Swedish language

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'''Swedish''' ({{Audio|Sv-svenska.ogg|''svenska''}}) is a [[North Germanic languages|North Germanic]] [[language]], spoken by approximately 10 million people, predominantly in [[Sweden]] and parts of [[Finland]], especially along its coast and on the [[Åland]] islands. It is largely [[Mutually intelligible languages|mutually intelligible]] with [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]] and [[Danish language|Danish]] (see especially "[[Swedish language#Classification|Classification]]"). Along with the other North Germanic languages, Swedish is a descendant of [[Old Norse]], the common language of the [[Germanic peoples]] living in Scandinavia during the [[Viking Age|Viking Era]]. It is currently the largest of the North Germanic languages by numbers of speakers. [[Standard Swedish]], used by most [[Swedish people]], is the national language that evolved from the Central Swedish dialects in the 19th century and was well established by the beginning of the 20th century. While distinct regional [[Variety (linguistics)|varieties]] descended from the older rural [[dialect]]s still exist, the spoken and [[written language]] is uniform and standardized. Some dialects differ considerably from the standard language in [[grammar]] and [[vocabulary]] and are not always mutually intelligible with Standard Swedish. These dialects are confined to [[rural]] areas and are spoken primarily by small numbers of people with low [[social mobility]]. Though not facing imminent [[Extinct language|extinction]], such dialects have been in decline during the past century, despite the fact that they are well researched and their use is often encouraged by local authorities. The standard word order is [[subject–verb–object]], though this can often be changed to stress certain words or phrases. Swedish [[Morphology (linguistics)|morphology]] is similar to English; that is, words have comparatively few [[inflection]]s. There are two [[grammatical gender|genders]], two [[grammatical case]]s, and a distinction between [[plural]] and [[Grammatical number|singular]]. Older analyses posit the cases [[Nominative case|nominative]] and [[Genitive case|genitive]] and there are some remains of distinct [[accusative]] and [[dative]] forms as well. [[Adjective]]s are compared as in English, and are also inflected according to gender, number and definiteness. The [[definiteness]] of nouns is marked primarily through [[suffix]]es (endings), complemented with separate definite and indefinite [[article (grammar)|articles]]. The [[prosody (linguistics)|prosody]] features both [[stress (linguistics)|stress]] and in most dialects [[tone (linguistics)|tonal]] qualities. The language has a comparatively large [[vowel]] inventory. Swedish is also notable for the [[voiceless dorso-palatal velar fricative]], a highly variable consonant [[phoneme]]. == Classification == Swedish is an [[Indo-European language]] belonging to the [[North Germanic language|North Germanic]] branch of the [[Germanic language]]s. In the established classification, it belongs to the East Scandinavian languages together with [[Danish language|Danish]], separating it from the West Scandinavian languages, consisting of [[Faroese language|Faroese]], [[Icelandic language|Icelandic]] and [[Norwegian language|Norwegian]]. However, more recent analyses divide the North Germanic languages into two groups: ''Insular Scandinavian'', Faroese and Icelandic, and ''Continental Scandinavian'', Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, based on mutual intelligibility due to heavy influence of East Scandinavian (particularly Danish) on Norwegian during the last millennium and divergence from both Faroese and Icelandic. By many general criteria of mutual intelligibility, the Continental Scandinavian languages could very well be considered dialects of a common Scandinavian language. However, because of several hundred years of sometimes quite intense rivalry between [[Denmark]] and Sweden, including a long series of wars in the 16th and 17th centuries, and the [[nationalist]] ideas that emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, the languages have separate [[Orthography|orthographies]], dictionaries, grammars, and regulatory bodies. Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish are thus from a linguistic perspective more accurately described as a [[dialect continuum]] of Scandinavian (North Germanic), and some of the dialects, such as those on the border between Norway and Sweden, especially parts of [[Bohuslän]], [[Dalsland]], western [[Värmland]], western [[Dalarna]], [[Härjedalen]], [[Jämtland]] and [[Scania]], could be described as intermediate dialects of the national standard languages. == History == {{Main|History of Swedish}} In the 9th century, [[Old Norse]] began to diverge into Old West Norse (Norway and Iceland) and Old East Norse (Sweden and Denmark). In the 12th century, the dialects of Denmark and Sweden began to diverge, becoming Old Danish and Old Swedish in the 13th century. All were heavily influenced by [[Middle Low German]] during the [[Middle Ages]]. Though stages of language development are never as sharply delimited as implied here, and should not be taken too literally, the system of subdivisions used in this article is the most commonly used by Swedish linguists and is used for the sake of practicality.{{Citation needed|date=October 2009}} === Old Norse === {{Main|Old Norse}} {{Old Norse language map}} In the 8th century, the common [[Germanic language]] of [[Scandinavia]], [[Proto-Norse language|Proto-Norse]], had undergone some changes and evolved into Old Norse. This language began to undergo new changes that did not spread to all of Scandinavia, which resulted in the appearance of two similar dialects, ''Old West Norse'' ([[Norway]] and [[Iceland]]) and ''Old East Norse'' ([[Denmark]] and [[Sweden]]). The subdialect of Old East Norse spoken in Sweden is called ''Runic Swedish'' and the one in Denmark ''Runic Danish'' (there was also a subdialect spoken in [[Gotland]], [[Old Gutnish]]) but until the 12th century, the dialect was the same in the two countries with the main exception of a Runic Danish monophthongization (see below). The dialects are called ''runic'' because the main body of text appears in the [[runic alphabet]]. Unlike [[Proto-Norse language|Proto-Norse]], which was written with the [[Elder Futhark]] alphabet, Old Norse was written with the [[Younger Futhark]] alphabet, which only had 16 letters. Because the number of runes was limited, some runes were used for a range of [[phoneme]]s, such as the rune for the [[vowel]] ''u'' which was also used for the vowels ''o'', ''ø'' and ''y'', and the rune for ''i'' which was also used for ''e''. From 1100 onwards, the dialect of Denmark began to diverge from that of Sweden. The innovations spread unevenly from Denmark which created a series of minor dialectal boundaries, [[isogloss]]es, ranging from [[Zealand (Denmark)|Zealand]] in the south to [[Norrland]], [[Ostrobothnia (historical province)|Österbotten]] and northwestern [[Finland]] in the north. An early change that separated Runic Danish from the other dialects of Old East Norse was the change of the [[diphthong]] ''æi'' to the [[monophthong]] ''é'', as in ''stæinn'' to ''sténn'' "stone". This is reflected in runic inscriptions where the older read ''stain'' and the later ''stin''. There was also a change of ''au'' as in ''dauðr'' into a long open ''ø'' as in ''døðr'' "dead". This change is shown in runic inscriptions as a change from ''tauþr'' into ''tuþr''. Moreover, the ''øy'' diphthong changed into a long close ''ø'', as in the Old Norse word for "island". These innovations had affected most of the Runic Swedish speaking area as well in the end of the period, with the exception of the dialects spoken north and east of [[Mälardalen]] where the diphthongs still exist in remote areas. === Old Swedish === [[Image:Västgötalagen blad 21.jpg|thumb|right|A copy of ''[[Västgötalagen|Äldre Västgötalagen]]''—a [[code of law|law code]] of [[Västergötland]] from the 1280s, one of the earliest texts in Swedish written in the [[Latin alphabet]].]] {{Main|Old Swedish}} Old Swedish is the term used for the medieval Swedish language, starting in 1225. Among the most important documents of the period written in [[Latin script]] is the oldest of the provincial [[code of law|law codes]], the Västgöta code or ''[[Västgötalagen]]'', of which fragments dated to 1250 have been found. The main influences during this time came with the firm establishment of the [[Roman Catholic Church|Christian church]] and various [[Monasticism|monastic]] orders, introducing many [[Greek language|Greek]] and [[Latin]] loanwords. With the rise of [[Hanseatic league|Hanseatic]] power in the late 13th and early 14th century, the influence of [[Middle Low German]] became ever more present. The Hanseatic league provided Swedish commerce and administration with a large number of German- and Dutch-speaking immigrants. Many became quite influential members of Swedish medieval society, and brought terms from their mother tongue into the vocabulary. Besides a great number of loanwords for such areas as warfare, trade and administration; general grammatical suffixes and even conjunctions were imported. Almost all of the naval terms were also borrowed from [[Dutch language|Dutch]]. Early medieval Swedish was markedly different from the modern language in that it had a more complex [[case (linguistics)|case]] structure and had not yet experienced a reduction of the [[gender (grammar)|gender]] system. [[Noun]]s, [[adjective]]s, [[pronoun]]s and certain [[Grammatical number|numerals]] were inflected in four cases; besides the modern [[Nominative case|nominative]], there were also the [[Genitive case|genitive]], [[Dative case|dative]] and [[Accusative case|accusative]]. The gender system resembled that of modern [[German language|German]], having the genders masculine, feminine and neuter. Most of the masculine and feminine nouns were later grouped together into a common gender. The verb system was also more complex: it included subjunctive and imperative moods and verbs were conjugated according to person as well as number. By the 16th century, the case and gender systems of the colloquial spoken language and the profane literature had been largely reduced to the two cases and two genders of modern Swedish. The old inflections remained common in high prose style until the 18th century, and in some dialects into the early 20th century. A transitional change of the Latin script in the Nordic countries was to spell the letter combination "ae" as æ – and sometimes as a' – though it varied between persons and regions. The combination "ao" was similarly rendered ao, and "oe" became oe. These three were later to evolve into the separate letters [[ä]], [[å]] and [[ö]]. === Modern Swedish === {{Main|Modern Swedish}} [[Image:Gustav Vasa Bible 1541.jpg|thumb|right|175px|Front page of [[Gustav Vasa]]'s Bible from 1541, using [[Fraktur (script)|Fraktur]]. The title translated to English reads: "The Bible / That is / The Holy Scripture / in Swedish. Printed in [[Uppsala]]. 1541".]] Modern Swedish (Swedish: ''nysvenska'') begins with the advent of the [[printing press]] and the European [[Protestant Reformation|Reformation]]. After assuming power, the new monarch [[Gustav Vasa]] ordered a Swedish translation of the [[Bible]]. The [[New Testament]] was published in 1526, followed by a full [[Bible translation]] in 1541, usually referred to as the ''[[Gustav Vasa Bible]]'', a translation deemed so successful and influential that, with revisions incorporated in successive editions, it remained the most common Bible translation until 1917. The main translators were [[Laurentius Andreæ]] and the brothers [[Laurentius Petri|Laurentius]] and [[Olaus Petri]]. The Vasa Bible is often considered to be a reasonable compromise between old and new; while not adhering to the colloquial spoken language of its day it was not overly conservative in its use of archaic forms. It was a major step towards a more consistent Swedish [[orthography]]. It established the use of the vowels "å", "ä", and "ö", and the spelling "ck" in place of "kk", distinguishing it clearly from the Danish Bible, perhaps intentionally, given the ongoing rivalry between the countries. All three translators came from central Sweden which is generally seen as adding specific Central Swedish features to the new Bible. Though it might seem as if the Bible translation set a very powerful precedent for orthographic standards, spelling actually became more inconsistent during the remainder of the century. It was not until the 17th century that spelling began to be discussed, around the time when the first grammars were written. The spelling debate raged on until the early 19th century, and it was not until the latter half of the 19th century that the orthography reached generally acknowledged standards. [[Capitalization]] during this time was not standardized. It depended on the authors and their background. Those influenced by [[German language|German]] capitalized all nouns, while others capitalized more sparsely. It is also not always apparent which letters are capitalized owing to the Gothic or [[blackletter]] typeface which was used to print the Bible. This typeface was in use until the mid-18th century, when it was gradually replaced with a Latin typeface (often [[Antiqua (typeface class)|antiqua]]). Some important changes in sound during the Modern Swedish period were the gradual assimilation of several different consonant clusters into the [[voiceless alveolar fricative|fricative]] {{IPA|[ʃ]}} and later into {{IPA|[ɧ]}}. There was also the gradual softening of {{IPA|[ɡ]}} and {{IPA|[k]}} into {{IPA|[j]}} and the [[voiceless alveolopalatal fricative|fricative]] {{IPA|[ɕ]}} before [[front vowel]]s. The [[voiced velar fricative|velar fricative]] {{IPA|[ɣ]}} was also transformed into the corresponding [[voiced velar plosive|plosive]] {{IPA|[ɡ]}}. [[Image:August Strindberg.jpg|175px|thumb|[[August Strindberg]], one of the most influential writers in modern Swedish literature.]] === Contemporary Swedish === The period that includes Swedish as it is spoken today is termed ''nusvenska'' (lit. "Now-Swedish") in linguistic terminology and started in the last decades of the 19th century. The period saw a democratization of the language with a less formal written language that came closer to spoken language. The growth of a public schooling system also led to the evolution of so-called ''boksvenska'' (literally "book Swedish"), especially among the working classes, where spelling to some extent influenced pronunciation, particularly in official contexts. With the [[industrialization]] and [[urbanization]] of Sweden well under way by the last decades of the 19th century, a new breed of authors made their mark on [[Swedish literature]]. Many scholars, politicians and other public figures had a great influence on the new national language that was emerging, and among them were prolific authors like the poet [[Gustaf Fröding]], Nobel laureate [[Selma Lagerlöf]], and radical writer and playwright [[August Strindberg]]. It was during the 20th century that a common, standardized national language became available to all Swedes. The orthography was finally stabilized, and was almost completely uniform, with the exception of some minor deviations, by the time of the spelling reform of 1906. With the exception of plural forms of verbs and a slightly different syntax, particularly in the written language, the language was the same as the Swedish spoken today. The plural verb forms remained, in ever decreasing use, in formal (and particularly written) language until the 1950s, when they were finally officially abolished even from all official recommendations. A very significant change in Swedish occurred in the late 1960s, with the so-called ''du-reformen'', "the you-reform". Previously, the proper way to address people of the same or higher [[social status]] had been by [[title]] and [[surname]]. The use of ''herr'' ("Mr" or "Sir"), ''fru'' ("Mrs" or "Ma'am") or ''fröken'' ("Miss") was considered the only acceptable mode of initiating conversation with strangers of unknown occupation, academic title or military rank. The fact that the listener should preferably be referred to in the third person tended to further complicate spoken communication between members of society. In the early 20th century, an unsuccessful attempt was made to replace the insistence on titles with ''ni'' (the standard [[Grammatical person|second person plural]] [[pronoun]]), analogous to the [[French language|French]] ''Vous''. (Cf. [[T-V distinction]].) ''Ni'' (plural second person pronoun) wound up being used as a slightly less familiar form of ''du'' (singular second person pronoun) used to address people of lower social status. With the liberalization and radicalization of Swedish society in the 1950s and 1960s, these previously significant distinctions of [[social class|class]] became less important and ''du'' became the standard, even in formal and official contexts. Though the reform was not an act of any centralized political decrees, but rather a sweeping change in social attitudes, it was completed in just a few years from the late 1960s to early 1970s. === Former language minorities === [[Image:Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa).jpg|thumb|right|Map of the [[West Estonian archipelago|Estonian islands]] which formerly housed "''Coastal Swede''" populations]] From the 13th to 20th century, there were [[Estonian Swedes|Swedish-speaking communities in Estonia]], particularly on the islands (e.g., [[Hiiumaa]], [[Vormsi]], [[Ruhnu]]; in Swedish, known as ''Dagö'', ''Ormsö'', ''Runö'', respectively) along the coast of the [[Baltic Sea|Baltic]], communities which today have all but disappeared. The Swedish-speaking minority was represented in [[parliament]], and entitled to use their native language in parliamentary debates. After the loss of Estonia to the [[Russian Empire]] in the early 18th century, around 1,000 Estonian Swedish speakers were forced to march to southern [[Ukraine]], where they founded a village, ''[[Gammalsvenskby]]'' ("Old Swedish Village"). A few elderly people in the village still speak Swedish and observe the holidays of the Swedish calendar, although the dialect is most likely facing extinction. From 1918–1940, when Estonia was independent, the small Swedish community was well treated. Municipalities with a Swedish majority, mainly found along the coast, used Swedish as the administrative language and Swedish-Estonian culture saw an upswing. However, most Swedish-speaking people fled to Sweden before the end of [[World War II]], that is, before the invasion of Estonia by the Soviet army in 1944. Only a handful of older speakers remain today. == Geographic distribution == Swedish is the national language of [[Sweden]] and the first language for the overwhelming majority of roughly eight million Swedish-born inhabitants and acquired by one million immigrants. As of 2007 around 5.5% of the population of [[Finland]] was Swedish speaking, though the percentage has declined steadily over the last 400 years. The [[Finland Swedish]] minority is concentrated in the coastal areas and [[archipelago]]s of southern and western Finland. In some of these areas, Swedish is the predominant language. Swedish is Finland's second official language. The language has the same status in Finland as the [[Finnish language]]. In 19 [[municipality|municipalities]], 16 of which are located in [[Åland]], Swedish is the only official language. In several more, it is the majority language and it is an official minority language in even more. There is considerable migration between the [[Nordic countries]], but owing to the similarity between the cultures and languages (with the exception of [[Finnish language|Finnish]]), expatriates generally [[Assimilation (sociology)|assimilate]] quickly and do not stand out as a group. According to the 2000 [[United States Census]], some 67,000 people over the age of five were reported as Swedish speakers, though without any information on actual language proficiency. Similarly, there are 16,915 reported Swedish speakers in Canada from the 2001 census. Outside Sweden and Finland, there are about 40,000 active learners enrolled in Swedish language courses. === Official status === [[Image:Oikokatu.JPG|thumb|A [[Finnish language|Finnish]]/Swedish street sign in [[Finland]]]] Swedish is officially the main language of Sweden. It has long been used in local and state government and most of the educational system, but remained only a ''de facto'' primary language, with no official status in law. A bill was proposed in 2005 that would have made Swedish an official language, but failed to pass by the narrowest possible margin (145–147) due to a [[Pair (parliamentary convention)|pairing-off]] failure. A proposal for a broader language law, designating Swedish as the main language of the country and bolstering the status of the minority languages, was submitted by an expert committee to the Swedish Ministry of Culture in March 2008. It was subsequently enacted by the [[Parliament of Sweden|Riksdag]] and entered into effect on 1 July 2009. Swedish is the only official language of [[Åland]] (an [[Autonomous entity|autonomous]] province under the [[sovereignty]] of [[Finland]]) where the vast majority of the 26,000 inhabitants speak Swedish as a first language. In Finland, Swedish is the second national language alongside [[Finnish language|Finnish]] on the state level, and an official language in many coastal municipalities. Three municipalities ([[Korsnäs]], [[Närpes]], [[Larsmo]]) in mainland Finland have Swedish as their sole official language. Swedish is also one of the official languages of the [[European Union]] and one of the working languages of the [[Nordic Council]]. Under the [[Nordic Language Convention]], citizens of the [[Nordic countries]] speaking Swedish have the opportunity to use their native language when interacting with official bodies in other Nordic countries without being liable to any [[interpreting|interpretation]] or [[translation]] costs. === Regulatory bodies === The [[Swedish Language Council]] (''Språkrådet'') is the official regulator of Swedish in Sweden, but does not attempt to enforce control of the language, as for instance the [[Académie française]] does for [[French language|French]] {{Dubious|date=June 2011}}. However, many organizations and agencies require the use of the council's publication ''Svenska skrivregler'' in official contexts, with it otherwise being regarded as a de facto orthographic standard. Among the many organizations that make up the Swedish Language Council, the [[Swedish Academy]] (established 1786) is arguably the most influential. Its primary instruments are the [[dictionary|dictionaries]] ''[[Svenska Akademiens ordlista]]'' (''SAOL'', currently in its 13th edition) and ''[[Svenska Akademiens ordbok]]'', in addition to various books on grammar, [[spelling]] and [[manual of style|manuals of style]]. Even though the dictionaries are sometimes used as official decrees of the language, their main purpose is to describe current usage. In Finland a special branch of the [[Research Institute for the Languages of Finland]] has official status as the regulatory body for Swedish in Finland. Among its highest priorities is to maintain intelligibility with the language spoken in Sweden. It has published ''Finlandssvensk ordbok'', a dictionary about the differences between Swedish in Finland and in Sweden. == Dialects == {{Main|Swedish dialects}} According to a traditional division of Swedish [[dialect]]s, there are six main groups of dialects: *[[North Swedish]] *[[Finland Swedish]] *[[Svealand Swedish]] *[[Modern Gutnish|Gotland Swedish]] *[[Götamål dialect|Götaland Swedish]] *[[Scanian dialect|South Swedish]] The traditional definition of a Swedish [[dialect]] has been a local variant that has not been heavily influenced by the standard language and that can trace a separate development all the way back to [[Old Norse]]. Many of the genuine rural dialects, such as those of [[Orsa]] in [[Dalarna]] or [[Närpes]] in [[Ostrobothnia (region)|Österbotten]], have very distinct phonetic and grammatical features, such as plural forms of verbs or archaic [[case (linguistics)|case]] inflections. These dialects can be near-incomprehensible to a majority of Swedes, and most of their speakers are also fluent in Standard Swedish. The different dialects are often so localized that they are limited to individual [[parish]]es and are referred to by Swedish linguists as ''sockenmål'' (lit. "parish speech"). They are generally separated into six major groups, with common characteristics of prosody, grammar and vocabulary. One or several examples from each group are given here. Though each example is intended to be also representative of the nearby dialects, the actual number of dialects is several hundred if each individual community is considered separately. This type of classification, however, is based on a somewhat romanticized [[nationalism|nationalist]] view of ethnicity and language. The idea that only rural variants of Swedish should be considered "genuine" is not generally accepted by modern scholars. No dialects, no matter how remote or obscure, remained unchanged or undisturbed by a minimum of influences from surrounding dialects or the standard language, especially not from the late 19th century onwards with the advent of [[mass media]] and advanced forms of transport. The differences are today more accurately described by a scale that runs from "standard language" to "rural dialect" where the speech even of the same person may vary from one extreme to the other depending on the situation. All Swedish dialects with the exception of the highly diverging forms of speech in [[Dalarna]], [[Norrbotten]] and, to some extent, [[Gotland]] can be considered to be part of a common, mutually intelligible [[dialect continuum]]. This continuum may also include [[Norwegian dialects|Norwegian]] and some [[Danish dialects]]. The samples linked below have been taken from SweDia, a research project on Swedish modern dialects available for download (though with information in Swedish only), with many more samples from 100 different dialects with recordings from four different speakers: older female, older male, younger female and younger male. The dialect groups are those traditionally used by dialectologists. [[Image:Map of Swedish dialects.png|thumbnail|350px|Map showing location of the various modern dialect samples]] :1. [[Överkalix]], [[Norrbotten]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Norrland/Norrbotten/Overkalix/yw.html younger female] :2. [[Burträsk]], [[Västerbotten]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Norrland/Vasterbotten/Burtrask/ow.html older female] :3. [[Aspås]], [[Jämtland]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Norrland/Jamtland/Aspas/yw.html younger female] :4. [[Färila]], [[Hälsingland]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Norrland/Halsingland/Farila/om.html older male] :5. [[Älvdalen]], [[Dalarna]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Svealand/Dalarna/Alvdalen/ow.html older female] :6. [[Gräsö]], [[Uppland]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Svealand/Uppland/Graso/om.html older male] :7. [[Sorunda]], [[Södermanland]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Svealand/Sodermanland/Sorunda/ym.html younger male] :8. [[Köla]], [[Värmland]] [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Svealand/Varmland/Kola/yw.html younger female] :9. [[Viby, Närke|Viby]], [[Närke]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Svealand/Narke/Viby/om.html older male] :10. [[Sproge]], [[Gotland]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Gotaland/Gotland/Sproge/yw.html younger female] :11. [[Närpes]], [[Ostrobothnia (region)|Ostrobothnia]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Finland/Osterbotten/Narpes/yw.html younger female] :12. [[Dragsfjärd]], [[Finland Proper]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Finland/Aboland/Dragsfjard/om.html older male] :13. [[Borgå]], [[Eastern Uusimaa]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Finland/Nyland/Borga/ym.html younger male] :14. [[Orust]], [[Bohuslän]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Gotaland/Bohuslan/Orust/om.html older male] :15. [[Floby]], [[Västergötland]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Gotaland/Vastergotland/Floby/ow.html older female] :16. [[Rimforsa]], [[Östergötland]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Gotaland/Ostergotland/Rimforsa/ow.html older female] :17. [[Årstad, Falkenberg|Årstad]]-[[Heberg]], [[Halland]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Gotaland/Halland/Arstad/ym.html younger male] :18. [[Stenberga]], [[Småland]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Gotaland/Smaland/Stenberga/yw.html younger female] :19. [[Jämshög]], [[Blekinge]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Gotaland/Blekinge/Jamshog/ow.html older female] :20. [[Bara Hundred|Bara]], [[Scania]]; [http://swedia.ling.gu.se/Gotaland/Skane/Bara/om.html older male] === Standard Swedish === [[Standard Swedish]], which is derived mainly from the dialects spoken in the capital region around [[Stockholm]], is the language used by virtually all Swedes and most [[Swedish-speaking Finns]]. The Swedish term most often used for the standard language is ''rikssvenska'' ("National Swedish") and to a much lesser extent ''högsvenska'' ("High Swedish"); the latter term is limited to Swedish spoken in Finland and is seldom used in Sweden. There are many regional varieties of the standard language that are specific to geographical areas of varying size (regions, [[provinces of Sweden|historical provinces]], cities, towns, etc.). While these varieties are often influenced by the genuine dialects, their grammatical and phonological structure adheres closely to those of the Central Swedish dialects. In [[mass media]] it is no longer uncommon for journalists to speak with a distinct regional accent, but the most common pronunciation and the one perceived as the most formal is still Central Standard Swedish. Though this terminology and its definitions have long been established among linguists, most Swedes are unaware of the distinction and its historical background, and often refer to the regional varieties as "dialects". In a poll that was conducted in 2005 by the [[Swedish Retail Institute]] (''[http://www.hui.se/ Handelns Utredningsinstitut]''), the attitudes of Swedes to the use of certain dialects by salesmen revealed that 54% believed that ''rikssvenska'' was the variety they would prefer to hear when speaking with salesmen over the phone, even though several dialects such as ''gotländska'' or ''[[skånska]]'' were provided as alternatives in the poll. === Finland Swedish === {{Main|Finland Swedish|Åland Swedish}} Finland was a part of Sweden from the 13th century until the loss of the Finnish territories to [[Russia]] in 1809. Swedish was the sole administrative language until 1902 as well as the dominant language of culture and education until Finnish independence in 1917. The percentage of Swedish speakers in Finland has steadily decreased since then. The Swedish-speaking population is mainly concentrated in the coastal areas of [[Ostrobothnia (region)|Ostrobothnia]], [[Finland Proper]], [[Uusimaa|Nyland]] and [[Åland]] where the percentage of Finland Swedes partly is fairly high. Swedish is still an official language in Finland, sharing the same rights as [[Finnish language|Finnish]]. The country's public broadcaster, [[YLE]], provides two Swedish-language radio stations, [[YLE Radio Vega|Radio Vega]] and [[YLE X3M]], as well a TV channel, [[YLE FST5|FST5]]. === Immigrant variants === [[Rinkeby Swedish]] (after [[Rinkeby]], a suburb of northern Stockholm with a large population of immigrants) is a common name among linguists for varieties of Swedish spoken by young people of foreign heritage in the suburbs of Stockholm, [[Gothenburg]] and [[Malmö]]. These varieties could alternatively be classified as [[sociolect]]s, because the immigrant dialects share common traits independent of their geographical spread or the native country of the speakers. However, some studies have found distinctive features and led to terms such as Rosengård Swedish (after [[Rosengård]] in Malmö), an immigrant version of the Scanian dialect. A survey made by the Swedish linguist [[Ulla-Britt Kotsinas]] showed that foreign learners had difficulties in guessing the origins of Rinkeby Swedish speakers in Stockholm. The greatest difficulty proved to be identifying the speech of a boy speaking Rinkeby Swedish whose parents were both Swedish; only 1.8% guessed his native language correctly. == Sounds == {{Main|Swedish phonology}} {{IPA notice}} Swedish has 9 vowels of two lengths that make up 17 [[phoneme]]s in most varieties and dialects (short {{IPA|/e/}} and {{IPA|/ɛ/}} coincide). There are 18 [[consonant]] phonemes out of which the [[voiceless palatal-velar fricative]], {{IPA|/ɧ/}}, and {{IPA|/r/}} show considerable variation depending on social and dialectal context. A distinct feature of Swedish is its varied [[Prosody (linguistics)|prosody]] (intonation, stress, tone, etc.) which is often one of the most noticeable differences between the various dialects. [[Image:Swedish monophthongs chart.svg|thumb|right|The vowel phonemes of Central Standard Swedish]] {| class="wikitable" | ! colspan="2" | [[Bilabial]] ! colspan="2" | [[Labiodental]] ! colspan="3" | [[Dental consonant|Dental]] ![[Alveolar consonant|Alveolar]] ! colspan="2" | [[Palatal]] ! colspan="2" | [[Velar consonant|Velar]] ![[glottal consonant|Glottal]] |- align=center ![[Stop consonant|Plosives]] | {{IPA|p}} | rowspan="2" | {{IPA|b}} | colspan="2" | | {{IPA|t}} | rowspan="2" | {{IPA|d}} | | | colspan="2" | | {{IPA|k}} | rowspan="2" | {{IPA|ɡ}} | |- align=center ![[Approximant]]s | | | rowspan="2" | {{IPA|v}} | | {{IPA|l}} | rowspan="3" | {{IPA|r}} | | rowspan="2" | {{IPA|j}} | | {{IPA|h}} |- align=center ![[Fricative consonant|Fricatives]] | colspan="2" | | {{IPA|f}} | colspan="3" | {{IPA|s}} | {{IPA|ɕ}} | colspan="2" | {{IPA|ɧ}} | |- align=center ![[Trill consonant|Trills]] | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="3" | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | | |- align=center ![[Nasal consonant|Nasals]] | colspan="2" | {{IPA|m}} | colspan="2" | | colspan="3" | {{IPA|n}} | | colspan="2" | | colspan="2" | {{IPA|ŋ}} | |} == Vocabulary == The [[vocabulary]] of Swedish is mainly Germanic, either through common Germanic heritage or through loans from German, Middle Low German, and to some extent, English. Examples of Germanic words in Swedish are ''mus'' ("mouse"), ''kung'' ("king"), and ''gås'' ("goose"). A significant part of the religious and scientific vocabulary is of [[Latin]] or [[Greek language|Greek]] origin, often borrowed from [[French language|French]] and, lately, English. A large number of [[French language|French]] words were imported into Sweden around the 18th century. These words have been [[transcription (linguistics)|transcribed]] to the Swedish spelling system and are therefore pronounced quite recognizably to a French-speaker. Most of them are distinguished by a "French accent", characterized by emphasis on the last syllable. For example, ''nivå'' (fr. ''niveau'', "level"), ''fåtölj'' (fr. ''fauteuil'', "arm chair") and ''affär'' ("shop; affair"), etc. Cross-borrowing from other Germanic languages has also been common, at first from Middle Low German, the [[lingua franca]] of the [[Hanseatic League|Hanseatic league]] and later from [[standard German]]. Some compounds are translations of the elements ([[calque]]s) of German original compounds into Swedish, like ''bomull'' from German ''Baumwolle'' ("cotton", literally ''tree-wool''). As with many Germanic languages, new words can be formed by compounding, e.g. nouns like ''nagellackborttagningsmedel'' ("nail polish remover") or verbs like ''smygfilma'' ("to film in secret"). Similar to [[German language|German]] or [[Dutch language|Dutch]], very long, and quite impractical, examples like ''produktionsstyrningssystemsprogramvaruuppdatering'' ("production controller system software update") are possible but seldom this ungainly, at least in spoken Swedish and outside of technical writing. Compound nouns take their [[grammatical gender|gender]] from the [[head (linguistics)|head]], which in Swedish is always the last morpheme. New words can also be coined by [[derivation (linguistics)|derivation]] from other established words, such as the [[verbification]] of [[noun]]s by the adding of the [[suffix#Derivational suffixes|suffix]] ''-a'', as in ''bil'' ("car") and ''bila'' ("travel by car"). == Writing system == The [[Swedish alphabet]] is a 29-letter [[alphabet]], using the basic 26-letter [[Latin alphabet]] plus the three additional letters ''[[Å|Å''/''å]]'', ''[[Ä|Ä''/''ä]]'', and ''[[Ö|Ö''/''ö]]'' constructed in the 16th century by writing "o" and "e" on top of an "a", and an "e" on top of an "o". Though these combinations are historically modified versions of [[A]] and [[O]] according to the English range of usage for the term [[diacritic]], these three characters are not considered to be diacritics within the Swedish application, but rather separate letters, and are as independent letters following ''z''. Before the release of the 13th edition of ''[[Svenska Akademiens ordlista]]'' in April 2006, ''w'' was treated as merely a variant of ''v'' used only in names (such as "Wallenberg") and foreign words ("bowling"), and so was both sorted and pronounced as a ''v''. Other [[diacritic]]s (to use the broader English term usage referenced here) are unusual in Swedish; [[é]] is sometimes used to indicate that the stress falls on a terminal syllable containing ''e'', especially when the stress changes the meaning (''ide'' vs. ''idé'', "winter lair" vs. "idea") as well as in some names, like ''Kastrén''; occasionally other [[acute accent]]s and, less often, [[grave accent]]s can be seen in names and some foreign words. The letter [[à]] is used to refer to unit cost (a loan from the French), equivalent to the [[at sign]] (@) in English. The German ''[[ü]]'' is treated as a variant of ''[[y]]'' and sometimes retained in foreign names and words, e.g. ''müsli'' ("muesli/granola"). A proper [[Diaeresis (diacritic)|diaeresis]] may very exceptionally be seen in elaborated style (for instance: "Aïda"). The German convention of writing ''ä'' and ''ö'' as ''ae'' and ''oe'' if the characters are unavailable is an unusual convention for speakers of modern Swedish. Despite the availability of all these characters in the Swedish national top-level [[domain name system|Internet domain]] and other such domains, Swedish sites are frequently labelled using ''a'' and ''o'', based on visual similarity (mainly to avoid lingering technical problems with the use of characters which are outside of the limited 7-bit ASCII set). In Swedish [[orthography]], the [[Colon (punctuation)|colon]] is used in a [[Colon (punctuation)#Usage|similar manner as in English]], with some exceptions: the colon is used for some abbreviations, such as ''3:e'' for ''tredje'' ("third") and ''S:t'' for ''Sankt'' ("Saint"), and for all types of suffixes that can be added to numbers, letters and abbreviations, such as ''a:et'' ("the a") and ''CD:n'' ("the CD"). == Grammar == {{Main|Swedish grammar}} Swedish [[noun]]s and [[adjective]]s are declined in [[grammatical gender|genders]] as well as [[grammatical number|number]]. Nouns belong to one of two genders—common for the ''en'' form or neuter for the ''ett'' form—which also determine the declension of [[adjective]]s. For example, the word ''fisk'' ("fish") is a noun of common gender (''en fisk'') and can have the following forms: {| class="wikitable" |- ! ! Singular ! Plural |- ! Indefinite form | ''fisk'' | ''fiskar'' |- ! Definite form | ''fisken'' | ''fiskarna'' |} The definite singular form of a noun is created by adding a suffix (''-en'', ''-n'', ''-et'' or ''-t''), depending on its gender and if the noun ends in a vowel or not. The definite articles ''den'', ''det'', and ''de'' are used for variations to the definitiveness of a noun. They can double as [[demonstrative]] [[pronoun]]s or [[Determiner (class)|demonstrative determiners]] when used with [[adverb]]s such as ''här'' ("here") or ''där'' ("there") to form ''den/det här (can also be "denna/detta")'' ("this"), ''de här (can also be "dessa")'' ("these"), ''den/det där'' ("that"), and ''de där'' ("those"). For example, ''den där fisken'' means "that fish" and refers to a specific fish; ''den fisken'' is less definite and means "that fish" in a more abstract sense, such as that set of fish; while ''fisken'' means "the fish". In certain cases, the definite form indicates possession, e.g., ''jag måste tvätta hår'''et''''' ("I must wash ''my'' hair"). [[Adjective]]s are inflected in two declensions — indefinite and definite — and they must match the noun they modify in gender and number. The indefinite neuter and plural forms of an adjective are usually created by adding a suffix (''-t'' or ''-a'') to the common form of the adjective, e.g., ''en grön stol'' (a green chair), ''ett grönt hus'' (a green house), and ''gröna stolar'' ("green chairs). The definite form of an adjective is identical to the indefinite plural form, e.g., ''den gröna stolen'' ("the green chair"), ''det gröna huset'' ("the green house"), and ''de gröna stolarna'' ("the green chairs"). Swedish [[pronoun]]s are similar to those of English. Besides the two natural genders ''han/hon'' ("he/she"), there are also the two [[grammatical gender]]s ''den/det'', usually termed [[common gender|common]] and [[neuter gender|neuter]]. Unlike the nouns, pronouns have an additional [[object (linguistics)|object]] form, derived from the old [[dative]] form. ''Hon'', for example, has the following nominative, possessive, and object forms: :''hon'' – ''hennes'' – ''henne'' Possession is expressed with the [[enclitic]] ''-s'', which attaches to the end of a (possibly complex) noun phrase. In formal writing, however, usage guides generally do not recommend the enclitic to attach to anything but the head noun of the phrase; but this is nevertheless common in speech. :''mannen''; "the man" :''mannens hatt''; "the man's hat" :''mannen i grå kostym''; "the man in a grey suit" :''mannen i grå kostyms hatt''; "the man in a grey suit's hat" :''mannens i grå kostym hatt''; "the man's in a grey suit hat" (formal, archaic) Verbs are [[Grammatical conjugation|conjugated]] according to [[grammatical tense|tense]]. One group of verbs (the ones ending in ''-er'' in present tense) have a special [[Imperative mood|imperative]] form (generally the verb [[word stem|stem]]), but with most verbs the imperative is identical to the [[infinitive]] form. [[perfect (grammar)|Perfect]] and [[present tense|present]] [[participle]]s as adjectival verbs are very common: :Perfect participle: ''en stekt fisk''; "a fried fish" (steka = to fry) :Present participle: ''en stinkande fisk''; "a stinking fish" (stinka = to stink) In contrast to English and many other languages, Swedish does not use the perfect participle to form the present perfect and past perfect. Rather, the [[auxiliary verb]] ''har'' ("have"), ''hade'' ("had") is followed by a special form, called [[supine]], used solely for this purpose (although often identical to the neuter form of the perfect participle): :Perfect participle: ''målad'', "painted" – supine ''målat'', present perfect ''har målat''; "have painted" :Perfect participle: ''stekt'', "fried" – supine ''stekt'', present perfect ''har stekt''; "have fried" :Perfect participle: ''skriven'', "written" – supine ''skrivit'', present perfect ''har skrivit''; "have written" When building the compound passive voice using the verb ''att bli'', the past participle is used: :''den blir målad''; "it's being painted" :''den blev målad''; "it was painted" There exists also an inflected passive voice formed by adding ''-s'', replacing the final ''r'' in the present tense: :''den målas''; "it's being painted" :''den målades''; "it was painted" In a subordinate [[clause]], the auxiliary ''har'' is optional and often omitted, particularly in written Swedish. :''Jag ser att han (har) stekt fisken''; "I see that he has fried the fish" [[Subjunctive mood]] is occasionally used for some verbs, but its use is in sharp decline and few speakers perceive the handful of commonly used verbs (as for instance: ''vore, månne'') as separate conjugations, most of them remaining only as set of [[Idiom|idiomatic expressions]]. The lack of cases in Swedish is compensated by a wide variety of [[preposition]]s, similar to those found in [[English language|English]]. As in modern [[German language|German]], prepositions formerly determined case in Swedish, but this feature remains only in idiomatic expressions like ''till sjöss'' (genitive) or ''man ur huse'' (dative singular), though some of these are still quite common. Swedish being a Germanic language, the [[syntax]] shows similarities to both English and German. Like English, Swedish has a [[subject–verb–object]] basic word order, but like German, it utilizes [[V2 word order|verb-second word order]] in main clauses, for instance after [[adverbs]], adverbial phrases and [[dependent clauses]]. (Adverbial phrases denoting time are usually placed at the beginning of a main clause that is at the head of a sentence.) [[Prepositional phrase]]s are placed in a [[place–manner–time]] order, as in English (but not German). Adjectives precede the noun they modify. == Sample == Excerpt from ''Barfotabarn'' (1933), by [[Nils Ferlin]] (1898–1961): {| border="0" width="100%" style="text-align: left;" |- !|Original !|Free translation |- |''Du har tappat ditt ord och din papperslapp,'' |"You have lost your word and your written note, |- |''du barfotabarn i livet.'' |you barefooted child in life. |- |''Så sitter du åter på handlar'ns trapp'' |You sit on the porch of the grocer anew |- |''och gråter så övergivet.'' |and cry so abandoned. |- |''Vad var det för ord – var det långt eller kort,'' |What word was it – was it long or short, |- |''var det väl eller illa skrivet?'' |was it well or poorly written? |- |''Tänk efter nu – förr'n vi föser dig bort,'' |Think twice now – before we shove you away, |- |''du barfotabarn i livet.'' |you barefooted child in life." |} == See also == * [[Languages of Finland]] * [[Languages of Sweden]] * [[Scanian dialects]] * [[Svenska Akademiens ordbok]] * [[Swedish as a foreign language]] * [[Swenglish]] === Print sources === {{refbegin}} {{Citation | last = Bergman | first = Gösta | year = 1984 | title = Kortfattad svensk språkhistoria | edition = 4th | place = Stockholm | publisher = Prisma | series = Prisma Magnum | isbn = 91-518-1747-0 | oclc = 13259382 | ref = CITEREFBergman }} {{Citation | last = Bolander | first = Maria | year = 2002 | title = Funktionell svensk grammatik | place = Stockholm | publisher = Liber | isbn = 91-47-05054-3 | oclc = 67138445 | ref = CITEREFBolander }} {{Citation | last = Dahl | first = Östen | year = 2000 | title = Språkets enhet och mångfald | place = Lund | publisher = Studentlitteratur | isbn = 91-44-01158-X | oclc = 61100963 | ref = CITEREFDahl }} {{Citation | last = Engstrand | first = Olle | year = 2004 | title = Fonetikens grunder | place = Lund | publisher = Studentlitteratur | isbn = 91-44-04238-8 | oclc = 66026795 | ref = CITEREFEngstrand }} {{Citation | last = Elert | first = Claes-Christian | year = 2000 | title = Allmän och svensk fonetik | edition = 8th | place = Stockholm | publisher = Norstedts Akademiska Förlag | isbn = 91-1-300939-7 | oclc = | ref = CITEREFElert }} Ferlin, Nils ''Barfotabarn'' (1976) Stockholm: Bonnier ISBN 91-0-024187-3 {{Citation | last = Garlén | first = Claes | year = 1988 | title = Svenskans fonologi | place = Lund | publisher = Studentlitteratur | isbn = 91-44-28151-X | oclc = 67420810 | ref = CITEREFGarlén }} Josephson, Olle (2005) ''Ju: ifrågasatta självklarheter om svenskan, engelskan och alla andra språk i Sverige'' 2nd edition, Stockholm: Nordstedts ordbok, ISBN 91-7227-446-8 {{Citation | last = Kotsinas | first = Ulla-Britt | year = 1994 | title = Ungdomsspråk | place = Uppsala | publisher = Hallgren & Fallgren | isbn = 91-7382-718-5 | oclc = 60994967 | ref = CITEREFKotsinas }} {{Citation | last = Pettersson | first = Gertrud | year = 1996 | title = Svenska språket under sjuhundra år: en historia om svenskan och dess utforskande | place = Lund | publisher = Studentlitteratur | isbn = 91-44-48221-3 | oclc = 36130929 | ref = CITEREFPettersson }} {{Citation | author = Svenska språknämnden | authorlink = Svenska språknämnden | title = Svenska skrivregler | edition = 2nd | year = 2000 | publication-date = 2002, 3rd printing | publisher = Liber | place = Stockholm | isbn = 91-47-04974-X | ref = CITEREFSvenska_språknämnden }} {{Citation | last = Svensson | first = Lars | year = 1974 | title = Nordisk paleografi: Handbok med transkriberade och kommenterade skriftprov | place = Lund | publisher = Studentlitteratur | isbn = 9144053916 | oclc = 1303752 | ref = CITEREFSvensson }} {{refend}} === Web sources === {{refbegin}} [[Nationalencyklopedin]] (online edition) [http://www.svenskbyborna.com/ Föreningen Svenskbyborna] (Svenskbyborna Society) {{refend}} === Language courses === * ''Colloquial Swedish–The complete course for beginners Second Edition''. Holmes, Philip; Serin, Gunilla (1999). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-13718-7 * ''Teach Yourself Swedish–A complete course for beginners''. Croghan, Vera (1995). London: Hodder & Stoughton. Chicago: NTC/Contemporary Publishing. ISBN 0-340-61860-4 * ''Svenska utifrån–Lärobok i svenska''. Nyborg, Roger; et al. (2001) ISBN 91-520-0673-5 * ''På svenska! 1 Svenska som främmande språk–Lärobok''. Göransson, Ulla; et al. (1997) ISBN 91-7434-392-2 * ''På svenska! 2 Svenska som främmande språk–Lärobok''. Göransson, Ulla; et al. (2002) ISBN 91-7434-462-5 * ''[Swedish Basic Course http://fsi-language-courses.org/Content.php?page=Swedish Fsi-language.org]''. Foreign Service Institute * ''Rivstart : A1+A2''. Scherrer, Paula Levy; Lindemalm, Karl (2008). Natur och Kultur. ISBN 9789127666856 * ''Rivstart : B1+B2''. Scherrer, Paula Levy; Lindemalm, Karl (2009). Natur och Kultur. ISBN10: 9127666875 === Grammars === * ''Swedish Essentials of Grammar'' Viberg, Åke; et al. (1991) Chicago: Passport Books. ISBN 0-8442-8539- * ''Swedish: An Essential Grammar''. Holmes, Philip; Hinchliffe, Ian; (2000). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-16048-0. * ''Swedish: A Comprehensive Grammar Second Edition''. Holmes, Philip; Hinchliffe, Ian; (2003). London; New York: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-27884-8. * ''Svenska utifrån Schematic grammar–Swedish structures and everyday phrases'' Byrman, Gunilla; Holm, Britta; (1998) ISBN 91-520-0519-4. === Dictionaries === * ''Prisma's Swedish-English Dictionary Third Edition'' (1997) ISBN 0-8166-3163-8 * ''Prisma's English-Swedish Dictionary Third Edition'' (1997) ISBN 0-8166-3162-X * ''Norstedts lilla engelska ordbok'' Petti, Vincent; Petti, Kerstin; (1999) ISBN 91-7227-009-8. * ''Norstedts första svenska ordbok'' Ernby, Birgitta; et al. (2001) ISBN 91-7227-186-8. == External links == {{InterWiki|code=sv}} {{Wikibooks|Swedish}} {{Wiktionary|Category:Swedish language}} === Grammars === * A concise [http://www.lysator.liu.se/language/Languages/Swedish/Grammar.html Swedish Grammar], prepared by Leif Stensson. * [http://www.fsi-language-courses.org/Content.php?page=Swedish Swedish basic course] (student text + audio files), developed by the American Foreign Service Institute. === Increase vocabulary === * [http://www.swedish-flashcards.com/ Swedish Flashcard Site] * [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Swedish_Swadesh_list Swadesh list of Swedish basic vocabulary words] (from Wiktionary's [http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Appendix:Swadesh_lists Swadesh-list appendix]) === Dictionaries === * [http://lexin2.nada.kth.se/swe-eng.html Swedish-English]/[http://lexin2.nada.kth.se/sve-ara.html Swedish-Arabic]/[http://lexin2.nada.kth.se/sve-rys.html Swedish-Russian]/[http://lexin2.nada.kth.se/sve-spa.html Swedish-Spanish] Dictionaries from [http://lexin2.nada.kth.se/ Språkrådet – Institute for Language and Folklore] * [http://tyda.se/ tyda.se] * [http://sv.wiktionary.org/wiki/Wiktionary:Huvudsida sv.wiktionary] * [http://folkets-lexikon.csc.kth.se/folkets/folkets.en.html People's dictionary] * [http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/translation/Swedish/ Swedish Dictionary] from [http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/ Webster's Dictionary] * [http://runeberg.org/nf/#en Project Runeberg's digital facsimile edition of ''Nordisk familjebok''], the definitive Swedish-language encyclopaedia of the late 19th and early-to-mid-20th centuries. * [http://www.norstedtsord.se/ Norstedts Swedish-English online dictionary] * [http://www.lexikon.se/ lexikon.se] {{Swedish language|state=expanded}} {{Germanic languages}} {{Official EU languages}} {{featured article}} {{Use dmy dates|date=June 2011}} {{DEFAULTSORT:Swedish Language}}