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Tehran Metro

Tehran Metro

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The Tehran Metro is a rapid transit
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system serving Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

, the capital of Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

. The system consists of 4 operational lines, with construction having begun on a further two lines in 2007.

The line uses standard gauge. Ticket price is 1200 IRR
Iranian rial
The rial is the currency of Iran. It is subdivided into 100 dinar but, because of the very low current value of the rial, no fraction of the rial is used in accounting....

 for each journey (about USD 0.10), regardless of distance. On all Tehran metro trains, the first and last carriages are reserved for women who do not wish to ride with men in the same car. However, women can still ride other cars freely.

The Tehran Metro carries more than 2 million passengers a day. In 2010, 459 million trips were made on Tehran Metro.

History



The initial plans of the Tehran Metro, which was to be Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

's first metro system, were laid out before the Iranian revolution in the 1970s. In 1970 the Plan and Budget Organization and the Municipality of Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

 announced an international tender
Request for tender
A request for tender, commonly abbreviated to RFT, is a formal, structured invitation to suppliers for the supply of products or services. In the public sector, such a process may be required and determined in detail by law to ensure that such competition for the use of public money is open, fair...

 for construction of a metro in Tehran. The French company SOFRETU, affiliated with the state-owned Paris transportation authority RATP, won the tender and in the same year began to conduct preliminary studies on the project. In 1974, a final report with a so-called 'street-metro' proposal was tendered. The street-metro system recommended a road network with a loop express way in the central area and 2 highways for new urban areas and a 8-line metro network which were complemented by bus network and taxi services. Geological surveys commenced in 1976. In 1978 construction on the line was started in northern Tehran by the French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 company, however this development was short-lived with the advent of the Iranian Revolution
Iranian Revolution
The Iranian Revolution refers to events involving the overthrow of Iran's monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi and its replacement with an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the...

 and Iran–Iraq War in 1979 and 1980 respectively. SOFRETU ceased operations in Iran in December 1980. On March 3, 1982, the Iranian Cabinet ministers formally announced the stop of Tehran Metro operations by the French company.

In 1985, the "Tehran Metro Execution Plan" was re-approved by Majles (Iran Parliament) on the basis of legal project of "Amendment of Law of Establishment of Tehran Urban and suburban Railway Company" which had been founded on Farvardin 1364 (April 1985). This was a literal continuation of exactly the same project that had been laid out before the revolution. Work proceeded slowly due to the continuing Iran–Iraq War and often ground to a halt.
By the summer of 1985, urban pressure from the rapidly urbanising population, and lack of developed public transport system prompted the work to be resumed in earnest. 'Line 1' (From Blvd. Shahid Ayatollah Haghani to City of Rey) and its extension to Behesht-e-Zahra Cemetery was made a priority. 'Line 2' (From Dardasht in Tehran Pars district to Sadeghiyeh Second Square) and an extending towards the City of Karaj and Mehrshahr district was also made a secondary priority. Studies were also made to establish the previously designed Line 3 and 4. It was decided that an organisation by the name of the Metro Company should be established in order to handle the future development of the system.

Following this phase, the Metro Company was managed by Asghar Ebrahimi Asl for eleven years. During this time, hundreds of millions of dollars were spent on the system and the Metro Company was given government concessions for the exploitation of iron ore mines in Bandar Abbas (Hormuzgan Province), exploitation and sale of Moghan Diotomite mine in Azarbaijan Province, export of refinery residues from Isfahan oil refinery as well as tar from Isfahan steel mill http://www.msedv.com/rai/metro_history.html. The year after Asghar Ebrahimi Asl left the management of the Metro Company and Mohsen Hashemi, the current Chairman of the company, succeeded him, the first line of the Tehran Metro was launched between Tehran and Karaj
Karaj
Karaj is a city in and the capital of Karaj County, Alborz Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,377,450, in 385,955 families, , making it the fifth-largest city in Iran after Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan and Tabriz.) It is situated west of Tehran, at the foothills of the Alborz...

.

On 7 March 1999, an overland Tehran-Karaj express electric train started a limited service of 31.4 km between Azadi Square (Tehran) and Malard (Karaj) calling at one intermediate station at Vardavard. The line was constructed by the Chinese company NORINCO
Norinco
The China North Industries Corporation , official English name Norinco, manufactures vehicles , machinery, optical-electronic products, oil field equipment, chemicals, light industrial products, explosives and blast materials, civil and military firearms and ammunition, etc...

.

Line 5 of the Tehran
Tehran
Tehran , sometimes spelled Teheran, is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With an estimated population of 8,429,807; it is also Iran's largest urban area and city, one of the largest cities in Western Asia, and is the world's 19th largest city.In the 20th century, Tehran was subject to...

 metro began operating in the year 1999 and was Iran
Iran
Iran , officially the Islamic Republic of Iran , is a country in Southern and Western Asia. The name "Iran" has been in use natively since the Sassanian era and came into use internationally in 1935, before which the country was known to the Western world as Persia...

's first metro
Rapid transit
A rapid transit, underground, subway, elevated railway, metro or metropolitan railway system is an electric passenger railway in an urban area with a high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic. Rapid transit systems are typically located either in underground tunnels or on...

 system.

From 2000 onwards, commercial operation began on Lines 1 and 2. The wagons on these lines are provided by CNTIC. The railway tracks and points on these lines are provided by the Austria
Austria
Austria , officially the Republic of Austria , is a landlocked country of roughly 8.4 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Slovakia and Hungary to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the...

n company Voestalpine
Voestalpine
Voestalpine AG is an international steel company based in Linz, Austria. The company is active in steel, automotive, railway systems, profilform and tool steel industries....

.

The Metro uses equipments manufactured by a wide range of international companies: Double-deck passenger cars for the Tehran-Karaj commuter line are supplied by CNTIC and assembled by the Wagon Pars
Wagon Pars
Wagon Pars is an Iranian train manufacturing company established in 1974, in Arak, Iran.Products include locomotives, trains, metros, freight and fuel wagons, and equipment for passenger boarding of aircraft.-History:...

 factory in Arak.

To date, approximately 2 billion US dollars have been spent on the Metro project. The Tehran Metro is now transporting about 2.5 million passengers daily through its 4 operational lines (1,2,4,5) with two lines (1 and 4) are still being developed by Tehran Metro Company with another two lines (Lines 3,7) under construction and the other two (Lines 6 and 8) in engineering phase.

Line 1


The line, coloured red on system maps, is currently 28.1 km long, of which 14.9 km are underground (from Qolhak station
Gholhak Metro Station
Gholhak Metro Station is a station of Tehran Metro Line 1. It is located in Shariati Street in Gholhak neighborhood. The neighboring stations are Shariati and Shahid Sadr. It was opened on 19 May 2009....

 to Shoush-Khayyam crossing) and the rest runs at surface level. The number of stations along this line is 26 of which 18 stations are located underground and 8 above ground. As of 2005, the total capacity of line 1 is 640,000 passenger per day, with trains stopping at each station for 20–30 seconds. The trains are each made up of seven wagons, with a nominal capacity of 1,290 seated and standing passengers. The maximum speed of the trains is 80 km per hour which will be tempered to an average of 37 km per hour due to stoppages at stations along the route.

Line 1 runs mostly north-south. Extension of the line from Mirdamad station
Mirdamad Metro Station
Mirdamad Metro Station is a station in Tehran Metro Line 1, located next to Mirdamad Boulevard. It was opened on 19 May 2009. The station has an outdoor parking facility for commuters....

 to Qolhak station 4.1 km, and three stations opened on May 20, 2009. The second phase of this extension Qolhak station to Tajrish Square 4 km and 4 stations, completed in 2011. Construction was to be completed by March 2007 but has faced major issues due to large boulders and rock bed in part of the tunnels and water drain issues. It has also faced major financing issues as the government has refused to release funds earmarked for the project to the municipality.

Line 2


This line, which opened between Sadeghieh
Sadeghieh (Tehran) Metro Station
Sadeghiye Metro Station is the junction of Tehran Metro Line 2 and Tehran Metro Line 5. It is located in Sadeghiye neighborhood near Mohammad Ali Jenah Expressway and Tehran-Karaj Freeway. It is the west end of Line 2 and the east end of Line 5. The next station in Line 2 is Tarasht Metro Station...

 and Imam Khomeini
Imam Khomeini Metro Station
Imam Khomeini Metro Station is the junction of Tehran Metro Line 1 and Tehran Metro Line 2. The station was opened in 21 February, 2000, it is located in Imam Khomeini Square between Panzdah-e-Khordad Metro Station and Saadi Metro Station in Line 1 and Mellat Metro Station and Hasan Abad Metro...

 in February 2000, is 20.4 km long, with 19 km as a subway and 1.4 km elevated. There are 19 stations along this line, of which Imam Khomeini Station is shared by Line 1. Line 2 is coloured blue on system maps and runs mostly east-west through the city.

The line was extended from Imam-Khomeini to Baharestan Metro Station
Baharestan
Baharestan is the name given to the historic Iranian parliament building, inaugurated in 1906...

 in 2004, and to Shahid Madani
Shahid Madani Metro Station
Shahid Madani Metro Station is a station in Tehran Metro Line 2. It is located in Ayatollah Madani Avenue. It is between Sarsabz Metro Station and Imam Hossein Metro Station....

, Sarsabz
Sarsabz Metro Station
Sarsabz Metro Station is a station in Tehran Metro Line 2. It is located near Resalat Square. It is between Elm-o-Sanat University Metro Station and Golbarg Metro Station....

 and Elm-o-Sanat University
Elm-o-Sanat University Metro Station
Elm-o-Sanat University Metro Station is a station in Tehran Metro Line 2. It is located in the junction of Resalat Expressway and Dordasht Street. It is near Iran University of Science and Technology. It is between Shahid Bagheri Metro Station and Sarsabz Metro Station....

 in March 2006 with the intermediate stations, Darvazeh Shemiran
Darvaze Shemiran Metro Station
Darvaze Shemiran Metro Station is the junction of Tehran Metro Line 2 and Tehran Metro Line 4. It is located in junction of Baharestan Street and Mazandaran Street and Namjou Street nad Sepah Street. It is between Imam Hossein Metro Station and Baharestan Metro Station in Line 2 and Shohada Square...

 and Sabalan
Sabalan Metro Station
Sabalan Metro Station is a station in Tehran Metro Line 1. It is located in the junction of Ayatollah Madani Avenue and Sabalan Street. It is between Fadak Metro Station and Shahid Madani Metro Station....

, opening in July 2006. It was extended further from Elm-o-Sanat University to Tehran Pars
Tehran Pars Metro Station
Tehranpars Metro Station is the eastern end of Tehran Metro Line 2. It is located in the junction of Resalat Expressway and Hojar-ibn Ady. It is between Farhang Sara Metro Station and Shahid Bagheri Metro Station....

 in February 2009, and to Farhangsara in June 2010.

Line 3


Its direction goes from northeast to southwest with plans for this line to be extended above ground to Imam Khomeini International Airport
Imam Khomeini International Airport
Imam Khomeini International Airport is located in Ahmadabad, Iran. The airport is located about southwest of the city near the localities of Robat-Karim and Eslamshahr. It was designed to replace Mehrabad International Airport, which is in the west of the city, now inside the city boundaries...

, under construction. Line 3 will be among the most important lines as it connects southwest Tehran to northeast, crosses busy parts of the capital city and can alleviate traffic problems. The line should become fully operational in 3 years. About 7 km will be finished by 2011 followed by 12 km in 2012 and 16 km in 2013.

Line 4


The line will be 20 km long with 22 stations and one terminal. Section 1, from Ferdowsi Square to Darvazeh Shemiran, opened in March 2007. Section 2 from Darvazeh shemiran to Shohada Square opened in February 2009. On May 24, 2009, Section 3 from Ferdowsi Square to Engelab Square opened.

Currently there are 13 stations in operation on Line 4, coloured yellow on the system maps. Line 4 will be completed by 2011.

Line 5


The line coloured green on system maps, is 41.5 km long and has seven stations and one terminal. Entering the area of Karaj
Karaj
Karaj is a city in and the capital of Karaj County, Alborz Province, Iran. At the 2006 census, its population was 1,377,450, in 385,955 families, , making it the fifth-largest city in Iran after Tehran, Mashhad, Isfahan and Tabriz.) It is situated west of Tehran, at the foothills of the Alborz...

 with main stations at Bonyad-e Rang, Karaj and Mehrshahr
Mehrshahr
Mehrshahr is an area located south-west of Karaj city, in Alborz province, Iran. The word Mehrshahr is composed of Mehr meaning sun or love, and Shahr meaning city; suggesting Mehrshahr to mean the city of sun or love...

.It connects with the western end of Line 2 at Tehran (Sadeghiyeh) station.

Line 7


This line, in contrast with line 3, goes from northwest to southeast and is under construction with 2 recently bought modern TBM machines.

Art in Tehran Metro


A combination of modern art and traditional Persian art is prominent in every station of the Tehran Metro.

Safety concerns & commuter perceptions


All routes have been equipped with ATP, ATS, CTC and SCADA. More and more residents use the metro due to the improvement in the peak-hour headways, the opening of more stations and overall improvement with new escalators, elevators and air-conditioning in the trains

Accidents

  • On 18 July 2007, a twenty square metres area immediately adjacent to the entrance of the Toupkhaneh metro station caved in. There were no casualties, but the station had to undergo numerous repairs.

Cultural damage



The Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran
Cultural Heritage Organization of Iran
Iran Cultural Heritage, Handcrafts and Tourism Organization is an educational and research institution overseeing numerous associated museum complexes throughout Iran. It is administered and funded by the Government of Iran....

 has complained that the vibrations caused by the Metro were having a significant and highly adverse effect on the Masudieh Palace in the Baharestan
Baharestan
Baharestan is the name given to the historic Iranian parliament building, inaugurated in 1906...

 neighbourhood of central Tehran http://www.payvand.com/news/05/apr/1106.html. The Cultural Heritage Organisation has also complained about vibrations near other historic sites such as the Golestan Palace
Golestan Palace
Golestān Palace pronounced "Kakheh Golestān" is the former royal Qajar complex in Iran's capital city.The oldest of the historic monuments in Tehran, the Golestan Palace belongs to a group of royal buildings that were once enclosed within the mud-thatched walls of Tehran’s Historic Arg...

 and the National Museum of Iran
National Museum of Iran
The National Museum of Iran is a museum in Tehran, Iran. It is the combination of two museums, the old Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân , and the modernistic white travertine National Arts Museum , inaugurated in 1972...

. However, engineers and technical experts believe that it is the noise that induces the false sense of vibration and like many metro systems in large cities, no untoward impact is probable.

Metro Systems in other cities of Iran

  • Mashhad Metro
  • Isfahan Metro
  • Shiraz Metro
    Shiraz Metro
    Shiraz metro will be the subway system of Shiraz, the capital city of Fars Province and the largest city in southern Iran with a population of over 1.2 million in the city and over 1.7 million in the metropolitan area. Construction of Shiraz Metro began in 2001 because of traffic problems and high...

  • Tabriz Metro
  • Ahvaz Metro

See also



External links