Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Suffragette

Suffragette

Overview
"Suffragette" is a term coined by the Daily Mail newspaper as a derogatory label for members of the late 19th and early 20th century movement for women's suffrage in the United Kingdom
Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom
Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom as a national movement began in 1872. Women were not prohibited from voting in the United Kingdom until the 1832 Reform Act and the 1835 Municipal Corporations Act...

, in particular members of the Women's Social and Political Union
Women's Social and Political Union
The Women's Social and Political Union was the leading militant organisation campaigning for Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom...

. However, after former and then active members of the movement began to reclaim the word
Reappropriation
Reappropriation is the cultural process by which a group reclaims—re-appropriates—terms or artifacts that were previously used in a way disparaging of that group. For example, since the early 1970s, much terminology referring to homosexuality—such as gay, queer, and faggot—has been reappropriated...

, the term became a label without negative connotations. It derives from the term "suffragist," which proponents of women's "suffrage
Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply the franchise, distinct from mere voting rights, is the civil right to vote gained through the democratic process...

," or right to vote
Voting
Voting is a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion—often following discussions, debates, or election campaigns. It is often found in democracies and republics.- Reasons for voting :...

, originally adopted.
Discussion
Ask a question about 'Suffragette'
Start a new discussion about 'Suffragette'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Unanswered Questions
Encyclopedia
"Suffragette" is a term coined by the Daily Mail newspaper as a derogatory label for members of the late 19th and early 20th century movement for women's suffrage in the United Kingdom
Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom
Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom as a national movement began in 1872. Women were not prohibited from voting in the United Kingdom until the 1832 Reform Act and the 1835 Municipal Corporations Act...

, in particular members of the Women's Social and Political Union
Women's Social and Political Union
The Women's Social and Political Union was the leading militant organisation campaigning for Women's suffrage in the United Kingdom...

. However, after former and then active members of the movement began to reclaim the word
Reappropriation
Reappropriation is the cultural process by which a group reclaims—re-appropriates—terms or artifacts that were previously used in a way disparaging of that group. For example, since the early 1970s, much terminology referring to homosexuality—such as gay, queer, and faggot—has been reappropriated...

, the term became a label without negative connotations. It derives from the term "suffragist," which proponents of women's "suffrage
Suffrage
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply the franchise, distinct from mere voting rights, is the civil right to vote gained through the democratic process...

," or right to vote
Voting
Voting is a method for a group such as a meeting or an electorate to make a decision or express an opinion—often following discussions, debates, or election campaigns. It is often found in democracies and republics.- Reasons for voting :...

, originally adopted. They wanted to be involved in the running of the country and they wanted to be treated as equals to men.

Suffragist is a more general term for members of suffrage movements, whether radical or conservative, male or female. In Britain, "suffragist" is generally used solely to identify members of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies
National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies
The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies , also known as the Suffragists was an organisation of women's suffrage societies in the United Kingdom.-Formation and campaigning:...

.

Origins


The members of the suffrage movement were mostly women from middle class
Middle class
The middle class is any class of people in the middle of a societal hierarchy. In Weberian socio-economic terms, the middle class is the broad group of people in contemporary society who fall socio-economically between the working class and upper class....

 backgrounds, frustrated by their social and economic situation and seeking an outlet through which to initiate change. Their struggles for change within society, along with the work of such advocates for women’s rights as John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill
John Stuart Mill was a British philosopher, economist and civil servant. An influential contributor to social theory, political theory, and political economy, his conception of liberty justified the freedom of the individual in opposition to unlimited state control. He was a proponent of...

, were enough to spearhead a movement that would encompass mass groups of women fighting for suffrage. Mill had first introduced the idea of women’s suffrage on the platform he presented to the British electorate in 1865. He would later be joined by numerous men and women fighting for the same cause.

New Zealand was the first self-governing country to grant women the vote; in 1893 all women over the age of 21 were permitted to vote in parliamentary elections.

The Suffragists were members of the National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies
National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies
The National Union of Women's Suffrage Societies , also known as the Suffragists was an organisation of women's suffrage societies in the United Kingdom.-Formation and campaigning:...

, which was founded in 1897, formed of a collection of local suffrage societies. This union was led by Millicent Fawcett
Millicent Fawcett
Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, GBE was an English suffragist and an early feminist....

, who believed in constitutional campaigning, like issueing leaflets, organising meetings and presenting petitions. However this campaigning did not have much effect. So in 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst
Emmeline Pankhurst
Emmeline Pankhurst was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement which helped women win the right to vote...

 founded a new organisation, the Women's Social and Political Union. Pankhurst thought that the movement would have to become radical and militant if it were going to work. The Daily Mail
Daily Mail
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-market tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust. First published in 1896 by Lord Northcliffe, it is the United Kingdom's second biggest-selling daily newspaper after The Sun. Its sister paper The Mail on Sunday was launched in 1982...

later gave them the name 'Suffragettes'.

A few historians feel that some of the suffragettes' actions actually damaged their cause. The argument was that the suffragettes should not get the vote because they were too emotional and could not think as logically as men; their violent and aggressive actions were used as evidence in support of this argument.

Early 20th century



1912 was a turning point for the Suffragettes in the UK as they turned to using more militant tactics
Militant
The word militant, which is both an adjective and a noun, usually is used to mean vigorously active, combative and aggressive, especially in support of a cause, as in 'militant reformers'. It comes from the 15th century Latin "militare" meaning "to serve as a soldier"...

 such as chaining themselves to railings, setting fire to mailbox contents, smashing windows and occasionally detonating bombs . This was because the current Prime Minister at the time, Asquith
H. H. Asquith
Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC, KC served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916...

, nearly signed a document giving women (over 30 and either married to a property-owner or owning a property themselves) the right to vote. But he pulled out at the last minute, as he thought the women may vote against him in the next General Election, stopping his party (Liberals) from getting into Parliament/ruling the country.

One suffragette, Emily Davison
Emily Davison
Emily Wilding Davison was a militant women's suffrage activist who, on 4 June 1913, after a series of actions that were either self-destructive or violent, stepped in front of a horse running in the Epsom Derby, sustaining injuries that resulted in her death four days later.-Biography:Davison was...

, died after she tried to throw a suffragette banner over the King
George V of the United Kingdom
George V was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions, and Emperor of India, from 6 May 1910 through the First World War until his death in 1936....

's horse, Anmer at the Epsom Derby
Epsom Derby
The Derby Stakes, popularly known as The Derby, internationally as the Epsom Derby, and under its present sponsor as the Investec Derby, is a Group 1 flat horse race in Great Britain open to three-year-old thoroughbred colts and fillies...

 of June 5, 1913. Many of her fellow suffragettes were imprisoned and went on a hunger strike
Hunger strike
A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance or pressure in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change. Most hunger strikers will take liquids but not...

 as a scare tactic against the government. The Liberal
Liberal Party (UK)
The Liberal Party was one of the two major political parties of the United Kingdom during the 19th and early 20th centuries. It was a third party of negligible importance throughout the latter half of the 20th Century, before merging with the Social Democratic Party in 1988 to form the present day...

 government of the day led by H. H. Asquith
H. H. Asquith
Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC, KC served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916...

 responded with the Cat and Mouse Act
Cat and Mouse Act
The Prisoners Act 1913 was an Act of Parliament passed in Britain under Herbert Henry Asquith's Liberal government in 1913...

. When a Suffragette was sent to prison, it was assumed that she would go on hunger strike as this caused the authorities maximum discomfort. The Cat and Mouse Act allowed the Suffragettes to go on a hunger strike and let them get weaker and weaker. When the Suffragette was very weak, they were released from prison. If they died out of prison, this was of no embarrassment to the government, however, some Suffragettes who were especially weak were force fed with tubes which went down their throats and into their stomach. This meant that none of those who were released died but they were so weak that they could take no part in violent Suffragette struggles. When those who had been arrested and released had regained their strength they were re-arrested for the most trivial of reasons and the whole process began again. This, from the government's point of view, was a very simple but effective weapon against the Suffragettes. Nevertheless, protests continued on both sides of the Atlantic. Alice Paul
Alice Paul
Alice Stokes Paul was an American suffragist and activist. Along with Lucy Burns and others, she led a successful campaign for women's suffrage that resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920.-Activism: Alice Paul received her undergraduate education from...

 and Lucy Burns
Lucy Burns
Lucy Burns was an American suffragist and women's rights advocate. She was a passionate activist in the United States and in the United Kingdom. Burns was a close friend of Alice Paul, and together they ultimately formed the National Woman's Party.-Early life and education:Lucy Burns was born in...

 led a series of protests against the Wilson Administration
Wilson Administration
Wilson Administration may refer to the administration of:*Woodrow Wilson*Harold Wilson...

 in Washington that referred to "Kaiser Wilson" and compared the plight of the German people with that of American women.

During World War I
World War I
World War I , which was predominantly called the World War or the Great War from its occurrence until 1939, and the First World War or World War I thereafter, was a major war centred in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918...

 there was a serious shortage of able-bodied men, and women were required to take on many of the traditional male roles — this led to a new view of what a woman was capable of doing. The war also caused a split in the British suffragette movement, with the mainstream, represented by Emmeline
Emmeline Pankhurst
Emmeline Pankhurst was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement which helped women win the right to vote...

 and Christabel Pankhurst
Christabel Pankhurst
Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst, DBE , was a suffragette born in Manchester, England. A co-founder of the Women's Social and Political Union , she directed its militant actions from exile in France from 1912 to 1913. In 1914 she became a fervent supporter of the war against Germany...

's WSPU calling a 'ceasefire' in their campaign for the duration of the war, while more radical
Extremism
Extremism is any ideology or political act far outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common moral standards...

 suffragettes, represented by Sylvia Pankhurst
Sylvia Pankhurst
Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst was an English campaigner for the suffragist movement in the United Kingdom. She was for a time a prominent left communist who then devoted herself to the cause of anti-fascism.-Early life:...

's Women's Suffrage Federation continued the struggle.

Political movement towards women's suffrage began during the war, and in 1918 Parliament
Parliament of the United Kingdom
The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative body in the United Kingdom, British Crown dependencies and British overseas territories, located in London...

 passed the Representation of the People Act 1918
Representation of the People Act 1918
The Representation of the People Act 1918 was an Act of Parliament passed to reform the electoral system in the United Kingdom. It is sometimes known as the Fourth Reform Act...

 granting the vote to women over the age of 30 who were: householders, the wives of householders, occupiers of property with an annual rent of £5, or graduates of British universities. Pugh (1974) argues that the decision to enfranchise soldiers primarily, and women secondarily, was made by senior politicians in 1916. In the absence of major women's groups demanding equal suffrage, the government's conference recommended limited, age-restricted women's suffrage. The suffragettes had been weakened, Pugh argues, by repeated failures before 1914 and by the disorganizing effects of war mobilization. Therefore, they quietly accepted these restrictions, which were approved in 1918 by a majority of the War Ministry and each political party in Parliament. About 8.4 million women gained the vote. More generally, Searle (2004) argues that the British debate was essentially over by the 1890s, and that granting the suffrage in 1918 was mostly a byproduct of giving the vote to male soldiers. Women in Britain finally achieved suffrage on the same terms as men in 1928.

American women's right to vote was codified in the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution
The Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution prohibits any United States citizen to be denied the right to vote based on sex. It was ratified on August 18, 1920....

 in 1920.

Colours



From 1908 the WSPU adopted the colour scheme of purple, white and green: purple symbolised dignity, white purity, and green hope. These three colours were used for banners, flags, rosettes and badges, and appeared in newspaper cartoons and postcards.

Mappin & Webb, the London jewellers, issued a catalogue of suffragette jewellery for Christmas 1908.

In 1909, the WSPU presented specially commissioned pieces of jewellery to leading suffragettes Emmeline Pankhurst and Louise Eates. Some Arts and Crafts jewellery of the period incorporated the colours purple, white and green using enamel and semi-precious stones such as amethyst
Amethyst
Amethyst is a violet variety of quartz often used in jewelry. The name comes from the Ancient Greek ἀ a- and μέθυστος methustos , a reference to the belief that the stone protected its owner from drunkenness; the ancient Greeks and Romans wore amethyst and made drinking vessels of it in the belief...

s, pearl
Pearl
A pearl is a hard object produced within the soft tissue of a living shelled mollusk. Just like the shell of a mollusk, a pearl is made up of calcium carbonate in minute crystalline form, which has been deposited in concentric layers. The ideal pearl is perfectly round and smooth, but many other...

s, and peridot
Peridot
-Chemistry:The chemical composition of peridot is 2SiO4, with Mg in greater quantities than Fe.-Etymology:The origin of the name "peridot" is uncertain...

s; however it is rather a moot point whether all such jewellery is connected with the suffragettes, as these stones were already quite common in women's jewellery during the late 19th century, before the WSPU adopted the colours.

It is a popular myth that the colours were green, white and violet, in order to spell GWV as an acronym for 'Give Women Votes'.

Canada

  • Nellie McClung
    Nellie McClung
    Nellie McClung, born Nellie Letitia Mooney , was a Canadian feminist, politician, and social activist. She was a part of the social and moral reform movements prevalent in Western Canada in the early 1900s...

     and the rest of the Famous Five
  • Emily Stowe
    Emily Stowe
    Dr. Emily Howard Stowe was the first female doctor to practice in Canada, and an activist for women's rights and suffrage. Emily Stowe was born in Norwich Township, Oxford County, Ontario...


United Kingdom

  • Emmeline Pankhurst
    Emmeline Pankhurst
    Emmeline Pankhurst was a British political activist and leader of the British suffragette movement which helped women win the right to vote...

  • Dame Christabel Pankhurst DBE
    Christabel Pankhurst
    Dame Christabel Harriette Pankhurst, DBE , was a suffragette born in Manchester, England. A co-founder of the Women's Social and Political Union , she directed its militant actions from exile in France from 1912 to 1913. In 1914 she became a fervent supporter of the war against Germany...

  • Sylvia Pankhurst
    Sylvia Pankhurst
    Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst was an English campaigner for the suffragist movement in the United Kingdom. She was for a time a prominent left communist who then devoted herself to the cause of anti-fascism.-Early life:...

  • Edith Rigby
  • Ethel Snowden
    Ethel Snowden
    Ethel Snowden, Viscountess Snowden, born Ethel Annakin , was a British socialist and feminist politician. From a middle-class background, she became a Christian Socialist through a radical preacher and initially promoted temperance and teetotalism in the slums of Liverpool...

  • Rosa May Billinghurst
    Rosa May Billinghurst
    Rosa May Billinghurst, a suffragette, was born in Lewisham, London, in 1875.As a child she suffered total paralysis which left her disabled throughout her adult life. However, this did not prevent her becoming active in social work in a Greenwich workhouse, teaching in a Sunday School and joining...

  • Emily Wilding Davison
  • Norah Dacre Fox (later Norah Elam
    Norah Elam
    Norah Elam also known as Norah Dacre Fox, was a radical feminist, militant suffragette, anti-vivisectionist and fascist in the United Kingdom. Born in Dublin, Ireland, in 1878 to John and Charlotte Doherty, she emigrated to England with her family and by 1891 was living in London...

    ).
  • Jane Ellen Harrison
    Jane Ellen Harrison
    Jane Ellen Harrison was a British classical scholar, linguist and feminist. Harrison is one of the founders, with Karl Kerenyi and Walter Burkert, of modern studies in Greek mythology. She applied 19th century archaeological discoveries to the interpretation of Greek religion in ways that have...

  • Clemence Housman
    Clemence Housman
    Clemence Housman was an author, illustrator and activist in the womens’ suffrage movement. She was the sister of A. E. Housman and Laurence Housman. She was born in Bromsgrove, Worcestershire. Her novels included The Were-Wolf, Unknown Sea and The Life Of Sir Aglovale De Galis...

  • Annie Kenney
    Annie Kenney
    Annie Kenney was an English working class suffragette who became a leading figure in the Women's Social and Political Union...

  • Dame Grace Kimmins
    Grace Kimmins
    Dame Grace Kimmins, DBE was described in Punch as ... in her quiet practical way is probably as good a friend as London ever had, a description for the driving force behind the Guild of Play and the Guild of the Poor Brave Things.Born Grace Mary Thyrza Hannam, she became a Wesleyan deaconess and...

     DBE
    Order of the British Empire
    The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions...

  • Lilian Lenton
    Lilian Lenton
    Lilian Ida Lenton was an English dancer, suffragist, arsonist, and winner of a French Red Cross medal for her service as an Orderly in World War I.-Early years:...

  • Mary Lowndes
    Mary Lowndes
    Mary Lowndes was an important British stained-glass and poster artist, and an active member of the Suffragette movement. She was a leading light in the Arts and Crafts Movement and Chair of the Artists Suffrage League .-Work:...

  • Lady Constance Georgina Bulwer-Lytton
    Constance Lytton
    Lady Constance Georgina Bulwer-Lytton was an influential British suffragette activist, writer, speaker and campaigner for prison reform, votes for women, and birth control.Although she was raised as member of the privileged, ruling class elite within British Society, she rejected this...

  • Selina Martin
    Selina Martin
    Selina Martin was involved in the suffragette movement in the early 20th century. She was arrested several times.- Early life :Selina Martin was born 21 November 1882, in Ulverston, England. She was the daughter of John and Elizabeth Martin, and was the seventh of eleven living children...

  • Ada Nield Chew
    Ada Nield Chew
    Ada Nield Chew was a British suffragette.Ada Nield was born on a farm near Butt Lane in North Staffordshire on 28 January 1870, daughter of Willam and Jane Nield. She left school at the age of eleven to help her mother take care of house and family...

  • Frances Parker
    Frances Parker
    Frances Mary "Fanny" Parker was a British suffragette who became prominent in the militant wing of the Scottish women's suffrage movement and was repeatedly imprisoned for her actions....


  • Emmeline, Baroness Pethick-Lawrence
    Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence
    Emmeline Pethick-Lawrence, Baroness Pethick-Lawrence was a Britishwomen's rights activist.Her father was a businessman...

  • Mary Richardson
    Mary Richardson
    Mary Raleigh Richardson was a Canadian suffragette active in the women's suffrage movement in the United Kingdom and later the head of the women's section of British Union of Fascists led by Sir Oswald Mosley....

  • Dame Ethel Smyth DBE
    Ethel Smyth
    Dame Ethel Mary Smyth, DBE was an English composer and a leader of the women's suffrage movement.- Early career :...

  • Joan Beauchamp
    Joan Beauchamp
    Joan Beauchamp was a prominent anti-World War I campaigner, suffragette and co-founder of the Communist Party of Great Britain.-Childhood:She was born in 1890 into a farming family in Midsomer Norton in Somerset...

  • Dame Millicent Fawcett
    Millicent Fawcett
    Dame Millicent Garrett Fawcett, GBE was an English suffragist and an early feminist....

     GBE
    Order of the British Empire
    The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V of the United Kingdom. The Order comprises five classes in civil and military divisions...

  • Olive Wharry
    Olive Wharry
    Olive Wharry was an English artist, arsonist and suffragist who in 1913 was imprisoned with Lilian Lenton for burning down the tea pavilion at Kew Gardens.-Early life:...

  • Sophia Duleep Singh
    Sophia Duleep Singh
    Princess Sophia Alexandra Duleep Singh was a prominent suffragette in the United Kingdom...

  • Mabel Capper
    Mabel Capper
    Mabel Henrietta Capper was a Brtish Suffragette. She gave all her time between 1907 and 1913 to the Women's Social and Political Union as a 'soldier' in the struggle for women's Suffrage. She was imprisoned six times, went on hunger strike and was one of the first Suffragettes to be forcibly fed...


Australia

  • Muriel Matters
    Muriel Matters
    Muriel Lilah Matters was an Australian born suffragist, lecturer, journalist, educator, actress and elocutionist...

  • Louisa Lawson
    Louisa Lawson
    Louisa Lawson was an Australian writer, publisher, suffragist, and feminist. She was the mother of the poet and author Henry Lawson.-Early life:...

  • Vida Goldstein
    Vida Goldstein
    Vida Jane Mary Goldstein was an early Australian feminist politician who campaigned for women's suffrage and social reform.-Early years:...

  • Alice Henry
    Alice Henry
    Alice Henry , was an Australian suffragist, journalist and trade unionist who also became prominent in the American trade union movement as a member of the Women's Trade Union League....

  • Dora Montefiore
    Dora Montefiore
    Dorothy Frances Montefiore was an English-Australian women's suffragist and socialist. She also wrote poetry, and her autobiography.-Early life:...

  • Jessie Street
    Jessie Street
    Jessie Mary Grey Street was an Australian suffragette, feminist and human rights campaigner....

  • Bessie Rischbieth
    Bessie Rischbieth
    Bessie Mabel Rischbieth, née Earle OBE was an influential and early Australian feminist and social activist. A leading or founding member of many social reform groups, such as the Women's Service Guilds, the Australian Federation of Women Voters and their periodical Dawn, she sought to establish...



USA

  • Lucretia Mott
    Lucretia Mott
    Lucretia Coffin Mott was an American Quaker, abolitionist, social reformer, and proponent of women's rights.- Early life and education:...

  • Susan B. Anthony
    Susan B. Anthony
    Susan Brownell Anthony was a prominent American civil rights leader who played a pivotal role in the 19th century women's rights movement to introduce women's suffrage into the United States. She was co-founder of the first Women's Temperance Movement with Elizabeth Cady Stanton as President...

  • Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton
    Elizabeth Cady Stanton was an American social activist, abolitionist, and leading figure of the early woman's movement...

  • Carrie Chapman Catt
    Carrie Chapman Catt
    Carrie Chapman Catt was a women's suffrage leader who campaigned for the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution which gave U.S. women the right to vote in 1920...

  • Alice Paul
    Alice Paul
    Alice Stokes Paul was an American suffragist and activist. Along with Lucy Burns and others, she led a successful campaign for women's suffrage that resulted in the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution in 1920.-Activism: Alice Paul received her undergraduate education from...

  • Maud Humphrey
    Maud Humphrey
    Maud Humphrey was born in Rochester, New York on March 30, 1868. Her parents were John Perkins Humphrey and Frances V. Dewey Churchill. She was an American commercial artist, illustrator and watercolorist. She was also a suffragette, and the mother of actor Humphrey Bogart. She married Belmont...

  • Lucy Burns
    Lucy Burns
    Lucy Burns was an American suffragist and women's rights advocate. She was a passionate activist in the United States and in the United Kingdom. Burns was a close friend of Alice Paul, and together they ultimately formed the National Woman's Party.-Early life and education:Lucy Burns was born in...

  • Mary Edith Campbell
    Mary Edith Campbell
    Mary Edith Campbell sometimes known as Edith Campbell, was a suffragist and social economist.-Biography:In 1911 she was elected to the Board of Education in Cincinnati, Ohio with an endorsement from U.S. President William Howard Taft. In 1931 she was given an honorary degree....

  • Julia Ward Howe
    Julia Ward Howe
    Julia Ward Howe was a prominent American abolitionist, social activist, and poet, most famous as the author of "The Battle Hymn of the Republic".-Biography:...

  • Margaret Mitchell
    Margaret Mitchell
    Margaret Munnerlyn Mitchell was an American author and journalist. Mitchell won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1937 for her epic American Civil War era novel, Gone with the Wind, which was the only novel by Mitchell published during her lifetime.-Family:Margaret Mitchell was born in Atlanta,...

  • Vita Boarman Whitehouse
  • Josephine St. Pierre Ruffin
  • Mary Church Terrell
    Mary Church Terrell
    Mary Church Terrell , daughter of former slaves, was one of the first African-American women to earn a college degree. She became an activist who led several important associations and worked for civil rights and suffrage....

  • Ida B. Wells
    Ida B. Wells
    Ida Bell Wells-Barnett was an African American journalist, newspaper editor and, with her husband, newspaper owner Ferdinand L. Barnett, an early leader in the civil rights movement. She documented lynching in the United States, showing how it was often a way to control or punish blacks who...


See also


  • List of suffragists and suffragettes
  • Women's suffrage
    Women's suffrage
    Women's suffrage or woman suffrage is the right of women to vote and to run for office. The expression is also used for the economic and political reform movement aimed at extending these rights to women and without any restrictions or qualifications such as property ownership, payment of tax, or...

  • Pankhurst Centre
    Pankhurst Centre
    The Pankhurst Centre, 60-62 Nelson Street, Manchester is a pair of Victorian villas, of which No. 62 was the home of Emmeline Pankhurst and her daughters Sylvia, Christabel and Adela who were heavily involved in the campaign for votes for women...


Further reading

  • Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst
    Sylvia Pankhurst
    Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst was an English campaigner for the suffragist movement in the United Kingdom. She was for a time a prominent left communist who then devoted herself to the cause of anti-fascism.-Early life:...

    . The suffragette; the history of the women's militant suffrage movement, 1905-1910 (New York Sturgis & Walton Company, 1911).
  • Webster's Ninth New Collegiate Dictionary (New York: Merriam Webster, 1983) ISBN 0-87779-511-8
  • Diane Atkinson
    Diane Atkinson
    Diane Atkinson is an historian and author who lives in Shoreditch, London.She has written many books about the Suffragettes, and about Victorian women, most recently Elsie and Mairi Go To War...

    . The Purple, White and Green: Suffragettes in London (Museum of London, 1992).
  • Melanie Phillips
    Melanie Phillips
    Melanie Phillips is a British journalist and author. She began her career on the left of the political spectrum, writing for such publications as The Guardian and New Statesman. In the 1990s she moved to the right, and she now writes for the Daily Mail newspaper, covering political and social...

    . The Ascent of Woman: A History of the Suffragette Movement (Abacus, 2004).

External links