Taurida Governorate

Taurida Governorate

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{{Crimean Tatars}} The '''Taurida Governorate''' ({{lang-ru|Таврическая губернiя}}, modern spelling Таврическая губерния, {{lang-uk|Таврiйська губернiя}}, {{lang-crh|Tavrida guberniyası}}) or '''Government of Taurida''' was a historical [[guberniya|governorate]] of the [[Russian Empire]]. It included the [[Crimea]]n peninsula and the mainland between the lower [[Dnieper River]] and the coasts of the [[Black Sea]] and [[Sea of Azov]] It was formed after the defunct Taurida Oblast in was abolished in 1802 in course of Paul I's administrative reform of the South-Western territories that were annexed from the [[Crimean Khanate]]. The governorate's centre was the city of [[Simferopol]]. The province was named after the ancient Greek name of Crimea - [[Taurida]]. ==Administrative divisions== It was divided into eight [[uyezd]]s (povits, powiats) and two city municipalities (градоначальство),
three of them on the mainland: * Berdyansk uyezd ([[Berdyansk]] - Бердянскъ) * Dnieper uyezd (centre [[Tsiurupynsk|Aleshki]] - Алешки) * Melitopol uyezd ([[Melitopol]] - Мелитополь) and five in Crimea: * Eupatoria uyezd ([[Yevpatoria]] - Евпаторiя) * Perekop uyezd ([[Perekop]] - Перекопъ) * Simferopol uyezd ([[Simferopol]] - Симферополь) * Theodosia uyezd ([[Feodosiya|Theodosia]] - Ѳеодосiя) * Yalta uyezd ([[Yalta]] - Ялта) * city of [[Kerch]] - Керчь * city of [[Sevastopol|Sebastopol]] - Севастополь ==Geography== The governorate bordered [[Yekaterinoslav Governorate]] and [[Kherson Governorate]] to its north. By the [[Strait of Kerch]] bordered with the ''Free lands of the [[Don Cossacks]]''. It has natural borders while being surrounded by the waters of the [[Black Sea]] and the [[Sea of Azov]]. The mainland and the peninsular parts of the region differed a lot. The total area of the governorate was 63,538 km² of which the mainland portion consisted of 38,405 km² and is largely [[chernozem|black earth]] [[steppe]] land. The population of the whole region was 1,634,700 in 1906. At that time, mainland part of the governorate was mostly populated by [[Ukrainians]] and [[Russians]] but had significant [[ethnic group|ethnic]] minorities of [[Germany|Germans]], [[Bulgarians]], and [[Armenians]] and [[Jews]], while major ethnic groups of the Crimean peninsula were [[Crimean Tatars]] and [[Russians]] with [[Germans|German]], [[Greeks|Greek]], Armenian and [[Karaims|Karaim]] minorities. Major urban centres were [[Simferopol]], [[Sevastopol]], [[Theodosia]], [[Bakhchisaray]] and [[Yalta]] in Crimea, and Aleshki (now [[Tsiurupynsk|Tsyurupynsk]]), [[Berdyansk]], and [[Melitopol]] on the mainland. ==Language== [[File:Gub Tavria ethno 1897.jpg|thumb|right|The linguistic composition of the [[uyezd]]s ''(povits)'' of Taurida in 1897. Ukrainians in yellow, Russians in red, Crimean Tatars in green, Germans in gray, Yiddish speakers in blue, and others in purple. {{uk icon}}]] *By the Imperial census of 1897 the population of the [[guberniya]] consisted of 1,447,790 with 762,804 males and 684,986 females. {| align="center" class="wikitable plainlinks TablePager" |+ ! |Language ! |Number ! |percentage (%) |----- |[[Ukrainian language|Ukrainian]] (''Little Russian'') |611 121 |42.21 |----- |[[Russian language|Russian]] (''Great Russian'') |404 463 |27.94 |----- |[[Belarusian language|Belarusian]] (''White Russian'') |9 726 |0.67 |----- |[[Polish language|Polish]] |10 112 |0.70 |----- |[[Czech language|Czech]] |1 962 |0.14 |----- |[[Bulgarian language|Bulgarian]] |41 260 |2.85 |----- |[[Romanian language|Romanian]] |2 259 |0.16 |----- |[[Italian language|Italian]] |1 121 |0.08 |----- |[[German language|German]] |78 305 |5.41 |----- |[[Roma language|Roma]] |1 433 |0.10 |----- |[[Yiddish language|Yiddish]] |55 418 |3.83 |----- |[[Greek language|Greek]] |18 048 |1.25 |----- |[[Armenian languages|Armenian]] |8 938 |0.62 |----- |[[Estonian language|Estonian]] |2 210 |0.15 |----- |[[Tatar language|Tatar]] |196 854 |13.60 |----- |[[Turkish language|Turkish]] |2 197 |0.15 |----- |Persons,
that did not identified
their native language |71 |<0.01 |----- |Other |2 292 |0.16 |+ |} It is worth to be notified that in 1897 289,316 people lived in the cities constituting 19.98% of the total population. The nationalities of the urban population mostly consisted of Russians (49.1%), Tatars (17.16%), and Jews (11.84%) with only 31 people living in cities chose not to disclose their national identity. ==Religion== *By the Imperial census of 1897 there were around 1,100,000 [[Eastern Orthodox]] followers, just over 30,000 [[Catholic]], around 70,000 Protestant Christians and about the same amount of Judaic followers. Only 13% of population were Muslims known in the Russian Empire as Magometians who mainly lived in the peninsular portion of the [[guberniya]], the [[Crimea]] itself. They were the main force that after the next 10 years established the first Muslim democratic state the [[Crimean People's Republic]]. Beside the Magometians and Jews there were only eight (8) other non-Christian followers in the whole guberniya (not necessarily [[Atheists]]). {| align="center" class="wikitable plainlinks TablePager" |+ ! |Religion ! |Number ! |percentage (%) |----- |[[Eastern Orthodox]] |1 069 556 |73.88 |----- |[[Islam|Magometians]] |190 800 |13.18 |----- |[[Judaism]] ([[Krymchaks]], [[Subbotniks]]) |60 752 |4.20 |----- |[[Lutherans]] |42 654 |2.95 |----- |[[Roman Catholics]] |29 393 |2.03 |----- |[[Menonites]] |25 508 |1.76 |----- |[[Old Believers]] |13 724 |0.95 |----- |[[Armenian-Gregorians]] |7 494 |0.52 |----- |[[Karaite Judaism|Qārāʾîm]] |6 166 |0.43 |----- |[[Armenian-Catholics]] |1 206 |0.08 |----- |Other ([[Protestant Reformation|Reformators]], [[Anglicans]], [[Baptists]], others) |537 |0.04 |+ |} ==History== :''For further history see: [[History of Crimea]]'' In 1783, the [[Khanate of Crimea]] was annexed by [[Catherine II of Russia|Catherine the Great]]’s [[Imperial Russia|Russia]]. Soon after this the '''Taurida [[Oblast]]''' (province) was established. During the reign of [[Paul I of Russia|Paul I]] the oblast was abolished, but soon (in 1802) re-established as a [[guberniya|Governorate]] (guberniya). It was a part of the Russian Empire until the Russian Revolution of 1918. Following the 1917 [[October Revolution]], the ethnic Tatar government proclaimed the [[Crimean People's Republic]] on December 13, 1917, which was the first Muslim Democratic state. The republic did not manage to hold on to its independence for too long and was overrun by [[Bolshevik]] forces in January 1918 as many other newly-formed states after the fall of the [[Russian Empire]]. Its territory was reformed as the [[Taurida Soviet Socialist Republic]] briefly in early 1918 before being overrun by the forces of the [[Ukrainian People's Republic]] with a military assistance from the [[German Empire]]. After the reassertion of [[Soviet Union|Soviet]] control in 1921, the lands of the governorate were divided between the peninsular [[Crimean Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic]] under the [[Russian SFSR]] and the mainland portions which accrued to the [[Ukrainian SSR]] and were divided between what would become (in 1932) the [[Kherson Oblast|Kherson]] and [[Dnipropetrovsk Oblast|Dnepropetrovsk Oblast]]s. Today the mainland portion forms parts of [[Kherson]] and [[Zaporizhia Oblast]]s while Crimea is the [[Crimea|Autonomous Republic of Crimea]], all [[subdivisions of Ukraine]]. ==External links== *[http://feefhs.org/maps/RUSE/RE-CRIME.HTML Map of Taurida (1882)] {{coord missing|Russia}} {{Subdivisions of the Russian Empire}}