and denominator or using [set] x suan y ([เศษ] x ส่วน y, x parts of the whole y) to clearly indicate. For example, ⅓ is nueng nai sam (หนึ่งในสาม) or [set] nueng suan sam ([เศษ]หนึ่งส่วนสาม). The word set (เศษ) can be omitted.

The word khrueng (ครึ่ง) is used for "half". It precedes the measure word if used alone, but it follows the measure word when used with another number. For example, kradat krueng phaen (กระดาษครึ่งแผ่น) means "half sheet of paper", but kradat nueng phaen krueng (กระดาษหนึ่งแผ่นครึ่ง) means "one and a half sheets of paper".

### Negative numbers

Negative numbers are formed by placing lop (ลบ, minus) in front of the number. For example, −11 is lop sip et (ลบสิบเอ็ด).

### Ordinal numbers

Ordinal number
Ordinal number (linguistics)
In linguistics, ordinal numbers are the words representing the rank of a number with respect to some order, in particular order or position . Its use may refer to size, importance, chronology, etc...

s are formed by placing thi (ที่ , place) in front of the number. They are not considered a special class of numbers, since the numeral still follows a modified noun, which is thi in this case.
ThaiRTGSIPAmeaning
ที่หนึ่ง thi nueng tʰîː nɯ̀ŋ first
ที่สอง thi song tʰîː sɔ̌ːŋ second
ที่สาม thi sam tʰîː sǎːm third
ที่สี่ thi si tʰîː sìː fourth
ที่# thi # tʰîː #st, #nd, #rd, #th

### Aai

Aai is used for "first born (son)" or for the first month, duean aai (เดือนอ้าย), of the Thai lunar calendar
Thai lunar calendar
The Thai lunar calendar , or Dai calendar , Tai calendar, is Thailand's version of the lunisolar Buddhist calendar used in the southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Burma, for calculating lunar-regulated holy days...

.

### Ek

Ek is from Pali ḗka, "one" Ek is used for one (quantity); first (rank), greater than tho โท second, in education degrees and military ranks; and for the lead actor in a role. In antiquity, a seventh daughter was called luk ek (ลูกเอก), though a seventh son was luk chet (ลูกเจ็ด).

### Et

Et , meaning "one", is used as last member in a compound number (see the main numbers section above).

### Tho

Tho is from Pali dūā, "two". Tho is used for two and for the second-level rank in education degrees and military ranks.

### Yi

Yi is still used in several places in Thai language for the number two, apart from song (สอง): to construct twenty (two tens) and its combinations twenty-one through twenty-nine; to name the second month, duean yi (เดือนยี่), of the traditional Thai lunar calendar
Thai lunar calendar
The Thai lunar calendar , or Dai calendar , Tai calendar, is Thailand's version of the lunisolar Buddhist calendar used in the southeast Asian countries of Cambodia, Laos and Burma, for calculating lunar-regulated holy days...

; and in the Thai northern dialect thin pha yip (ถิ่น–พายัพ), which refers to the Year of the Tiger.

### Tri & Trai

Tri and trai are from Sanskrit tráyaḥ, "three". These alternatives are used for three; third rank in education degrees and military ranks; and as a prefix meaning three(fold).

### Chattawa

Chattawa is the Pali
Páli

numeral four; usually used as a prefix meaning fourth in order or quadruple in number.

### Lo

Lo means a dozen
Dozen
A dozen is a grouping of approximately twelve. The dozen may be one of the earliest primitive groupings, perhaps because there are approximately a dozen cycles of the moon or months in a cycle of the sun or year...

or twelve. It is usually used for trade
Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter. A network that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and...

. It may also mean jar or bottle.

### Yip

Yip in colloquial Thai is an elision
Elision
Elision is the omission of one or more sounds in a word or phrase, producing a result that is easier for the speaker to pronounce...

or contraction
Contraction (grammar)
A contraction is a shortened version of the written and spoken forms of a word, syllable, or word group, created by omission of internal letters....

of yi sip (ยี่สิบ) at the beginning of numbers twenty-one through twenty-nine. Therefore, one may hear yip et (ยีบเอ็ด, ยิบเอ็ด), yip song (ยีบสอง, ยิบสอง), up to yip kao (ยีบเก้า, ยิบเก้า). Yip may have a long vowel (ยีบ) or be elided further into a short vowel (ยิบ).

### Sao

Sao is twenty in the Thai northern dialect
Northern Thai language
Northern Thai, Lanna, or Kham Mueang is the language of the Thai Yuan people of Lannathai, Thailand. It is a Tai language, closely related to Thai and Lao...

; it is also frequently heard in Isan
Isan
Isan is the northeastern region of Thailand. It is located on the Khorat Plateau, bordered by the Mekong River to the north and east, by Cambodia to the southeast and the Prachinburi mountains south of Nakhon Ratchasima...

in the expression saw baht for 20 baht.

### Kurut

Kurut means a dozen dozen or 144. It is usually used for trade. It is a loanword
Loanword
A loanword is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language. By contrast, a calque or loan translation is a related concept where the meaning or idiom is borrowed rather than the lexical item itself. The word loanword is itself a calque of the German Lehnwort,...

from gross
Gross (unit)
A gross is equal to a dozen dozen, i.e. 12 × 12 = 144.It can be used in duodecimal counting. The use of gross likely originated from the fact that 144 can be counted on the fingers using the fingertips and first two joints of each finger when marked by the thumb of one hand. The other hand...

.

### Kot

Kot is ten million used in religious context. It comes from Pali/Sanskrit kōṭi. See also crore
Crore
A crore is a unit in the Indian number system equal to ten million , or 100 lakhs. It is widely used in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Pakistan....

.

## Tone marks, education degrees and military ranks

The alternate set of numerals used to name tonal marks (ไม้, mai), educational degrees (ปริญญา, parinya), and military rankings derive from names of Sanskrit numerals.
Number Tonal Mark Educational Degree Military Ranking
Military ranks of the Thai armed forces
-Royal Thai Army:The Royal Thai Army is the land based part of the Thai military.-Officers:-Other Ranks:Private 1st Class is a rank assigned to conscripts after they have finished specialist training...

in the Royal Thai Army
Thai RTGS Value Mark Thai RTGS Tone Thai RTGS Degree Thai RTGS Meaning
เอก ek first -่ ไม้เอก mai ek first tone ปริญญาเอก parinya ek doctor's พลเอก phon ek General
พันเอก phan ek Colonel
ร้อยเอก roi ek Captain
จ่าสิบเอก cha sip ek Master Sgt. 1st Class
สิบเอก sip ek Sergeant (Sgt.)
โท tho second -้ ไม้โท mai tho second tone ปริญญาโท parinya tho master's พลโท phon tho Lieutenant General
พันโท phan tho Lieutenant Colonel
ร้อยโท roi tho Lieutenant
จ่าสิบโท cha sip tho Master Sgt. 2nd Class
สิบโท sip tho Corporal
ตรี tri third -๊ ไม้ตรี mai tri third tone ปริญญาตรี parinya tri bachelor's พลตรี phon tri Major general
พันตรี phan tri Major
ร้อยตรี roi tri Sub Lieutenant
จ่าสิบตรี cha sip tri Master Sgt. 3rd Class
สิบตรี sip tri Lance Corporal
จัตวา chattawa fourth -๋ ไม้จัตวา mai chattawa fourth tone พลจัตวา phon chattawa Brigadier General (Honorary)

• Chinese numerals
Chinese numerals
Chinese numerals are characters for writing numbers in Chinese. Today speakers of Chinese use three numeral systems:the ubiquitous Arabic numerals and two indigenous systems....

• Indian numbering system
Indian numbering system
The South Asian numbering system, used today in the Indian subcontinent , is based on grouping by two decimal places, rather than the three decimal places commonplace in most parts of the world. This system of measurement introduces separators into numbers in places appropriate to the two-digit...

• Indian numerals
Indian numerals
Most of the positional base 10 numeral systems in the world have originated from India, where the concept of positional numeration was first developed...

• Khmer numerals
Khmer numerals
Khmer numerals are characters used for writing numbers for several languages in Cambodia, most notably Cambodia's official language, Khmer. They date back to at least the oldest known epigraphical inscription of the Khmer numerals in 604 AD, found on a stele in Prasat Bayang, Cambodia, located not...

• Lakh
Lakh
A lakh is a unit in the Indian numbering system equal to one hundred thousand . It is widely used both in official and other contexts in Pakistan, Bangladesh, India, Maldives, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Myanmar and is often used in Indian English.-Usage:...

• Thai alphabet
Thai alphabet
Thai script , is used to write the Thai language and other, minority, languages in Thailand. It has forty-four consonants , fifteen vowel symbols that combine into at least twenty-eight vowel forms, and four tone marks ....

• Thai language
Thai language
Thai , also known as Central Thai and Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the native language of the Thai people, Thailand's dominant ethnic group. Thai is a member of the Tai group of the Tai–Kadai language family. Historical linguists have been unable to definitively...

• Thai six-hour clock
Thai six-hour clock
The six-hour clock is a traditional timekeeping system used in Thai and Lao language alongside the official 24-hour clock. Like the other common systems, it counts twenty-four hours in a day, but divides the day into four quarters, counting six hours in each. The hours in each quarter are told...

• The Royal Institute of Thailand
The Royal Institute of Thailand
The Royal Institute of Thailand , or RIT in brief, is a Thai public agency called otherwise but having the status equivalent to an independent Department which is not subsidiary to any other agency but comes under the direct supervision of the Prime Minister of Thailand.The...