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Quantitative research

  • Statistical survey
    Statistical survey
    Survey methodology is the field that studies surveys, that is, the sample of individuals from a population with a view towards making statistical inferences about the population using the sample. Polls about public opinion, such as political beliefs, are reported in the news media in democracies....

    , a method for collecting quantitative information about items in a population
  • Paid survey
    Paid survey
    A paid or incentivized survey is a type of statistical survey where the participants/members are rewarded through an incentive program, generally entry into a sweepstakes program or a small cash reward, for completing one or more surveys.- Details :...

    , a method that companies use to collect consumer opinions about a product by paying consumers for participating in the survey


  • Surveying
    See Also: Public Land Survey SystemSurveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them...

    , the technique and science of measuring positions and distances on Earth
  • Aerial survey
    Aerial survey
    Aerial survey is a geomatics method of collecting information by using aerial photography, LiDAR or from remote sensing imagery using other bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, such as infrared, gamma, or ultraviolet. It can also refer to the chart or map made by analysing a region from the air...

    , a method of collecting information using aerial photography
  • Cadastral survey
    A cadastre , using a cadastral survey or cadastral map, is a comprehensive register of the metes-and-bounds real property of a country...

    , used to document land ownership, by the production of documents, diagrams, plats, and maps
  • Dominion Land Survey
    Dominion Land Survey
    The Dominion Land Survey is the method used to divide most of Western Canada into one-square-mile sections for agricultural and other purposes. It is based on the layout of the Public Land Survey System used in the United States, but has several differences...

    , the method used to divide most of Western Canada into one-square-mile sections for agricultural and other purposes
  • Public Land Survey System
    Public Land Survey System
    The Public Land Survey System is a method used in the United States to survey and identify land parcels, particularly for titles and deeds of rural, wild or undeveloped land. Its basic units of area are the township and section. It is sometimes referred to as the rectangular survey system,...

    , a method used in the United States to survey and identify land parcels
  • Survey township
    Survey township
    Survey township, sometimes called Congressional township, as used by the United States Public Land Survey System, refers to a square unit of land, that is nominally six miles on a side...

    , a square unit of land, six miles (~9.7 km) on a side, used by the U.S. Public Land Survey System

Earth Sciences

  • Geological survey
    Geological survey
    The term geological survey can be used to describe both the conduct of a survey for geological purposes and an institution holding geological information....

    , an investigation of the subsurface of the ground to create a geological map or model
  • Geophysical survey
    Geophysical survey
    Geophysical survey is the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies. Geophysical surveys may use a great variety of sensing instruments, and data may be collected from above or below the Earth's surface or from aerial or marine platforms. Geophysical surveys have many...

    , the systematic collection of geophysical data for spatial studies
  • Soil survey
    Soil survey
    Soil survey, or soil mapping, is the process of classifying soil types and other soil properties in a given area and geo-encoding such information. It applies the principles of soil science, and draws heavily from geomorphology, theories of soil formation, physical geography, and analysis of...

    , the mapping of the properties and varieties of soil in a given area
  • Hydrographic survey
    Hydrographic survey
    Hydrographic survey is the science of measurement and description of features which affect maritime navigation, marine construction, dredging, offshore oil exploration/drilling and related disciplines. Strong emphasis is placed on soundings, shorelines, tides, currents, sea floor and submerged...

    , the gathering of information about navigable waters for the purposes of safe navigation of vessels
  • Cave survey
    Cave survey
    A cave survey is a map of all or part of a cave system, which may be produced to meet differing standards of accuracy depending on the cave conditions and equipment available underground. Cave surveying and cartography, i.e. the creation of an accurate, detailed map, is one of the most common...

    , the three-dimensional mapping of underground caverns; the resulting map is also referred to as a survey

Construction and Mining

  • Construction surveying
    Construction surveying
    Construction surveying is to stake out reference points and markers that will guide the construction of new structures such as roads or buildings...

     Locating of structures relative to a reference line, used in the construction of buildings, roads, mines and tunnels
  • Deviation survey
    Deviation survey
    A Deviation survey, more generally known in the oil industry as simply a 'survey', is the measurement of a borehole's departure from the vertical, measured in degrees ....

    , used in the oil industry to measure a borehole's departure from the vertical


  • Archaeological field survey
    Archaeological field survey
    Archaeological field survey is the method by which archaeologists search for archaeological sites and collect information about the location, distribution and organization of past human cultures across a large area...

    , the collection of information by archaeologists prior to excavation


  • Astronomical survey, imaging or mapping regions of the sky
  • Durchmusterung
    In astronomy, Durchmusterung or Bonner Durchmusterung , is the usual name for three comprehensive astrometric star catalogues of the whole sky, processed by the Bonn Observatory from 1859 to 1903....

    , a German word for a systematic survey of objects or data, generally used in astronomy
  • Redshift survey
    Redshift survey
    In astronomy, a redshift survey, or galaxy survey, is a survey of a section of the sky to measure the redshift of astronomical objects. Using Hubble's law, the redshift can be used to calculate the distance of an object from Earth. By combining redshift with angular position data, a redshift...

    , an astronomical survey of a section of the sky to calculate the distance of objects from Earth


  • The Institut Géographique National, a French state establishment which produces and maintains geographical information for France and its territories
  • The Survey of India
    Survey of India
    The Survey of India is India's central engineering agency in charge of mapping and surveying. Set up in 1767 to help consolidate the territories of the British East India Company, it is one of the oldest Engineering Departments of the Government of India...

    , India's central agency in charge of mapping and surveying
  • The Zoological Survey of India
    Zoological Survey of India
    The Zoological Survey of India is a premier Indian organisation in zoological research and studies. It was established on 1 July 1916 to promote the survey, exploration and research of the fauna in the region...

     studies the fauna of India
  • The British Geological Survey
    British Geological Survey
    The British Geological Survey is a partly publicly funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. The BGS headquarters are in Keyworth, Nottinghamshire, but other centres...

    , a body which carries out geological survey and monitoring of the UK landmass
  • The Ordnance Survey
    Ordnance Survey
    Ordnance Survey , an executive agency and non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom, is the national mapping agency for Great Britain, producing maps of Great Britain , and one of the world's largest producers of maps.The name reflects its creation together with...

    , national mapping agency for Great Britain
  • The British Antarctic Survey
    British Antarctic Survey
    The British Antarctic Survey is the United Kingdom's national Antarctic operation and has an active role in Antarctic affairs. BAS is part of the Natural Environment Research Council and has over 400 staff. It operates five research stations, two ships and five aircraft in and around Antarctica....

    , conducts scientific research in and around Antarctica for the United Kingdom
  • The United States Geological Survey
    United States Geological Survey
    The United States Geological Survey is a scientific agency of the United States government. The scientists of the USGS study the landscape of the United States, its natural resources, and the natural hazards that threaten it. The organization has four major science disciplines, concerning biology,...

    , government scientific research agency which studies the landscape of the United States
  • The U.S. National Geodetic Survey
    U.S. National Geodetic Survey
    National Geodetic Survey, formerly called the U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey , is a United States federal agency that defines and manages a national coordinate system, providing the foundation for transportation and communication; mapping and charting; and a large number of applications of science...

    , performs geographic surveys as part of the U.S. Department of Commerce