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Surry Hills, New South Wales

Surry Hills, New South Wales

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Surry Hills is an inner-city suburb
Suburb
The word suburb mostly refers to a residential area, either existing as part of a city or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city . Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods...

 of Sydney
Sydney
Sydney is the most populous city in Australia and the state capital of New South Wales. Sydney is located on Australia's south-east coast of the Tasman Sea. As of June 2010, the greater metropolitan area had an approximate population of 4.6 million people...

, in the state of New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state of :Australia, located in the east of the country. It is bordered by Queensland, Victoria and South Australia to the north, south and west respectively. To the east, the state is bordered by the Tasman Sea, which forms part of the Pacific Ocean. New South Wales...

, Australia
Australia
Australia , officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country in the Southern Hemisphere comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area...

. Surry Hills is located immediately south-east of the Sydney central business district
Sydney central business district
The Sydney central business district is the main commercial centre of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It extends southwards for about 3 kilometres from Sydney Cove, the point of first European settlement. Its north–south axis runs from Circular Quay in the north to Central railway station in...

 in the local government area of the City of Sydney
City of Sydney
The City of Sydney is the Local Government Area covering the Sydney central business district and surrounding inner city suburbs of the greater metropolitan area of Sydney, Australia...

. Surry Hills is surrounded by the suburbs of Darlinghurst
Darlinghurst, New South Wales
Darlinghurst is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Darlinghurst is located immediately east of the Sydney central business district and Hyde Park, within the local government area of the City of Sydney...

 to the north, Chippendale
Chippendale, New South Wales
Chippendale is a small inner-city suburb of Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Chippendale is located on the southern edge of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Sydney...

 and Haymarket
Haymarket, New South Wales
Haymarket is a locality of Sydney's city centre, New South Wales, Australia. It is located at the southern end of the Sydney central business district in the local government area of the City of Sydney....

 to the west, Moore Park
Moore Park, New South Wales
Moore Park is a large area of parkland in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. It is part of Centennial Parklands, a collective of three parks being Moore Park, Centennial Park and Queens Park. Centennial Parklands is administered by the Centennial Park &...

 and Paddington
Paddington, New South Wales
Paddington is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Paddington is located 3 kilometres east of the Sydney central business district and lies across the local government areas of the City of Sydney and the Municipality of Woollahra...

 to the east and Redfern
Redfern, New South Wales
Redfern is an inner-city suburb of Sydney. Redfern is 3 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney...

 to the south. It is bordered by Elizabeth Street and Chalmers Street to the west, Cleveland Street to the south, South Dowling Street to the east, and Oxford Street to the north.

Central
Central, New South Wales
Central is an urban locality around Central railway station in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. It is located in the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney. The locality is in the inner-city suburbs of Surry Hills and Haymarket and is...

 is a locality in the north-west of the suburb around Central Station. Prince Alfred Park is located nearby. Strawberry Hills
Strawberry Hills, New South Wales
Strawberry Hills is an urban locality located in Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Strawberry Hills is located within the suburbs of Surry Hills and Redfern which are part of the local government area of the City of Sydney...

 is a locality around Cleveland and Elizabeth streets.

History


The first land grants in Surry Hills were made in the 1790s. Major Joseph Foveaux
Joseph Foveaux
Joseph Foveaux was a soldier and convict settlement administrator in colonial New South Wales, Australia.Foveaux was baptised on 6 April 1767 at Ampthill, Bedfordshire, England, the sixth child of Joseph Foveaux and his wife Elizabeth, née Wheeler...

 received 105 acre (0.4249203 km²). His property was known as Surry Hills Farm, after the Surrey Hills
Surrey Hills AONB
The Surrey Hills is a Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty , located in Surrey, England. The AONB was designated in 1958 and covers one quarter of the county of Surrey...

 in Surrey
Surrey
Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. The county borders Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire and Berkshire. The historic county town is Guildford. Surrey County Council sits at Kingston upon Thames, although this has been part of...

, England
England
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, with the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separating it from continental...

. Foveaux Street is named in his honour. Commissary John Palmer received 90 acres (364,217.4 m²). He called the property George Farm and in 1800 Palmer also bought Foveaux's farm. In 1792, the boundaries of the Sydney Cove settlement were established between the head of Cockle Bay to the head of Woolloomooloo Bay. West of the boundary, which included present-day Surry Hills, was considered suitable for farming and was granted to military officers and free settlers.

After Palmer's political failures, his reduced financial circumstances forced the first subdivision and sale of his estate in 1814. Isaac Nichols bought Allotment 20, comprising over 6 acres (24,281.2 m²). Due to the hilly terrain, much of the suburb was considered remote and 'inhospitable'.

In the early years of the nineteenth century the area around what is now Prince Alfred Park was undeveloped land known as the Government Paddocks or Cleveland Paddocks. A few villas were built in the suburb in the late 1820s. The suburb remained one of contrasts for much of the nineteenth century, with the homes of wealthy merchants mixed with that of the commercial and working classes.

In 1820, Governor Macquarie ordered the consecration of the Devonshire Street Cemetery. A brick wall was erected before any interments took place to enclose its 4 acres (16,187.4 m²). Within a four year period the cemetery was expanded by the addition of 7 acres (28,328 m²) to its south. A road was formed along the southern boundary of the cemetery in the first half of the 1830s and was called Devonshire Street The Devonshire Street cemetery, where many of the early settlers were buried, was later moved to build the Sydney railway terminus. Central railway station
Central railway station, Sydney
Central Railway Station, the largest railway station in Australia, is at the southern end of the Sydney CBD. It services almost all the lines on the CityRail network, and is the major terminus for interurban and interstate rail services...

 was opened on the 4th August 1906. The area around Cleveland and Elizabeth streets was known as Strawberry Hills
Strawberry Hills, New South Wales
Strawberry Hills is an urban locality located in Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Strawberry Hills is located within the suburbs of Surry Hills and Redfern which are part of the local government area of the City of Sydney...

. Strawberry Hills post office was located at this intersection for many years.

In 1833, the Nichol's estate was subdivided and sold. One purchase was by Thomas Broughton and subsequently acquired by George Hill who constructed Durham Hall on this and adjoining lots. Terrace houses and workers' cottages were built in Surry Hills from the 1850s. Light industry became established in the area, particularly in the rag trade (clothing industry). It became a working class suburb, predominately inhabited by Irish immigrants. The suburb developed a reputation for crime and vices. The famous Sydney underworld figure Kate Leigh
Kate Leigh
Catherine Mary Josephine Leigh was an underworld figure who rose to prominence as an illegal trader of alcohol and cocaine dealer in Surry Hills, Sydney, Australia during the first half of the twentieth century...

 (1881–1964), lived in Surry Hills for more than 80 years.

Surry Hills was favoured by newly arrived families after World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 when property values were low and accommodation was inexpensive. From the 1980s, the area was gentrified
Gentrification
Gentrification and urban gentrification refer to the changes that result when wealthier people acquire or rent property in low income and working class communities. Urban gentrification is associated with movement. Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size...

, with many of the area's older houses and building restored and many new upper middle-class residents enjoying the benefits of inner-city living.

Trams


The West Kensington via Surry Hills Line operated from 1881 down Crown St as far as Cleveland St as a steam tramway. It was extended to Phillip St in 1909, Todman Ave in 1912, and then to its final terminus down Todman Ave in 1937. When the line was fully operational it branched from the tramlines in Oxford St and proceeded down Crown St to Cleveland St in Surry Hills, then south along Baptist St to Phillip St, where it swung left into Crescent St before running south along Dowling St. It passed the Dowling St Depot, then tuned left into Todman Avenue, where it terminated at West Kensington
Kensington, New South Wales
Kensington is a suburb in south-eastern Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Kensington is located 6 kilometres south-east of the Sydney central business district, in the local government area of the City of Randwick, in the Eastern Suburbs region...

. The line along Crown Street closed in 1957, the remainder stayed open until 1961 to allow access to Dowling St Depot. Sydney Buses routes 301, 302 and 303 generally follow the route down Crown and Baptist Sts as far as Phillip St.

Urban character


Surry Hills has a mixture of residential, commercial and light industrial areas. It remains Sydney's main centre for fashion wholesale activities, particularly on the western side. Crown Street
Crown Street, Sydney
Crown Street is a street in the Sydney suburbs of Woolloomooloo, East Sydney and Surry Hills. The Surry Hills section is lined with restaurants and shops, as well as the former Crown Street Women's Hospital.-History:...

 is the heart of the Surry Hills community, featuring a mix of cafes, restaurants, fashion and homewares stores. The Surry Hills Shopping Village (formerly Redfern Shopping Village) is a shopping centre on Cleveland Street, on the border with Redfern
Redfern, New South Wales
Redfern is an inner-city suburb of Sydney. Redfern is 3 kilometres south of the Sydney central business district and is part of the local government area of the City of Sydney...

. Oxford Square is a shopping centre on Oxford Street, on the border with Darlinghurst
Darlinghurst, New South Wales
Darlinghurst is an inner-city, eastern suburb of Sydney, in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Darlinghurst is located immediately east of the Sydney central business district and Hyde Park, within the local government area of the City of Sydney...

. Surry Hills Markets are held in Shannon Reserve at the corner of Crown and Collins Streets, on the first Saturday of every month, and the Surry Hills Festival is an annual community event, attracting tens of thousands of visitors, held in Prince Alfred Park.
The Surry Hills Library and Community Centre sits opposite Shannon Reserve and houses the local branch of the city library
City of Sydney Library
The City of Sydney Library is a network of eight branch libraries and two 'library links', locatedwithin the City of Sydney Council administrational area.- History :...

 and the Surry Hills Neighbourhood Centre. The building was "designed to achieve excellence in sustainable design and set new benchmarks in environmental performance" according to the City of Sydney website.

Transport


Central railway station
Central railway station, Sydney
Central Railway Station, the largest railway station in Australia, is at the southern end of the Sydney CBD. It services almost all the lines on the CityRail network, and is the major terminus for interurban and interstate rail services...

, the largest station on the CityRail
CityRail
CityRail is an operating brand of RailCorp, a corporation owned by the state government of New South Wales, Australia. It is responsible for providing commuter rail services, and some coach services, in and around Sydney, Newcastle and Wollongong, the three largest cities of New South Wales. It is...

 network, sits on western edge of Surry Hills. Surry Hills is also serviced by State Transit Authority buses. The Eastern Distributor
Eastern Distributor
The Eastern Distributor, also identified as the M1, is a long motorway in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Part of Metroad 1, it links the Sydney central business district with the Airport...

 is a major road, on the eastern edge of the suburb. Major thoroughfares are Crown Street
Crown Street, Sydney
Crown Street is a street in the Sydney suburbs of Woolloomooloo, East Sydney and Surry Hills. The Surry Hills section is lined with restaurants and shops, as well as the former Crown Street Women's Hospital.-History:...

, Cleveland Street
Cleveland Street, Sydney
Cleveland Street is a busy thoroughfare in the city of Sydney, Australia. It runs from City Road in Chippendale, across the railway line between Central and Redfern stations and east through Surry Hills to Anzac Parade....

, Bourke Street and Foveaux Street. Surry Hills is within easy walking distance of the Sydney CBD, and is included in a widening network of cycleways.

Places of worship


  • Cityside Church (Australian Christian Churches)
  • St Michaels Anglican Church
  • St Frances De Sales Catholic Church
  • St Peters Catholic Church
  • Holy Trinity Greek Orthodox Church
  • St Sophia Greek Orthodox Church
    Greek Orthodox Church
    The Greek Orthodox Church is the body of several churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity sharing a common cultural tradition whose liturgy is also traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the New Testament...

  • Surry Hills Baptist Church
  • Chinese Presbyterian Church
    Chinese Presbyterian Church
    Chinese Presbyterian Church, also commonly known as CPC, is the oldest surviving Chinese church in Australia. It is a congregation of the Presbyterian Church of Australia...

  • Dawn of Islam Mosque
  • King Faisal Mosque.

Landmarks


St Margaret's Hospital, Sydney Police Centre, Centennial Plaza, Belvoir Street Theatre, Tom Mann Theatre, Prince Alfred Park, Harmony Park, Surry Hills Library and Community Centre.

Restaurants


Surry Hills boasts a diverse range of cafes and restaurants serving a wide variety of cooking styles and cultures. The suburb has one of the highest, if not the highest, concentration of restaurants.

Pubs and bars


Because of its industrial and commercial history, the Surry Hills area contains a significant number of pubs. The style of pubs range from the Victorian period
Victorian architecture
The term Victorian architecture refers collectively to several architectural styles employed predominantly during the middle and late 19th century. The period that it indicates may slightly overlap the actual reign, 20 June 1837 – 22 January 1901, of Queen Victoria. This represents the British and...

, to Federation
Federation architecture
Federation architecture refers to the architectural style in Australia, which was prevalent from around 1890 to 1920. The period refers to the Federation of Australia on 1 January 1901, when the Australian colonies collectively became the Commonwealth of Australia...

 and Art Deco
Art Deco
Art deco , or deco, is an eclectic artistic and design style that began in Paris in the 1920s and flourished internationally throughout the 1930s, into the World War II era. The style influenced all areas of design, including architecture and interior design, industrial design, fashion and...

 pubs from the mid-1900s. Many of these have been refurbished in recent years to include restaurants and modern facilities. Some of the more popular pubs in Surry Hills include
  • White Horse Hotel, Crown Street
  • Clock Hotel, Crown Street
  • Dolphin Hotel, Crown Street
  • Trinity Hotel, Crown Street
  • Crown Hotel, Crown Street
  • Forresters Hotel, Riley and Foveaux Street
  • Porterhouse Hotel, Riley Street
  • Hopetoun Hotel, Bourke St (currently closed)    
  • Beresford Hotel, Bourke Street
  • Carrington Hotel, Bourke Street
  • Cricketer's Arms Hotel, Fitzroy Street
  • Excelsior Hotel, Foveaux Street
  • Hollywood Hotel, Foster Street
  • Macquarie Hotel, Wentworth Avenue
  • Clarenden Hotel, Devonshire Street
  • Shakespeare Hotel, Devonshire Street
  • Central Hotel, Chalmers and Randal Streets
  • Strawberry Hills Hotel, Elizabeth and Devonshire Streets
  • Madison Hotel, Devonshire and Chalmers Streets
  • Royal Exhibition Hotel, Chalmers Street
  • Aurora Hotel, Elizabeth and Kippax Street
  • The Royal Albert Hotel, Commonwealth Street

  • Heritage buildings



    The following buildings are listed on the Register of the National Estate
    Register of the National Estate
    The Register of the National Estate is a listing of natural and cultural heritage places in Australia. The listing was initially compiled between 1976 and 2003 by the Australian Heritage Commission. The register is now maintained by the Australian Heritage Council...

    :
    • Bourke Street Public School, established in 1880 and located in heritage-listed buildings
    • Cleveland House, Bedford Street
    • Former Wesleyan Chapel, 348A Bourke Street
    • Former Police Station, 703 Bourke Street
    • Public School, Crown Street
    • St Michael's Church, hall and rectory, Albion Street
      Albion Street, Surry Hills
      Albion Street is a street in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia in the Local Government Area of the City of Sydney. It runs east-west from Elizabeth Street to Flinders Street, and is approximately one kilometre long....

    • Durham Hall
      Durham Hall, Surry Hills, Sydney
      Durham Hall is an historic house in Surry Hills, Sydney, New South Wales. It is a Colonial Georgian brick residence constructed in about 1835 for George Hill, a wealthy merchant. The house has had many owners and has had varied uses including a club. Over the years it was subjected to very...

      , 207 Albion Street
      Albion Street, Surry Hills
      Albion Street is a street in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia in the Local Government Area of the City of Sydney. It runs east-west from Elizabeth Street to Flinders Street, and is approximately one kilometre long....

    • Riley Street Infants School, 378-386 Riley Street

    Housing


    Surry Hills is largely composed of Victorian terraced houses with some converted warehouses and large apartment buildings in the western part of the suburb.
    The earliest apartment buildings were large blocks of Housing Commission 'flat
    Flat
    In music, flat, or Bemolle , means "lower in pitch"; the flat symbol lowers a note by a half step. Intonation may be flat, sharp, or both, successively or simultaneously...

    s' in the 1960s, including John Northcote Place .
    These public housing
    Public housing
    Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by non-profit organizations, or by a combination of the...

     developments were intended to replace the worst of the area's decaying Victorian terraces and rehouse the working class residents of the area in homes near to their existing community and jobs.
    Ironically, newer developments such as The Monument in Pelican Street (a residential complex located above the Oxford Square shopping centre, found at the boundary of Surry Hills and Darlinghurst), are usually aimed at wealthy residents who have colonised Surry Hills since the 1970s. The Monument is an example of contemporary architecture designed by architects based in Melbourne.

    Schools


    Bourke Street Public School, Crown Street Public School, Sydney Community College are notable examples. The Australian Institute of Music
    Australian Institute of Music
    The Australian Institute of Music is a private not-for-profit institution originally founded in 1968 by Dr Peter Calvo, and then known as the Sydney Guitar School...

     is also located in Surry Hills.

    Population


    Demographically Surry Hills is now characterised as a mixture of relatively affluent newcomers who have gentrified
    Gentrification
    Gentrification and urban gentrification refer to the changes that result when wealthier people acquire or rent property in low income and working class communities. Urban gentrification is associated with movement. Consequent to gentrification, the average income increases and average family size...

     the suburb, long-time residents and a number of transients. There are a large number of hostels and other facilities for transients and the homeless
    Homelessness
    Homelessness describes the condition of people without a regular dwelling. People who are homeless are unable or unwilling to acquire and maintain regular, safe, and adequate housing, or lack "fixed, regular, and adequate night-time residence." The legal definition of "homeless" varies from country...

     in the area.

    Further reading

    • Christopher Keating. SURRY HILLS - The City's Backyard. Published by Halstead Press,Australia.1991. (ISBN 9781920831493)

    External links



    • article (cc-by-sa) on Surry Hills in the Dictionary of Sydney
      Dictionary of Sydney
      The Dictionary of Sydney is a digital humanities project to produce an online, expert-written encyclopedia of all aspects of the history of Sydney. The project is a partnership between the City of Sydney, the University of Sydney, the State Library of New South Wales, the State Records Authority of...

    • demographics