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Stuttgart

Stuttgart

Overview
Stuttgart (ˈʃtʊtɡaɐ̯t) is the capital
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of the state of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

 in southern Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 (December 2008) while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million (2008).

The city lies at the centre of a densely populated area, surrounded by a ring of smaller towns. This area called Stuttgart Region
Stuttgart Region
Stuttgart Region is a metropolitan area in Germany and consists of the city of Stuttgart and the surrounding districts of Ludwigsburg, Esslingen, Böblingen, Rems-Murr and Göppingen . About 2.7 million inhabitants live in that area...

 has a population of 2.7 million.
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Encyclopedia
Stuttgart (ˈʃtʊtɡaɐ̯t) is the capital
States of Germany
Germany is made up of sixteen which are partly sovereign constituent states of the Federal Republic of Germany. Land literally translates as "country", and constitutionally speaking, they are constituent countries...

 of the state of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

 in southern Germany
Germany
Germany , officially the Federal Republic of Germany , is a federal parliamentary republic in Europe. The country consists of 16 states while the capital and largest city is Berlin. Germany covers an area of 357,021 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate...

. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 (December 2008) while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million (2008).

The city lies at the centre of a densely populated area, surrounded by a ring of smaller towns. This area called Stuttgart Region
Stuttgart Region
Stuttgart Region is a metropolitan area in Germany and consists of the city of Stuttgart and the surrounding districts of Ludwigsburg, Esslingen, Böblingen, Rems-Murr and Göppingen . About 2.7 million inhabitants live in that area...

 has a population of 2.7 million. Stuttgart's urban area has a population of roughly 1.8 million, making it Germany's seventh largest. With over 5 million inhabitants, the greater Stuttgart Metropolitan Region
Stuttgart Metropolitan Region
The Stuttgart Metropolitan Region is a metropolitan region in Germany consisting of the cities of Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Tübingen/Reutlingen. These cities are arranged into three agglomeration areas...

 is the fourth-biggest in Germany after the Rhine-Ruhr
Rhine-Ruhr
The Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region is the largest metropolitan region in Germany with about 10,100,000 inhabitants. It is of polycentric nature and the only megacity in Germany. It covers an area of 7,110 square kilometers and lies entirely within the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia...

 area, Berlin/Brandenburg
Brandenburg
Brandenburg is one of the sixteen federal-states of Germany. It lies in the east of the country and is one of the new federal states that were re-created in 1990 upon the reunification of the former West Germany and East Germany. The capital is Potsdam...

 and Frankfurt/Rhine-Main.

Stuttgart is spread across a variety of hills (some of them vineyard
Vineyard
A vineyard is a plantation of grape-bearing vines, grown mainly for winemaking, but also raisins, table grapes and non-alcoholic grape juice...

s), valleys and parks – unusual for a German city and often a source of surprise to visitors who primarily associate the city with its industrial reputation as the 'cradle of the automobile'.

Stuttgart has the status of Stadtkreis, a type of self-administrating urban county. It is also the seat of the state legislature, the regional parliament, local council and the Protestant State Church in Württemberg as well as one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart.

The city of Stuttgart ranked 30 globally in Mercer's 2010 liveability rankings, and 7th in Germany behind top-ranked cities such as Frankfurt
Frankfurt
Frankfurt am Main , commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010...

, Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

 and Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

. For economic and social innovation the city was ranked 11 globally, 2nd in Germany after Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 and 7th in Europe in 2009 out of 256 cities.

The city's tourism slogan
Slogan
A slogan is a memorable motto or phrase used in a political, commercial, religious and other context as a repetitive expression of an idea or purpose. The word slogan is derived from slogorn which was an Anglicisation of the Scottish Gaelic sluagh-ghairm . Slogans vary from the written and the...

 is "Stuttgart offers more". Under current plans to improve transport links to the international infrastructure (as part of the Stuttgart 21
Stuttgart 21
Stuttgart 21 is an urban development and under construction transport project in Stuttgart as part of the Stuttgart–Augsburg new and upgraded railway project in Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria in Germany. It consists of the replacement of the tracks and platforms of Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, the city's...

 project), in March 2008 the city unveiled a new logo and slogan, describing itself as "" ("The new heart of Europe"). For business it describes itself as "", "Where business meets the future"). In 2007 the Bürgermeister
Burgomaster
Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council of a sub-national level of administration...

 marketed Stuttgart to foreign investors as "The creative power of Germany". In July 2010, Stuttgart unveiled a new city logo, designed to entice more business people to stay in the city and enjoy breaks in the area.

Stuttgart is nicknamed the Schwabenmetropole (Swabia
Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

n metropolis), because of the city`s location in the centre of Swabia
Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

, and as a reference to the Swabian
Swabian German
Swabian is one of the Alemannic dialects of High German. It is spoken in Swabia, a region which covers much of Germany's southwestern state Baden-Württemberg, including its capital Stuttgart, the rural area known as the Swabian Alb, and Bavaria...

 dialect spoken by its (autochthonous) inhabitants. In that dialect, the city's name is pronounced Schtugert or Schtuagerd. However, many non-Swabian Germans have emigrated to Stuttgart for economic reasons and 40% of Stuttgart's residents, and 64% of the population below the age of five are of foreign immigrant background.

Name and coat of arms


Stuttgart's coat of arms shows a black horse on its hind legs on a yellow background. It was first used in its current format in 1938; prior to this various designs and colours had been used, often with two horses. The canting seal
Canting arms
Canting arms are heraldic bearings that represent the bearer's name in a visual pun or rebus. The term cant came into the English language from Anglo-Norman cant, meaning song or singing, from Latin cantāre, and English cognates include canticle, chant, accent, incantation and recant.Canting arms –...

 pictured here reflects the origin of the name 'Stuttgart'. The name in Old High German
Old High German
The term Old High German refers to the earliest stage of the German language and it conventionally covers the period from around 500 to 1050. Coherent written texts do not appear until the second half of the 8th century, and some treat the period before 750 as 'prehistoric' and date the start of...

 was 'stuotengarten', with 'stuoten' meaning mare, later cognate with the Old English term 'stod' (Modern English: 'stud', relating to the breeding of horses). The Old High German term 'garten' referred to the compound on the site of the original settlement. (compare English "garden") The logo of the Porsche
Porsche
Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German based holding company with investments in the automotive industry....

 automobile company features a modified version of Stuttgart's coat of arms at its centre.

Geography


Stuttgart lies about an hour from the Black Forest
Black Forest
The Black Forest is a wooded mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany. It is bordered by the Rhine valley to the west and south. The highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres ....

 and a similar distance from the Swabian Jura
Swabian Alb
The Swabian Alps or Swabian Jura is a low mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending 220 km from southwest to northeast and 40 to 70 km in width. It is named after the region of Swabia....

. The city centre lies in a lush valley, nestling between vineyards and thick woodland close by, but not on the River Neckar
Neckar
The Neckar is a long river, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, but also a short section through Hesse, in Germany. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the River Rhine...

. Thus, the city is often described as lying "zwischen Wald und Reben", between forest and vines. In the hot summer months, local residents refer to this area as the Stuttgarter Kessel, or Stuttgart cauldron
Cauldron
A cauldron or caldron is a large metal pot for cooking and/or boiling over an open fire, with a large mouth and frequently with an arc-shaped hanger.- Etymology :...

, for its hot and humid climate which is frequently warmer than the surrounding countryside of Württemberg
Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

.

Stuttgart covers an area of 207 km² (80 sq mi). The elevation ranges from 207 m (679 ft) above sea level
Above mean sea level
The term above mean sea level refers to the elevation or altitude of any object, relative to the average sea level datum. AMSL is used extensively in radio by engineers to determine the coverage area a station will be able to reach...

 by the Neckar
Neckar
The Neckar is a long river, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, but also a short section through Hesse, in Germany. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the River Rhine...

 river to 549 m (1,801 ft) on Bernhartshöhe
Bernhartshöhe
The Bernhartshöhe is a mountain of 549 m on the territory of the Vaihingen district, covering the southwesternmost part of the city of Stuttgart, capital of the German Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg. It is the highest point of elevation of that city...

 hill. As a result there are more than 400 flights of stairs around the city (called "Stäffele" in local dialect), equivalent to approximately 20 km (12 mi) of steps. Many originate from the time when vineyards lined the entire valley. Even today there are vineyards less than 500 m (1,640 ft) from the Main Station
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
is the Hauptbahnhof of the city of Stuttgart, the capital of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany. It is the largest regional and long-distance railway station in Stuttgart, the main node of the Stuttgart S-Bahn network, and, together with the halt at Charlottenplatz, the main...

.

City districts


The city of Stuttgart is subdivided into a total of 23 city districts, 5 inner districts and 18 outer districts.

The inner districts are: Central Stuttgart (German: Stuttgart-Mitte), Stuttgart North (Stuttgart-Nord), Stuttgart East (Stuttgart-Ost), Stuttgart South (Stuttgart-Süd), and Stuttgart West (Stuttgart-West).

The outer districts are:
  • Bad Cannstatt: home to Europe's second largest mineral spas, (second only to the ones in Buda
    Buda
    For detailed information see: History of Buda CastleBuda is the western part of the Hungarian capital Budapest on the west bank of the Danube. The name Buda takes its name from the name of Bleda the Hun ruler, whose name is also Buda in Hungarian.Buda comprises about one-third of Budapest's...

    , Hungary), the Cannstatter Wasen
    Cannstatter Wasen
    The Cannstatter Wasen is a 35 hectare festival area on the banks of the Neckar river in the part of Stuttgart known as Bad Cannstatt.The Cannstatter Wasen form part of the Neckar Park Fairground....

     (site of the Stuttgart Spring Festival
    Stuttgart Spring Festival
    Stuttgart Spring Festival is an annual fair that takes place in the German city of Stuttgart between the middle of April and the beginning of May. The festival takes place on the Cannstatter Wasen, traditional fairgrounds in Stuttgart's Bad Cannstatt district...

     and the Cannstatter Volksfest
    Cannstatter Volksfest
    The Cannstatter Volksfest is an annual three-week festival in Stuttgart, Germany. It is sometimes also referred to by foreign visitors as the Stuttgart Beer Festival although it is actually more of an autumnal fair...

     (the world's second largest beer festival, every September/October)), Wilhelma
    Wilhelma
    Wilhelma, built as a royal palace, is now a zoo in the northern suburbs of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is Europe's only large combined zoological and botanical garden and is home to over 8,000 animals from over 1,000 different species and exotic plants from over 5,000 species.The...

     zoo and botanical garden, the Schleyer-Halle
    Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle
    Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle is an indoor sporting arena located in Stuttgart, Germany. The capacity of the arena is 15,500 people. The hall was built in 1983 and is named for Hanns Martin Schleyer, a German employer representative, and former SS Officer and Nazi activist, who was kidnapped and...

    , the Porsche Arena
    Porsche Arena
    Porsche Arena is a multi-purpose arena, located in Stuttgart, Germany. The seating capacity of the arena varies, from 5,100 to 8,000 people and it was opened in 2006, after 14 months of construction....

    , the Mercedes-Benz Museum
    Mercedes-Benz Museum
    The Mercedes-Benz Museum is an automotive museum housed in Stuttgart, Germany. Stuttgart is home to the Mercedes-Benz brand and the international headquarters of Daimler AG. The current building, which stands directly outside the main gate of the Daimler factory in Stuttgart-Untertürkheim, was...

    , the VfB Stuttgart
    VfB Stuttgart
    Verein für Bewegungsspiele Stuttgart 1893 e. V., commonly known as VfB Stuttgart, is a German sports club based in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. The club is best known for its football team, which has participated in all but two Bundesliga seasons...

     Bundesliga
    Fußball-Bundesliga
    The Fußball-Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany. At the top of Germany's football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. It is contested by 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga...

     football team and their home ground, the Mercedes-Benz Arena, and adjacent to it the Robert Schlienz
    Robert Schlienz
    Robert Schlienz was a German football player. He is considered one of the best players ever to play for current Bundesliga side VfB Stuttgart...

     Stadium. The greenhouse of Gottlieb Daimler
    Gottlieb Daimler
    Gottlieb Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf , in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development...

    , where he developed his cars, motorcycles and motorboats can also be found in Cannstatt, as well as the oldest remaining residential building in Stuttgart, the Klösterle ("little monastery", a Beguin residence erected in 1463). The largest city district of Stuttgart, Cannstatt was suggested as the future capital of Württemberg
    Württemberg
    Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

     by Gottfried Leibniz
    Gottfried Leibniz
    Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was a German philosopher and mathematician. He wrote in different languages, primarily in Latin , French and German ....

     in 1696. Cannstatt is also famous for the Pleistocene
    Pleistocene
    The Pleistocene is the epoch from 2,588,000 to 11,700 years BP that spans the world's recent period of repeated glaciations. The name pleistocene is derived from the Greek and ....

     mammals preserved in the local travertine
    Travertine
    Travertine is a form of limestone deposited by mineral springs, especially hot springs. Travertine often has a fibrous or concentric appearance and exists in white, tan, and cream-colored varieties. It is formed by a process of rapid precipitation of calcium carbonate, often at the mouth of a hot...

     deposited by the mineral springs, some of which are on exhibit at the State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart
    State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart
    The State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart is one of the two state of Baden-Württemberg's natural history museums...

    . The leading German chocolate brand Ritter Sport
    Ritter Sport
    Ritter Sport is a German chocolate bar made by Alfred Ritter GmbH & Co. KG. It is distributed throughout the world. Each 100 gram square-shaped bar is divided into 16 smaller squares, creating a four-by-four pattern...

     was first produced in Cannstatt. In 1930 the company was relocated to Waldenbuch
    Waldenbuch
    Waldenbuch is a town in the district of Böblingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.It is the home of the popular Ritter Sport brand of chocolate.-Geographical location:...

    .
  • Degerloch: the world's first television tower
    Fernsehturm Stuttgart
    The Fernsehturm Stuttgart is the world's first TV tower built from concrete ....

    , Stuttgarter Kickers
    Stuttgarter Kickers
    Stuttgarter Kickers is a German association football club that plays in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, founded on 21 September 1899 as FC Stuttgarter Cickers...

     football team and their home ground, the Waldaustadion (where reserve team VfB II currently play as the Cannstatt Robert Schlienz
    Robert Schlienz
    Robert Schlienz was a German football player. He is considered one of the best players ever to play for current Bundesliga side VfB Stuttgart...

     Stadium is not approved for third division matches).
  • Möhringen: musical theatres, U.S. Army's Kelley Barracks
    Kelley Barracks
    thumb|U.S. Africa Command HQ.Kelley Barracks is a U.S. military installation in Stuttgart-Möhringen in Germany.Located ten miles southeast of Stuttgart, Kelley Barracks was built in 1938 and was known by the German Army as Hellenen Kaserne. Shortly after the end of World War II it was renamed in...

    , seat of the United States Africa Command
    United States Africa Command
    The United States Africa Command is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany. It is responsible for U.S. military operations and military relations with 53 African nations – an area of responsibility covering all...

    .
  • Plieningen: campus of University of Hohenheim
    University of Hohenheim
    The University of Hohenheim is a university in Stuttgart, Germany. Founded in 1818 it is Stuttgart's oldest university and one of Germany's leading universities both in agricultural sciences and economics.-History:...

    , Schloß Hohenheim
    Hohenheim
    Stuttgart-Hohenheim is a quarter of Plieningen, one of the 18 outer districts of Stuttgart, the state capital of Baden-Württemberg, Germany...

     (castle).
  • Stammheim: location of high-security Stammheim Prison
    Stammheim Prison
    Stammheim Prison is a prison in Stuttgart, Baden Württemberg, Germany. It is situated on the northern boundaries of Stuttgart in the city district of Stuttgart-Stammheim — right between fields and apartment blocks on the fringes of Stammheim...

     and court (see Red Army Faction
    Red Army Faction
    The radicalized were, like many in the New Left, influenced by:* Sociological developments, pressure within the educational system in and outside Europe and the U.S...

     terrorists).
  • Untertürkheim: Daimler AG headquarters and original Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

     plant, the Württemberg mountain
    Württemberg (mountain)
    The Württemberg is a mountain on the territory of the German city of Stuttgart, capital of Baden-Württemberg...

    , eponymous to the historic territory of Württemberg
    Württemberg
    Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

    , site of the Württemberg Mausoleum
    Württemberg Mausoleum
    The Württemberg Mausoleum is a memorial in the Rotenberg part of Untertürkheim in Stuttgart, Germany. The mausoleum stands on the peak of Württemberg Hill at the westernmost end of Schurwald woods overlooking the Neckar river. The memorial was built for Catherine Pavlovna of Russia , the second...

    .
  • Vaihingen: not to be confused with nearby Vaihingen (Enz), home to one of two University of Stuttgart
    University of Stuttgart
    The University of Stuttgart is a university located in Stuttgart, Germany. It was founded in 1829 and is organized in 10 faculties....

     campuses and Patch Barracks
    Patch Barracks
    Patch Barracks is a well-known US military installation in Stuttgart-Vaihingen in Germany. It is named after Alexander M. Patch.Patch Barracks was renamed from the German Kurmärker Kaserne in 1952; it was originally built for use by the German Army Wehrmacht in 1936/37...

    , the headquarters of U.S. armed forces in Europe (USEUCOM
    United States European Command
    The United States European Command is one of ten Unified Combatant Commands of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. Its area of focus covers and 51 countries and territories, including Europe, Russia, Iceland, Greenland, and Israel...

    ).
  • Zuffenhausen: Porsche
    Porsche
    Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German based holding company with investments in the automotive industry....

     headquarters and museum
    Porsche Museum, Stuttgart
    The Porsche Museum is an automotive museum in the Zuffenhausen district of Stuttgart, Germany on the site of carmaker Porsche.- The new museum :The new Porsche museum stands on a conspicuous junction just outside Porsche Headquarters in Zuffenhausen...

    . Kennel name adopted by UK Dobermann enthusiasts
  • Feuerbach
    Stuttgart-Feuerbach
    Feuerbach is a district of the city of Stuttgart. Its name is derived from the small river of the same name that flows from the neighbouring district of Botnang through Feuerbach...

    : home of the original Bosch
    Robert Bosch GmbH
    Robert Bosch GmbH is a multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. It is the world's largest supplier of automotive components...

     plant and Behr
    Behr GmbH & Co. KG
    Behr GmbH & Co. KG is a German corporation active in the automobile industry, headquartered in Stuttgart-Feuerbach. It is a specialist for automotive air conditioning and engine cooling systems. In 2006 group sales was €3.2 billion and it employed 18,600 staff....

    .
  • as well as Birkach, Botnang
    Botnang
    Botnang is a district of the City of Stuttgart and lies between Feuerbach, Stuttgart-West and Vaihingen.-Geography:Botnang is almost entirely surrounded by woodland and lies in the hills to the west of Stuttgart. The centre of Botnang lies 316 metres above sea level...

    , Hedelfingen, Mühlhausen, Münster, Obertürkheim, Sillenbuch, Wangen, and Weilimdorf
    Stuttgart-Weilimdorf
    Weilimdorf is a north-western municipality of the German city of Stuttgart and covers an area of 12,6 km² with a population of around 30,0001 . It first became part of Stuttgart in 1933 and until that time was a separate entity with its own administration which was then subsumed into the city...

    .



Stuttgart agglomeration and metropolitan region


Stuttgart's agglomeration (the political entity 'Stuttgart Region
Stuttgart Region
Stuttgart Region is a metropolitan area in Germany and consists of the city of Stuttgart and the surrounding districts of Ludwigsburg, Esslingen, Böblingen, Rems-Murr and Göppingen . About 2.7 million inhabitants live in that area...

') consists of the nearby towns of Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about north of Stuttgart city centre, near the river Neckar. It is the largest and primary city of the Ludwigsburg urban district with about 87,000 inhabitants...

 with its enormous baroque palace
Ludwigsburg Palace
Ludwigsburg Palace is a historical building in the city of Ludwigsburg , Germany. It is one of the country's largest Baroque palaces and features an enormous garden in that style....

, Böblingen
Böblingen
Böblingen is a town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, seat of Böblingen District. Physically Sindelfingen and Böblingen are continuous.-History:Böblingen was founded by Count Wilhelm von Tübingen-Böblingen in 1253. Württemberg acquired the town in 1357, and on 12 May 1525 one of the bloodiest battles...

, the old Free Imperial City
Free Imperial City
In the Holy Roman Empire, a free imperial city was a city formally ruled by the emperor only — as opposed to the majority of cities in the Empire, which were governed by one of the many princes of the Empire, such as dukes or prince-bishops...

 of Esslingen
Esslingen am Neckar
Esslingen am Neckar is a city in the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany, capital of the District of Esslingen as well as the largest city in the district....

, Waiblingen
Waiblingen
Waiblingen is a town in the southwest of Germany, located in the center of the densely populated Stuttgart Region, directly neighboring Stuttgart. It is the capital of the Rems-Murr district...

, Göppingen
Göppingen
Göppingen is a town in southern Germany, part of the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg. It is the capital of the district Göppingen. It is situated at the bottom of the Hohenstaufen mountain, in the valley of the river Fils....

 and their respective homonymous rural districts (Landkreise, the exception being the Waiblingen district, called Rems-Murr-Kreis
Rems-Murr-Kreis
Rems-Murr is a district in the middle of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Neighboring districts are Heilbronn, Schwäbisch Hall, Ostalbkreis, Göppingen, Esslingen, the district-free city Stuttgart and the district Ludwigsburg....

).

The Stuttgart Metropolitan Region
Stuttgart Metropolitan Region
The Stuttgart Metropolitan Region is a metropolitan region in Germany consisting of the cities of Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Tübingen/Reutlingen. These cities are arranged into three agglomeration areas...

 is a wider regional concept, that, in addition to the districts of the Stuttgart Region, encompasses most of North, Central, and East Württemberg, consisting of the cities of Heilbronn
Heilbronn
Heilbronn is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is completely surrounded by Heilbronn County and with approximately 123.000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state....

/Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall
Schwäbisch Hall is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg and capital of the district of Schwäbisch Hall. The town is located in the valley of the river Kocher in the north-eastern part of Baden-Württemberg....

, Reutlingen
Reutlingen
Reutlingen is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is the capital of the eponymous district of Reutlingen. As of April 2008, it has a population of 109,828....

/Tübingen
Tübingen
Tübingen is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers.-Geography:...

 as well as Aalen
Aalen
Aalen is a city in the German state of Baden-Württemberg, about east of Stuttgart and north of Ulm. It is the seat of the Ostalbkreis district, and its largest city, as well as the largest city within the Ostwürttemberg region. In spatial planning, Aalen is designated a Mittelzentrum...

/Schwäbisch Gmünd
Schwäbisch Gmünd
Schwäbisch Gmünd is a town in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. With a population of around 62,000, the town is the second largest in the Ostalbkreis and the whole region of East Württemberg after Aalen...

 and their respective districts and regions, i.e. Heilbronn-Franken
Heilbronn-Franken
Heilbronn-Franken is a region in northeastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the Stuttgart subdivision . It consists of the former Free imperial city of Heilbronn, Heilbronn district and the districts of Hohenlohe, Main-Tauber and Schwäbisch Hall.It covers an area of 4765 km², with a...

, Neckar-Alb
Neckar-Alb
Neckar-Alb is one of three regions in the Tübingen administrative region in Baden-Württemberg, Germany...

 and Ostwürttemberg
Ostwürttemberg
Ostwürttemberg is a region in eastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany, in the Stuttgart subdivision . It consists of the districts of Heidenheim and Ostalb...

.

Climate


Stuttgart experiences an oceanic climate
Oceanic climate
An oceanic climate, also called marine west coast climate, maritime climate, Cascadian climate and British climate for Köppen climate classification Cfb and subtropical highland for Köppen Cfb or Cwb, is a type of climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of some of the...

 (Köppen climate classification
Köppen climate classification
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by Crimea German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1884, with several later modifications by Köppen himself, notably in 1918 and 1936...

 Cfb). In the summer months, the nearby Black Forest
Black Forest
The Black Forest is a wooded mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, southwestern Germany. It is bordered by the Rhine valley to the west and south. The highest peak is the Feldberg with an elevation of 1,493 metres ....

 and Swabian Alb
Swabian Alb
The Swabian Alps or Swabian Jura is a low mountain range in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, extending 220 km from southwest to northeast and 40 to 70 km in width. It is named after the region of Swabia....

 hills act as a shield from harsh weather but the city can also be subject to thunderstorms in the summer months, and periods of snow lasting several days in the winter. The centre of the city, referred to by locals as the "Kessel" (kettle) experiences more severe heat in the summer and less snow in the winter than the suburbs. Lying as it does at the centre of the European continent, the temperature range between day and night or summer and winter can be extreme. On average Stuttgart enjoys 1693 hours of sunshine per year.

Winters last from December to March. The coldest month is January with an average temperature of 0 °C (32 °F). Snow cover tends to last no longer than a few days although it has been known to last several weeks at a time as recently as 2010. The summers are warm with an average temperature of 20 °C (68 °F) in the hottest months of July and August. The summers last from May until September.

Up to 19th century



The first known settlement of Stuttgart was around the end of the 1st century AD with the establishment of a Roman
Roman Empire
The Roman Empire was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterised by an autocratic form of government and large territorial holdings in Europe and around the Mediterranean....

 fort in the modern district of Cannstatt on the banks of the river Neckar
Neckar
The Neckar is a long river, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, but also a short section through Hesse, in Germany. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the River Rhine...

. Early in the 3rd century the Romans were pushed by the Alamanni
Alamanni
The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Rhine river . One of the earliest references to them is the cognomen Alamannicus assumed by Roman Emperor Caracalla, who ruled the Roman Empire from 211 to 217 and claimed thereby to be...

 back past the Rhine and the Danube
Danube
The Danube is a river in the Central Europe and the Europe's second longest river after the Volga. It is classified as an international waterway....

. Although nothing is known about Cannstatt during the period of Barbarian Invasion
Migration Period
The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions , was a period of intensified human migration in Europe that occurred from c. 400 to 800 CE. This period marked the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages...

 it is believed that the area remained inhabited as it is mentioned in Abbey of St. Gall archives dating back to 700 AD.

Stuttgart itself was probably founded around 950 AD shortly before the Battle of Lechfeld
Battle of Lechfeld
The Battle of Lechfeld , often seen as the defining event for holding off the incursions of the Hungarians into Western Europe, was a decisive victory by Otto I the Great, King of the Germans, over the Hungarian leaders, the harka Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél and Súr...

 by Duke Liudolf
Liudolf, Duke of Swabia
Liudolf was the duke of Swabia from 950 until 954. He was the only son of Otto I, king of Germany, from his wife Eadgyth, daughter of Edward the Elder, king of England....

 of Swabia
Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

, one of the sons of Holy Roman Emperor Otto I the Great
Otto I, Holy Roman Emperor
Otto I the Great , son of Henry I the Fowler and Matilda of Ringelheim, was Duke of Saxony, King of Germany, King of Italy, and "the first of the Germans to be called the emperor of Italy" according to Arnulf of Milan...

. The town was used for breeding cavalry horses in fertile meadows at the very centre of today's city, although recent archaeological excavations indicate that this area was already home to Merovingian
Merovingian dynasty
The Merovingians were a Salian Frankish dynasty that came to rule the Franks in a region largely corresponding to ancient Gaul from the middle of the 5th century. Their politics involved frequent civil warfare among branches of the family...

 farmers.

A gift registry from Hirsau Abbey
Hirsau Abbey
Hirsau Abbey, formerly known as Hirschau Abbey, was once one of the most prominent Benedictine abbeys of Germany. It was located in the town of Hirsau, in the Diocese of Speyer, near Calw in the present Baden-Württemberg.-History:...

 dated around 1160 mentioned 'Hugo de Stuokarten', confirmation of the existence of the Stuttgart of today.

Between this time and the 14th century, the settlement was owned by the Margraves of Baden and the Württemberg
Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

 towns of Backnang
Backnang
Backnang is a town in Germany in the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, roughly 30 kilometers northeast of Stuttgart. Its population has increased greatly over the past century, from 7,650 in 1900 to 35,761 in 2005....

 and Besigheim
Besigheim
Besigheim is a municipality in the district of Ludwigsburg in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany.It is situated 13 km north of Ludwigsburg at the confluence of the Neckar and Enz rivers. The town has many old buildings and a town hall that dates back to 1459...

.
Around 1300, Stuttgart became the residence of the Counts of Württemberg
Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

, who expanded the growing settlement into the capital of their territory (Territorialstaat). Stuttgart was elevated to the status of city in 1321 when it became the official royal residence. The territory around Stuttgart was known as the County of Württemberg before the counts were elevated to dukes by the Holy Roman Emperor
Holy Roman Emperor
The Holy Roman Emperor is a term used by historians to denote a medieval ruler who, as German King, had also received the title of "Emperor of the Romans" from the Pope...

 in 1495, when Stuttgart became the Duchy
Duchy
A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.Some duchies were sovereign in areas that would become unified realms only during the Modern era . In contrast, others were subordinate districts of those kingdoms that unified either partially or completely during the Medieval era...

 capital and Ducal residence.

The name Württemberg
Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

 originates from a steep hill in Stuttgart, formerly known as Wirtemberg.

In the 18th century, Stuttgart temporarily surrendered its residence status after Eberhard Ludwig founded Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about north of Stuttgart city centre, near the river Neckar. It is the largest and primary city of the Ludwigsburg urban district with about 87,000 inhabitants...

 to the north of the city. In 1775, Karl Eugen
Karl Eugen, Duke of Württemberg
Charles Eugene , Duke of Württemberg was the eldest son of Duke Karl I Alexander and Princess Maria Augusta of Thurn and Taxis .-Life:...

 requested a return to Stuttgart, ordering the construction of the New Castle
New Castle (Stuttgart)
The New Palace is a building which stands on the south edge of Schlossplatz, the central square in Stuttgart, Germany. The castle is built in late Baroque style....

.

19th and 20th century


In 1803, Stuttgart was proclaimed capital of Württemberg Kurfürstentum (ruled by a Prince-elector
Prince-elector
The Prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Roman king or, from the middle of the 16th century onwards, directly the Holy Roman Emperor.The heir-apparent to a prince-elector was known as an...

) until Napoleon Bonaparte's
Napoleon I
Napoleon Bonaparte was a French military and political leader during the latter stages of the French Revolution.As Napoleon I, he was Emperor of the French from 1804 to 1815...

 break-up of the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

 in 1805 when Stuttgart became capital of the Kingdom of Württemberg
Kingdom of Württemberg
The Kingdom of Württemberg was a state that existed from 1806 to 1918, located in present-day Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It was a continuation of the Duchy of Württemberg, which came into existence in 1495...

. The royal residence was expanded under Frederick I of Württemberg although many of Stuttgart's most important buildings, including the Wilhelm Palace
Wilhelm Palais
The Wilhelmspalais is a Palais located on the Charlottenplatz in Stuttgart-Mitte. It was the living quarters of the last Württemberg King Wilhelm II. It was totally destroyed during World War II and between 1961 and 1965 reconstructed in modern style. Nowadays, the central library of the...

, Katharina Hospital, the State Gallery
Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
The Staatsgalerie Stuttgart is an art gallery and art museum in Stuttgart, Germany, opened in 1843. In 1984 the opening of the Neue Staatsgalerie designed by James Stirling transformed the once provincial gallery into one of Europe's leading museums.-Alte Staatsgalerie:Originally, the classicist...

, the Villa Berg and the Königsbau were built under the reign of King Wilhelm I
William I of Württemberg
William I was the second King of Württemberg from October 30, 1816 until his death.He was born in Lüben, the son of King Frederick I of Württemberg and his wife Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel .-First marriage:...

.

Stuttgart's development as a city was impeded in the 19th century by its location. It was not until the opening of the Main Station
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
is the Hauptbahnhof of the city of Stuttgart, the capital of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany. It is the largest regional and long-distance railway station in Stuttgart, the main node of the Stuttgart S-Bahn network, and, together with the halt at Charlottenplatz, the main...

 in 1846 that the city underwent an economic revival. The population at the time was around 50,000.

During the revolution of 1848/1849
Revolutions of 1848 in the German states
The Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, also called the March Revolution – part of the Revolutions of 1848 that broke out in many countries of Europe – were a series of loosely coordinated protests and rebellions in the states of the German Confederation, including the Austrian Empire...

, a democratic pan-German national parliament (Frankfurt Parliament
Frankfurt Parliament
The Frankfurt Assembly was the first freely elected parliament for all of Germany. Session was held from May 18, 1848 to May 31, 1849 in the Paulskirche at Frankfurt am Main...

) was formed in Frankfurt to overcome the division of Germany. After long discussions, the parliament decided to offer the title of the German emperor to King Frederick William IV of Prussia
Frederick William IV of Prussia
|align=right|Upon his accession, he toned down the reactionary policies enacted by his father, easing press censorship and promising to enact a constitution at some point, but he refused to enact a popular legislative assembly, preferring to work with the aristocracy through "united committees" of...

. As the democratic movement became weaker, the German princes regained control of their independent states. Finally, the Prussian king declined the revolutionaries' offer. The members of parliament were driven out of Frankfurt and the most radical members (who wanted to establish a republic) fled to Stuttgart. A short while later, this rump parliament
Rump Parliament
The Rump Parliament is the name of the English Parliament after Colonel Pride purged the Long Parliament on 6 December 1648 of those members hostile to the Grandees' intention to try King Charles I for high treason....

 was dissolved by the Württemberg military.

By 1871 Stuttgart boasted 91,000 inhabitants, and by the time Gottlieb Daimler
Gottlieb Daimler
Gottlieb Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf , in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development...

 invented the automobile in a small workshop in Cannstatt, the population had risen rapidly to 176,000.

In 1871, as an autonomous kingdom, Württemberg joined the German Empire
German Empire
The German Empire refers to Germany during the "Second Reich" period from the unification of Germany and proclamation of Wilhelm I as German Emperor on 18 January 1871, to 1918, when it became a federal republic after defeat in World War I and the abdication of the Emperor, Wilhelm II.The German...

 created by Otto von Bismarck
Otto von Bismarck
Otto Eduard Leopold, Prince of Bismarck, Duke of Lauenburg , simply known as Otto von Bismarck, was a Prussian-German statesman whose actions unified Germany, made it a major player in world affairs, and created a balance of power that kept Europe at peace after 1871.As Minister President of...

, Prime Minister of Prussia, during the unification of Germany
Unification of Germany
The formal unification of Germany into a politically and administratively integrated nation state officially occurred on 18 January 1871 at the Versailles Palace's Hall of Mirrors in France. Princes of the German states gathered there to proclaim Wilhelm of Prussia as Emperor Wilhelm of the German...

.

At the end of the First World War the Württemberg monarchy broke down: William II of Württemberg
William II of Württemberg
William II was the fourth King of Württemberg, from 6 October 1891 until the abolition of the kingdom on 30 November 1918...

 refused the crown – but also refused to abdicate – under pressure from revolutionaries who stormed the Wilhelm Palace
Wilhelm Palais
The Wilhelmspalais is a Palais located on the Charlottenplatz in Stuttgart-Mitte. It was the living quarters of the last Württemberg King Wilhelm II. It was totally destroyed during World War II and between 1961 and 1965 reconstructed in modern style. Nowadays, the central library of the...

. The Free State of Württemberg
Free People's State of Württemberg
The Free People's State of Württemberg was a state of Germany during the Weimar Republic in Württemberg.-1918 revolution:As Germany underwent violent revolution near the end of World War I, the Kingdom of Württemberg was transformed from a monarchy to a democratic republic without bloodshed; its...

 was established, as a part of the Weimar Republic
Weimar Republic
The Weimar Republic is the name given by historians to the parliamentary republic established in 1919 in Germany to replace the imperial form of government...

. Stuttgart was proclaimed the capital.

In 1920 Stuttgart became the seat of the German National Government (after the administration fled from Berlin, see Kapp Putsch
Kapp Putsch
The Kapp Putsch — or more accurately the Kapp-Lüttwitz Putsch — was a 1920 coup attempt during the German Revolution of 1918–1919 aimed at overthrowing the Weimar Republic...

).

Under the Nazi regime
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

, Stuttgart began the deportation of its Jewish inhabitants in 1939. Around sixty percent of the German Jewish population had fled by the time restrictions on their movement were imposed on 1 October 1941, at which point Jews living in Württemberg were forced to live in 'Jewish apartments' before being 'concentrated' on the former Trade Fair grounds in Killesberg
Killesbergpark
The Killesbergpark is an urban public park of half a square kilometre in Stuttgart, Germany. It is just north of the state capital, and borders the city's fairgrounds. The park dates back to the horticultural show of 1939. Before the show, a large area of the park had been a quarry...

. On 1 December 1941 the first deportation trains were organised to Riga
Riga
Riga is the capital and largest city of Latvia. With 702,891 inhabitants Riga is the largest city of the Baltic states, one of the largest cities in Northern Europe and home to more than one third of Latvia's population. The city is an important seaport and a major industrial, commercial,...

. Only 180 Jews from Württemberg held in concentration camps
Internment
Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. The Oxford English Dictionary gives the meaning as: "The action of 'interning'; confinement within the limits of a country or place." Most modern usage is about individuals, and there is a distinction...

 survived.

During the period of Nazi rule, Stuttgart held the "honorary title" Stadt der Auslandsdeutschen (City of the Germans living outside of the Reich
Volksdeutsche
Volksdeutsche - "German in terms of people/folk" -, defined ethnically, is a historical term from the 20th century. The words volk and volkische conveyed in Nazi thinking the meanings of "folk" and "race" while adding the sense of superior civilization and blood...

).


During World War II, the centre of Stuttgart was almost completely destroyed in Allied air raids
Bombing of Stuttgart in World War II
The bombing of Stuttgart in World War II was a series of 53 air raids that formed part of the strategic air offensive of the Allies against Germany. The first bombing occurred on August 25, 1940 and resulted in the destruction of 17 buildings...

. Some of the most severe bombing took place in 1944 carried out by Anglo-American bombers. The heaviest raid took place on 12 September 1944 when the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

 bombed the old town of Stuttgart dropping over 184,000 bombs including 75 blockbusters
Blockbuster bomb
Blockbuster or "cookie" was the name given to several of the largest conventional bombs used in World War II by the Royal Air Force...

. More than 1000 people perished in the resulting firestorm
Firestorm
A firestorm is a conflagration which attains such intensity that it creates and sustains its own wind system. It is most commonly a natural phenomenon, created during some of the largest bushfires, forest fires, and wildfires...

. In total Stuttgart was subjected to 53 bombing raids, resulting in the destruction of 68% of all buildings and the deaths of 4477 people.

The Allied ground advance into Germany reached Stuttgart in April 1945. The French 5th Armored Division, French 2nd Moroccan Infantry Division and French 3rd Algerian Infantry Division, began their drive on Stuttgart on 18 April 1945. Two days later, the French forces coordinated with the US Seventh Army for the employment of US VI Corps heavy artillery to barrage the city. The French 5th Armored Division then captured Stuttgart on 21 April 1945, encountering little resistance.

The French army occupied Stuttgart until the city was transferred to the American military occupation zone in 1948. An early concept of the Marshall Plan
Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan was the large-scale American program to aid Europe where the United States gave monetary support to help rebuild European economies after the end of World War II in order to combat the spread of Soviet communism. The plan was in operation for four years beginning in April 1948...

 aimed at supporting reconstruction and economic/political recovery across Europe was presented during a speech given by US Secretary of State James F. Byrnes
James F. Byrnes
James Francis Byrnes was an American statesman from the state of South Carolina. During his career, Byrnes served as a member of the House of Representatives , as a Senator , as Justice of the Supreme Court , as Secretary of State , and as the 104th Governor of South Carolina...

 at the Stuttgart Opera House
Staatsoper Stuttgart
The Staatsoper Stuttgart is a German opera company based in Stuttgart, Germany.-History:The Stuttgart Staatsoper forms part of the Stuttgart State Theatre , which is a a three-branch-theatre complex and represents the largest theatre of its kind in Europe...

. His speech led directly to the unification of the British and American occupation zones, resulting in the 'bi-zone' (later the 'tri-zone' including the French). When the Federal Republic of Germany
West Germany
West Germany is the common English, but not official, name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG in the period between its creation in May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990....

 was founded on 23 May 1949, Stuttgart, like Frankfurt, was a serious contender to become the federal capital, but finally Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

 succeeded.

Parts of the former German States of Baden
Baden
Baden is a historical state on the east bank of the Rhine in the southwest of Germany, now the western part of the Baden-Württemberg of Germany....

 and Württemberg
Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

 were merged in 1952 leading to the founding of the new state of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

, now Germany's third largest state.

Recent


During the Cold War
Cold War
The Cold War was the continuing state from roughly 1946 to 1991 of political conflict, military tension, proxy wars, and economic competition between the Communist World—primarily the Soviet Union and its satellite states and allies—and the powers of the Western world, primarily the United States...

, Stuttgart became home to the joint command centre of all United States military forces in Europe, Africa and the Atlantic (US European Command, EUCOM). EUCOM
United States European Command
The United States European Command is one of ten Unified Combatant Commands of the United States military, headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany. Its area of focus covers and 51 countries and territories, including Europe, Russia, Iceland, Greenland, and Israel...

 is still headquartered there today. U.S. Army bases in and around Stuttgart include or included the following: Patch Barracks
Patch Barracks
Patch Barracks is a well-known US military installation in Stuttgart-Vaihingen in Germany. It is named after Alexander M. Patch.Patch Barracks was renamed from the German Kurmärker Kaserne in 1952; it was originally built for use by the German Army Wehrmacht in 1936/37...

 (HQ EUCOM), Robinson Barracks, Panzer Kaserne, Kelley Barracks
Kelley Barracks
thumb|U.S. Africa Command HQ.Kelley Barracks is a U.S. military installation in Stuttgart-Möhringen in Germany.Located ten miles southeast of Stuttgart, Kelley Barracks was built in 1938 and was known by the German Army as Hellenen Kaserne. Shortly after the end of World War II it was renamed in...

 (HQ AFRICOM
United States Africa Command
The United States Africa Command is one of nine Unified Combatant Commands of the United States Armed Forces, headquartered at Kelley Barracks, Stuttgart, Germany. It is responsible for U.S. military operations and military relations with 53 African nations – an area of responsibility covering all...

)

In the late 1970s, the district of Stammheim was centre stage to one of the most controversial periods of German post-war history during the trial of Red Army Faction
Red Army Faction
The radicalized were, like many in the New Left, influenced by:* Sociological developments, pressure within the educational system in and outside Europe and the U.S...

 members at Stammheim high-security court. After the trial, Ulrike Meinhof
Ulrike Meinhof
Ulrike Marie Meinhof was a German left-wing militant. She co-founded the Red Army Faction in 1970 after having previously worked as a journalist for the monthly left-wing magazine Konkret. She was arrested in 1972, and eventually charged with numerous murders and the formation of a criminal...

, Andreas Baader
Andreas Baader
Andreas Bernd Baader was one of the first leaders of the German left-wing militant organization Red Army Faction, also commonly known as the Baader-Meinhof Gang.- Life :...

, Gudrun Ensslin and Jan-Carl Raspe committed suicide in Stammheim. Several attempts were made to free the terrorists by force or blackmail during the 'German Autumn
German Autumn
The German Autumn was a set of events in late 1977, associated with the kidnapping and murder of industrialist Hanns-Martin Schleyer, President of the Confederation of German Employers' Associations and the Federation of German Industries , by the Red Army Faction , and the hijacking of the...

' of 1977, culminating in the abduction and murder of the German industrialist and President of the German Employers' Association Hanns Martin Schleyer as well as the hijacking of Lufthansa flight LH181
Lufthansa Flight 181
Lufthansa Flight 181 was a Lufthansa Boeing 737-230 Adv aircraft named Landshut that was hijacked on October 13, 1977 by four members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine...

.

In 1978 Stuttgart's suburban railway
Stuttgart S-Bahn
The Stuttgart S-Bahn is a suburban railway system serving the Stuttgart Region, an agglomeration of around 2.6 million people, consisting of the city of Stuttgart and the adjacent districts of Esslingen, Böblingen, Ludwigsburg and Rems-Murr. It consists of seven lines numbered S1 through S6 and...

 came into operation.

The inner city




At the centre of Stuttgart lies its main square, Schlossplatz
Schlossplatz, Stuttgart
Schlossplatz is the largest square in the centre of the city of Stuttgart and home to the New Castle which was built between 1746 and 1807....

. As well as being the largest square in Stuttgart, it stands at the crossover point between the city's shopping area, Schlossgarten park which runs down to the river Neckar
Neckar
The Neckar is a long river, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, but also a short section through Hesse, in Germany. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the River Rhine...

, Stuttgart's two central castles and major museums and residential areas to the south west. Königstraße, Stuttgart's most important shopping street which runs along the northwestern edge of Schlossplatz, claims to be the longest pedestrianised street in Germany.

Although the city centre was heavily damaged during World War II, many historic buildings have been reconstructed and the city boasts some fine pieces of modern post-war architecture. Buildings and squares of note in the inner city include:
  • The Stiftskirche
    Stiftskirche (Stuttgart)
    The Stiftskirche Stuttgart is an inner-city church in Stuttgart, the capital of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is the main church of the Evangelical-Lutheran Church in Württemberg as well as the parish church of the evangelical inner-city church district of Stuttgart.-History and...

     (the Collegiate Church), dates back to the 12th century, but was changed to the Late Gothic style in the 15th century and is a Protestant church since 1534. Exterior: Romanesque
    Romanesque architecture
    Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of Medieval Europe characterised by semi-circular arches. There is no consensus for the beginning date of the Romanesque architecture, with proposals ranging from the 6th to the 10th century. It developed in the 12th century into the Gothic style,...

    /Gothic
    Gothic architecture
    Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period. It evolved from Romanesque architecture and was succeeded by Renaissance architecture....

    ; interior: Romanesque/Gothic/Modern. Reconstructed with simplified interior after WWII.
  • Altes Schloss (the Old Castle
    Old Castle (Stuttgart)
    The Old Castle is located in the centre of Stuttgart, the capital of the German State of Baden-Württemberg. It dates back to the 10th century....

    ), mostly dating from the late 15th century, some parts date back to 1320. Renaissance
    Renaissance architecture
    Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, demonstrating a conscious revival and development of certain elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture. Stylistically, Renaissance...

     style; reconstructed
  • Alte Kanzlei (the Old Chancellery) on Schillerplatz
    Schillerplatz (Stuttgart)
    Schillerplatz is a square in the old city centre of Stuttgart, Germany named in honour of the German poet, philosopher, historian, and dramatist Friedrich Schiller...

     square which backs onto the 1598 Mercury Pillar
  • Neues Schloss (the New Castle
    New Castle (Stuttgart)
    The New Palace is a building which stands on the south edge of Schlossplatz, the central square in Stuttgart, Germany. The castle is built in late Baroque style....

    ), completed in 1807. Baroque
    Baroque
    The Baroque is a period and the style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, literature, dance, and music...

    /Classicism
    Classicism
    Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint...

    ); reconstructed with modern interior, currently houses government offices. The cellars with a collection of stone fragments from the Roman times are open to visitors
  • Wilhelmpalais (the King Wilhelm Palais
    Wilhelm Palais
    The Wilhelmspalais is a Palais located on the Charlottenplatz in Stuttgart-Mitte. It was the living quarters of the last Württemberg King Wilhelm II. It was totally destroyed during World War II and between 1961 and 1965 reconstructed in modern style. Nowadays, the central library of the...

    ), 1840
  • Königsbau (the King's Building), 1850. Classicism; reconstructed
  • The Großes Haus of Stuttgart National Theatre
    Staatstheater Stuttgart
    The Staatstheater Stuttgart ' is an opera house in Stuttgart, Germany. It is also known locally as the Grosses Haus, having been the larger of two theatres of the former Königliche Hoftheater....

    , 1909–1912
  • Markthalle Market Hall, 1910. (Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

    )
  • The Hauptbahnhof
    Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
    is the Hauptbahnhof of the city of Stuttgart, the capital of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany. It is the largest regional and long-distance railway station in Stuttgart, the main node of the Stuttgart S-Bahn network, and, together with the halt at Charlottenplatz, the main...

    (Main Railway Station) was designed in 1920; its stark, functional lines are typical of the artistic trend 'Neue Sachlichkeit' (New Objectivity
    New Objectivity
    The New Objectivity is a term used to characterize the attitude of public life in Weimar Germany as well as the art, literature, music, and architecture created to adapt to it...

    )
  • The Württembergische Landesbibliothek
    Württembergische Landesbibliothek
    The Württembergische Landesbibliothek is a large library in Stuttgart, Germany, which traces its history back to the ducal public library of Württemberg, founded in 1765. It holds c. 3.4 million volumes and is thus the fourth-largest library in the state of Baden-Württemberg...

    state library, rebuilt in 1970.
  • Friedrichsbau Varieté (Friedrich Building), rebuilt in 1994 on the site of the former art nouveau building



Architecture in other districts


A number of significant castles stand in Stuttgart's suburbs and beyond as reminders of the city's royal past. These include:
  • Castle Solitude
    Castle Solitude
    Castle Solitude in Stuttgart, Germany , was built as a hunting lodge between 1764 and 1769 under Duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg. It is not a true castle, but rather a rococo palace. Since 1956 the area is part of the urban district of Stuttgart-West. The castle is located on a high plain between...

    , 1700–1800. Baroque/Rococo
    Rococo
    Rococo , also referred to as "Late Baroque", is an 18th-century style which developed as Baroque artists gave up their symmetry and became increasingly ornate, florid, and playful...

    )
  • Ludwigsburg Palace
    Ludwigsburg Palace
    Ludwigsburg Palace is a historical building in the city of Ludwigsburg , Germany. It is one of the country's largest Baroque palaces and features an enormous garden in that style....

    , 1704–1758. Baroque, with its enormous baroque garden.
  • Castle Hohenheim
    Hohenheim
    Stuttgart-Hohenheim is a quarter of Plieningen, one of the 18 outer districts of Stuttgart, the state capital of Baden-Württemberg, Germany...

    , 1771–1793


Other landmarks in and around Stuttgart include (see also museums below):
  • Castle Rosenstein (1822–1830). Classical
  • Württemberg Mausoleum
    Württemberg Mausoleum
    The Württemberg Mausoleum is a memorial in the Rotenberg part of Untertürkheim in Stuttgart, Germany. The mausoleum stands on the peak of Württemberg Hill at the westernmost end of Schurwald woods overlooking the Neckar river. The memorial was built for Catherine Pavlovna of Russia , the second...

     (1824) which holds the remains of Catherine Pavlovna of Russia
    Catherine Pavlovna of Russia
    Grand Duchess Catherine Pavlovna of Russia was the fourth daughter of Tsar Paul I of Russia and Princess Sophie Dorothea of Württemberg. She became the Queen of Württemberg upon her marriage to her first cousin Crown Prince William who eventually became King William I of Württemberg in...

     and King William I of Württemberg
    William I of Württemberg
    William I was the second King of Württemberg from October 30, 1816 until his death.He was born in Lüben, the son of King Frederick I of Württemberg and his wife Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel .-First marriage:...

  • Wilhelma
    Wilhelma
    Wilhelma, built as a royal palace, is now a zoo in the northern suburbs of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is Europe's only large combined zoological and botanical garden and is home to over 8,000 animals from over 1,000 different species and exotic plants from over 5,000 species.The...

     Zoo and Botanical Gardens (1853)
  • Weissenhof Estate
    Weissenhof Estate
    The Weissenhof Estate is a housing estate built for exhibition in Stuttgart in 1927...

     (1927), (International Style
    International style (architecture)
    The International style is a major architectural style that emerged in the 1920s and 1930s, the formative decades of Modern architecture. The term originated from the name of a book by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson, The International Style...

    )
  • The TV Tower
    Fernsehturm Stuttgart
    The Fernsehturm Stuttgart is the world's first TV tower built from concrete ....

     (1950), the world's first concrete TV tower
  • Stuttgart Airport
    Stuttgart Airport
    Stuttgart Airport is an international airport located approximately south of Stuttgart, Germany....

     Terminal Building, 2000. In neighbouring Leinfelden-Echterdingen
    Leinfelden-Echterdingen
    Leinfelden-Echterdingen is a town in the district of Esslingen, in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located approx. 10 km south of Stuttgart, near the Stuttgart Airport...


Parks, lakes, cemeteries and other places of interest



At the centre of Stuttgart lies a series of gardens which are popular with families and cyclists. Because of its shape on a map, the locals refer to it as the Green U. The Green U starts with the old Schlossgarten, castle gardens first mentioned in records in 1350. The modern park stretches down to the river Neckar
Neckar
The Neckar is a long river, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, but also a short section through Hesse, in Germany. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the River Rhine...

 and is divided into the upper garden (bordering the Old Castle
Old Castle (Stuttgart)
The Old Castle is located in the centre of Stuttgart, the capital of the German State of Baden-Württemberg. It dates back to the 10th century....

, the Main Station
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
is the Hauptbahnhof of the city of Stuttgart, the capital of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany. It is the largest regional and long-distance railway station in Stuttgart, the main node of the Stuttgart S-Bahn network, and, together with the halt at Charlottenplatz, the main...

, the State Theater
Staatstheater Stuttgart
The Staatstheater Stuttgart ' is an opera house in Stuttgart, Germany. It is also known locally as the Grosses Haus, having been the larger of two theatres of the former Königliche Hoftheater....

 and the State Parliament building), and the middle and lower gardens – a total of 61 hectares. The park also houses Stuttgart planetarium.

At the far end of Schlossgarten lies the second Green U park, the larger Rosensteinpark
Rosensteinpark
The Rosensteinpark in Stuttgart is the largest English garden in southwest Germany. It was created in the years 1824 to 1840 on the orders of King William I of Württemberg after plans of his gardener Johann Bosch on the former Kahlenstein area...

 which borders Stuttgart's Wilhelma
Wilhelma
Wilhelma, built as a royal palace, is now a zoo in the northern suburbs of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is Europe's only large combined zoological and botanical garden and is home to over 8,000 animals from over 1,000 different species and exotic plants from over 5,000 species.The...

 zoo and botanical gardens. Planted by King William I of Württemberg
William I of Württemberg
William I was the second King of Württemberg from October 30, 1816 until his death.He was born in Lüben, the son of King Frederick I of Württemberg and his wife Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel .-First marriage:...

, it contains many old trees and open areas and counts as the largest English-style garden in southern Germany. In the grounds of the park stands the former Rosenstein castle, now the Rosenstein museum.

Beyond bridges over an adjacent main road lies the final Green U park, Killesbergpark
Killesbergpark
The Killesbergpark is an urban public park of half a square kilometre in Stuttgart, Germany. It is just north of the state capital, and borders the city's fairgrounds. The park dates back to the horticultural show of 1939. Before the show, a large area of the park had been a quarry...

 or 'Höhenpark' which is a former quarry that was converted for the Third Reich
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 garden show of 1939 (and was used as a collection point for Jews awaiting transportation to concentration camps
Internment
Internment is the imprisonment or confinement of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. The Oxford English Dictionary gives the meaning as: "The action of 'interning'; confinement within the limits of a country or place." Most modern usage is about individuals, and there is a distinction...

). The park has been used to stage many gardening shows since the 1950s, including the Bundesgartenschau
Bundesgartenschau
The Bundesgartenschau is the biennial Federal horticulture show in Germany. It also covers topics like landscaping. Taking place in different cities, the location changes in a two-year cycle....

 and 1993 International Gardening Show, and runs miniature trains all around the park in the summer months for children and adults. The viewing tower (Killesbergturm) offers unique views across to the north east of Stuttgart.

On the northern edge of the Rosensteinpark
Rosensteinpark
The Rosensteinpark in Stuttgart is the largest English garden in southwest Germany. It was created in the years 1824 to 1840 on the orders of King William I of Württemberg after plans of his gardener Johann Bosch on the former Kahlenstein area...

 is the famous 'Wilhelma
Wilhelma
Wilhelma, built as a royal palace, is now a zoo in the northern suburbs of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is Europe's only large combined zoological and botanical garden and is home to over 8,000 animals from over 1,000 different species and exotic plants from over 5,000 species.The...

', Germany's only combined zoological and botanical garden. The whole compound, with its ornate pavilions, greenhouses, walls and gardens was built around 1850 as a summer palace in moorish style for King Wilhelm I of Württemberg
Württemberg
Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

. It currently houses around 8000 animals and some 5000 plant species and contains the biggest magnolia
Magnolia
Magnolia is a large genus of about 210 flowering plant species in the subfamily Magnolioideae of the family Magnoliaceae. It is named after French botanist Pierre Magnol....

 grove in Europe.

Other parks in Stuttgart include the historic Botanischer Garten der Universität Hohenheim
Botanischer Garten der Universität Hohenheim
The Botanischer Garten der Universität Hohenheim is a botanical garden maintained by the University of Hohenheim. It is located next to the historic Landesarboretum Baden-Württemberg on Garbenstrasse in the Hohenheim district of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, and is sometimes called the...

 and Landesarboretum Baden-Württemberg
Landesarboretum Baden-Württemberg
The Landesarboretum Baden-Württemberg is a historic arboretum now maintained by the University of Hohenheim. It is located next to the Botanischer Garten der Universität Hohenheim, the university's botanical garden, on Garbenstrasse in the Hohenheim district of Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg,...

 at Castle Hohenheim
Hohenheim
Stuttgart-Hohenheim is a quarter of Plieningen, one of the 18 outer districts of Stuttgart, the state capital of Baden-Württemberg, Germany...

 (which date back to 1776 and are still used to catalogue and research plant species), Uhlandshöhe hill (between the city centre, Bad Cannstatt and Frauenkopf, and home to Stuttgart observatory), the Weißenburgpark (a five hectare park in the Bopser area of Stuttgart South which dates back to 1834 and is now home to a 'tea house' and the 'marble room' and offers a relaxing view across the city centre), the Birkenkopf
Birkenkopf
The Birkenkopf is a hill of height 511m within Stuttgart. It is the highest point of the inner regions of Stuttgart and is almost 300m higher than the river Neckar on which Stuttgart lies. The hill lies in the Stuttgart-West city region...

 (at 511 metres (1,676.5 ft) the highest point in central Stuttgart, where many ruins were laid to commemorate the Second World War), the Eichenhain park in Sillenbuch (declared a nature reserve in 1958 and home to 200 oak
Oak
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus , of which about 600 species exist. "Oak" may also appear in the names of species in related genera, notably Lithocarpus...

 trees, many 300–400 years old).

There are a number of natural and artificial lakes and ponds in Stuttgart. The largest is the Max-Eyth-See which was created in 1935 by reclaiming a former quarry and is now an official nature reserve. It is surrounded by an expansive open area overlooked by vineyards on the banks of the river Neckar
Neckar
The Neckar is a long river, mainly flowing through the southwestern state of Baden-Württemberg, but also a short section through Hesse, in Germany. The Neckar is a major right tributary of the River Rhine...

 near Mühlhausen
Mühlhausen
Mühlhausen is a city in the federal state of Thuringia, Germany. It is the capital of the Unstrut-Hainich district, and lies along the river Unstrut. Mühlhausen had c. 37,000 inhabitants in 2006.-History:...

.

There are expansive areas of woodland to the west and south west of Stuttgart which are popular with walkers, families, cyclists and ramblers. The most frequented lakes form a 3 km (1.9 mi) trio made up of the Bärensee, Neuer See and Pfaffensee. The lakes are also used for local water supplies.

In the Feuersee area in the west of Stuttgart lies one of two 'Feuersee's (literally fire lakes), striking for its views of the Johanneskirche
Johanneskirche (Stuttgart)
The Protestant Church Johanneskirche in Stuttgart, built in neo-Gothic style was built from 1864 to 1876 by the Chief Building Christian Friedrich von Leins, it is particualary highligted by its urban location...

 (St.Johns) church across the lake, surrounded by nearby houses and offices. The other Feuersee can be found in Vaihingen.

Cemeteries in Stuttgart include:
  • The Hoppenlaufriedhof in Central Stuttgart, the oldest remaining cemetery which dates back to 1626, an infirmary
    Wiktionary
    Wiktionary is a multilingual, web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in 158 languages...

     graveyard last used in 1951

  • The Waldfriedhof, the 1913 forest cemetery that is connected to Südheimer Platz by funicular railway

  • The Pragfriedhof, with its Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau
    Art Nouveau is an international philosophy and style of art, architecture and applied art—especially the decorative arts—that were most popular during 1890–1910. The name "Art Nouveau" is French for "new art"...

     crematorium
    Cremation
    Cremation is the process of reducing bodies to basic chemical compounds such as gasses and bone fragments. This is accomplished through high-temperature burning, vaporization and oxidation....

    . Established in 1873 it was extended to include Jewish graves in 1874 and also now houses the Russian Orthodox Church
    Russian Orthodox Church
    The Russian Orthodox Church or, alternatively, the Moscow Patriarchate The ROC is often said to be the largest of the Eastern Orthodox churches in the world; including all the autocephalous churches under its umbrella, its adherents number over 150 million worldwide—about half of the 300 million...

     of Alexander Nevsky
    Alexander Nevsky
    Alexander Nevsky was the Prince of Novgorod and Grand Prince of Vladimir during some of the most trying times in the city's history. Commonly regarded as the key figure of medieval Rus, Alexander was the grandson of Vsevolod the Big Nest and rose to legendary status on account of his military...


  • The Uff-Kirchhof cemetery in Bad Cannstatt which stands at the crossroads of two ancient Roman roads and Cannstatter Hauptfriedhof, the largest graveyard in Stuttgart which has been used as a Muslim burial ground since 1985.


The city boasts the largest mineral water deposits in Europe after Budapest
Budapest
Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

, with over 250 springs within the urban area.

Culture and events



Stuttgart is known for its rich cultural heritage, in particular its State Theatre (Staatstheater)
Staatstheater Stuttgart
The Staatstheater Stuttgart ' is an opera house in Stuttgart, Germany. It is also known locally as the Grosses Haus, having been the larger of two theatres of the former Königliche Hoftheater....

 and State Gallery (
Staatsgalerie)
Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
The Staatsgalerie Stuttgart is an art gallery and art museum in Stuttgart, Germany, opened in 1843. In 1984 the opening of the Neue Staatsgalerie designed by James Stirling transformed the once provincial gallery into one of Europe's leading museums.-Alte Staatsgalerie:Originally, the classicist...

. The
Staatstheater
Staatstheater Stuttgart
The Staatstheater Stuttgart ' is an opera house in Stuttgart, Germany. It is also known locally as the Grosses Haus, having been the larger of two theatres of the former Königliche Hoftheater....

 is home to the State opera
Staatsoper Stuttgart
The Staatsoper Stuttgart is a German opera company based in Stuttgart, Germany.-History:The Stuttgart Staatsoper forms part of the Stuttgart State Theatre , which is a a three-branch-theatre complex and represents the largest theatre of its kind in Europe...

 and three smaller theatres and it regularly stages opera, ballet and theatre productions as well as concerts. The Staatstheater
Staatstheater Stuttgart
The Staatstheater Stuttgart ' is an opera house in Stuttgart, Germany. It is also known locally as the Grosses Haus, having been the larger of two theatres of the former Königliche Hoftheater....

 was named Germany/Austria/Switzerland 'Theatre of the year' in 2006; the Stuttgart Opera has won the 'Opera of the year' award six times. Stuttgart Ballet
Stuttgart Ballet
Stuttgart Ballet was the first major German ballet company. It rose to fame in the 1960s under Artistic Director John Cranko. The company, which is renowned for presentations of full-length narrative ballets including Romeo and Juliet, Eugene Onegin, The Taming of the Shrew, John Neumeier's Die...

 is connected to names like John Cranko
John Cranko
John Cyril Cranko was a choreographer with the Sadler's Wells Ballet and the Stuttgart Ballet....

 and Marcia Haydée.

Stuttgart is also home to one of Germany's most prestigious symphony orchestras, the Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra
Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra
The Stuttgart Radio Symphony Orchestra is an orchestra based in Stuttgart in Germany. The ensemble was founded in 1945 by American occupation authorities as the orchestra for Radio Stuttgart, under the name Sinfonieorchester von Radio Stuttgart...

, with famous English
English people
The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak English. The English identity is of early mediaeval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Anglecynn. England is now a country of the United Kingdom, and the majority of English people in England are British Citizens...

 conductor Sir Roger Norrington
Roger Norrington
Sir Roger Arthur Carver Norrington, CBE is a British conductor. He is the son of Sir Arthur Norrington and his brother is Humphrey Thomas Norrington....

, who developed a distinct sound of that orchestra, known as the Stuttgart Sound. They mostly perform in the Liederhalle concert hall.

The city offers two broadway-style musical theatres, the Apollo and the Palladium Theater (each approx. 1800 seats). Ludwigsburg Palace
Ludwigsburg Palace
Ludwigsburg Palace is a historical building in the city of Ludwigsburg , Germany. It is one of the country's largest Baroque palaces and features an enormous garden in that style....

 in the nearby town of Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg
Ludwigsburg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about north of Stuttgart city centre, near the river Neckar. It is the largest and primary city of the Ludwigsburg urban district with about 87,000 inhabitants...

 is also used throughout the year as a venue for concerts and cultural events.

The Schleyerhalle
Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle
Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle is an indoor sporting arena located in Stuttgart, Germany. The capacity of the arena is 15,500 people. The hall was built in 1983 and is named for Hanns Martin Schleyer, a German employer representative, and former SS Officer and Nazi activist, who was kidnapped and...

 sports arena is regularly used to stage rock and pop concerts with major international stars on European tour.

Stuttgart's Swabian cuisine, beer and wine have been produced in the area since the 17th century and are now famous throughout Germany and beyond. For example, Gaisburger Marsch
Gaisburger Marsch
Gaisburger Marsch is a traditional Swabian beef stew, named after Gaisburg, a district of Stuttgart.The meat, cooked in a strong beef broth, is cut into cubes and served with cooked potatoes and Spätzle...

 is a stew that was invented in Stuttgart's Gaisburg area of Stuttgart East.

In October 2009 the Stuttgart Ministry of Agriculture announced that the European Union was to officially recognise the pasta
Pasta
Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, now of worldwide renown. It takes the form of unleavened dough, made in Italy, mostly of durum wheat , water and sometimes eggs. Pasta comes in a variety of different shapes that serve for both decoration and to act as a carrier for the...

 dish Maultasche
Maultasche
Maultaschen are a Swabian specialty food, consisting of an outer layer of pasta dough with a filling traditionally made of minced meat, smoked meat, spinach, bread crumbs and onions and flavored with various herbs and spices...

n as a "regional speciality", thus marking its significance to the cultural heritage of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

.


In 1993 Stuttgart hosted the International Garden Show in the suburb of Killesberg
Killesbergpark
The Killesbergpark is an urban public park of half a square kilometre in Stuttgart, Germany. It is just north of the state capital, and borders the city's fairgrounds. The park dates back to the horticultural show of 1939. Before the show, a large area of the park had been a quarry...

. In 2006 it was also one of the host cities of the Football World Cup
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

. In 2007, Stuttgart hosted the 2007 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships
2007 World Artistic Gymnastics Championships
The 40th World Artistic Gymnastics Championships were held at the Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle in Stuttgart, Germany, from 1 to 9 September 2007.Oldest and youngest competitors- Men :- Women :- Finals :- Qualifications :- Floor :...

. In 2008 it was host to the World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championships
World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championships
The World Individual Debating and Public Speaking Championships is an annual international English language debating and public speaking tournament for individual high school-level students representing different countries. It occurs during a five-day period in late March and involves 180 to 200...

.

Regular events that take place in Stuttgart:
  • The world-famous annual 'Volksfest'
    Cannstatter Volksfest
    The Cannstatter Volksfest is an annual three-week festival in Stuttgart, Germany. It is sometimes also referred to by foreign visitors as the Stuttgart Beer Festival although it is actually more of an autumnal fair...

    , originally a traditional agricultural fair which now also hosts beer tents and a French village and is second in size only to the Oktoberfest
    Oktoberfest
    Oktoberfest, or Wiesn, is a 16–18 day beer festival held annually in Munich, Bavaria, Germany, running from late September to the first weekend in October. It is one of the most famous events in Germany and is the world's largest fair, with more than 5 million people attending every year. The...

     in Munich
    Munich
    Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

    . There is also a Spring festival
    Stuttgart Spring Festival
    Stuttgart Spring Festival is an annual fair that takes place in the German city of Stuttgart between the middle of April and the beginning of May. The festival takes place on the Cannstatter Wasen, traditional fairgrounds in Stuttgart's Bad Cannstatt district...

     on the same grounds in April of each year.
  • With more than 3.6 million visitors in 2007 and more than 200 stands, Stuttgart's Christmas Market
    Christmas Market, Stuttgart
    Stuttgart Christmas Market, known in German as the Stuttgarter Weihnachtsmarkt is a Christmas market that takes place every year during Advent in the German city of Stuttgart.- History :...

     is the largest and one of the oldest and most beautiful traditional Christmas markets in Europe. It is especially renowned for its abundant decorations and takes place in the four weeks leading up to Christmas.
  • The Fish Market (Hamburger Fischmarkt, late July) with fresh fish, other food and beer from Hamburg
    Hamburg
    -History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

    .
  • The Summer Festival (Stuttgart Sommerfest, usually in early August) with shows, music, children's entertainment and local cuisine in Schlossplatz, Stuttgart
    Schlossplatz, Stuttgart
    Schlossplatz is the largest square in the centre of the city of Stuttgart and home to the New Castle which was built between 1746 and 1807....

     and adjacent parks
  • The Lantern Festival (Lichterfest, early July) in Killesberg
    Killesbergpark
    The Killesbergpark is an urban public park of half a square kilometre in Stuttgart, Germany. It is just north of the state capital, and borders the city's fairgrounds. The park dates back to the horticultural show of 1939. Before the show, a large area of the park had been a quarry...

     park with its famous firework display and fairground attractions
  • The Wine Village (Weindorf, late August/early September) – vintages are sold at this event held at Schlossplatz and Upper Palace Garden

Museums


Stuttgart is home to five of the eleven state museums in Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

. The foremost of these is the old State Gallery
Staatsgalerie Stuttgart
The Staatsgalerie Stuttgart is an art gallery and art museum in Stuttgart, Germany, opened in 1843. In 1984 the opening of the Neue Staatsgalerie designed by James Stirling transformed the once provincial gallery into one of Europe's leading museums.-Alte Staatsgalerie:Originally, the classicist...

 (opened in 1843, extended in 1984) which holds art dating from the 14th to 19th century including works by Rubens, Rembrandt, Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet was a founder of French impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting. . Retrieved 6 January 2007...

, Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. As a celebrator of beauty, and especially feminine sensuality, it has been said that "Renoir is the final representative of a tradition which runs directly from Rubens to...

, Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne was a French artist and Post-Impressionist painter whose work laid the foundations of the transition from the 19th century conception of artistic endeavour to a new and radically different world of art in the 20th century. Cézanne can be said to form the bridge between late 19th...

 and Beuys
Joseph Beuys
Joseph Beuys was a German performance artist, sculptor, installation artist, graphic artist, art theorist and pedagogue of art.His extensive work is grounded in concepts of humanism, social philosophy and anthroposophy; it culminates in his "extended definition of art" and the idea of social...

. Next door to the Old State Gallery is the New State Gallery
Neue Staatsgalerie
The Neue Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, Germany was designed by the British firm James Stirling, Michael Wilford and Associates, although largely accredited solely to partner James Stirling. It was constructed in the 1970s and opened to the public in 1984....

 (1980) with its controversial modern architecture. Among others, this gallery houses works from Max Beckmann
Max Beckmann
Max Beckmann was a German painter, draftsman, printmaker, sculptor, and writer. Although he is classified as an Expressionist artist, he rejected both the term and the movement...

, Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Domènec Felip Jacint Dalí i Domènech, Marquis de Púbol , commonly known as Salvador Dalí , was a prominent Spanish Catalan surrealist painter born in Figueres,Spain....

, Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French artist, known for his use of colour and his fluid and original draughtsmanship. He was a draughtsman, printmaker, and sculptor, but is known primarily as a painter...

, Miró
Joan Miró
Joan Miró i Ferrà was a Spanish Catalan painter, sculptor, and ceramicist born in Barcelona.Earning international acclaim, his work has been interpreted as Surrealism, a sandbox for the subconscious mind, a re-creation of the childlike, and a manifestation of Catalan pride...

, Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Ruiz y Picasso known as Pablo Ruiz Picasso was a Spanish expatriate painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, and stage designer, one of the greatest and most influential artists of the...

, Klee
Paul Klee
Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, and is considered both a German and a Swiss painter. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included expressionism, cubism, and surrealism. He was, as well, a student of orientalism...

, Chagall
Marc Chagall
Marc Chagall Art critic Robert Hughes referred to Chagall as "the quintessential Jewish artist of the twentieth century."According to art historian Michael J...

 and Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky was an influential Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting the first purely-abstract works. Born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics...

.


The Old Castle
Old Castle (Stuttgart)
The Old Castle is located in the centre of Stuttgart, the capital of the German State of Baden-Württemberg. It dates back to the 10th century....

 is also home to the State Museum of Württemberg
Landesmuseum Württemberg
The Landesmuseum Württemberg is the main historical museum of the Württemberg part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It emerged from the 16th century “Kunstkammer” of the dukes, later kings, of Württemberg who resided in Stuttgart...

 which was founded in 1862 by William I of Württemberg
William I of Württemberg
William I was the second King of Württemberg from October 30, 1816 until his death.He was born in Lüben, the son of King Frederick I of Württemberg and his wife Duchess Augusta of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel .-First marriage:...

. The museum traces the rich history of Württemberg
History of Württemberg
Württemberg developed as a political entity in south-west Germany, with the core established around Stuttgart by Count Conrad . His descendants managed to expand Württemberg, surviving Germany's religious wars, changes in imperial policy, and invasions from France. The state had a basic...

 with many artefacts from the its dukes, counts and kings, as well as earlier remants dating back to the stone age
Stone Age
The Stone Age is a broad prehistoric period, lasting about 2.5 million years , during which humans and their predecessor species in the genus Homo, as well as the earlier partly contemporary genera Australopithecus and Paranthropus, widely used exclusively stone as their hard material in the...

. On the Karlsplatz side of the Old Castle is a museum dedicated to the memory of Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
Claus Philipp Maria Justinian Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg commonly referred to as Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg was a German army officer and Catholic aristocrat who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from...

, former resident of Stuttgart who attempted to assassinate Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler was an Austrian-born German politician and the leader of the National Socialist German Workers Party , commonly referred to as the Nazi Party). He was Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and head of state from 1934 to 1945...

 on 20 July 1944.

Other leading museums in Stuttgart include:
  • The History Museum (Haus der Geschichte, 1987), examining local history, finds, the conflict between modern society and its cultural history
  • State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart
    State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart
    The State Museum of Natural History Stuttgart is one of the two state of Baden-Württemberg's natural history museums...

     (SMNS) in Park Rosenstein
    Rosensteinpark
    The Rosensteinpark in Stuttgart is the largest English garden in southwest Germany. It was created in the years 1824 to 1840 on the orders of King William I of Württemberg after plans of his gardener Johann Bosch on the former Kahlenstein area...

     housed in Castle Rosenstein (with an emphasis on biology and natural history) and Löwentor Museum (paleontology
    Paleontology
    Paleontology "old, ancient", ὄν, ὀντ- "being, creature", and λόγος "speech, thought") is the study of prehistoric life. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution and interactions with each other and their environments...

     and geology
    Geology
    Geology is the science comprising the study of solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which it evolves. Geology gives insight into the history of the Earth, as it provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics, the evolutionary history of life, and past climates...

    , home of the Steinheim Skull
    Steinheim Skull
    The Steinheim skull is a fossilized skull of an archaic Homo sapiens or Homo heidelbergensis found in 1933 near Steinheim an der Murr ....

     and many unique fossils from the triassic
    Triassic
    The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 250 to 200 Mya . As the first period of the Mesozoic Era, the Triassic follows the Permian and is followed by the Jurassic. Both the start and end of the Triassic are marked by major extinction events...

    , jurassic
    Jurassic
    The Jurassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about Mya to  Mya, that is, from the end of the Triassic to the beginning of the Cretaceous. The Jurassic constitutes the middle period of the Mesozoic era, also known as the age of reptiles. The start of the period is marked by...

     and tertiary
    Tertiary
    The Tertiary is a deprecated term for a geologic period 65 million to 2.6 million years ago. The Tertiary covered the time span between the superseded Secondary period and the Quaternary...

     periods
  • The Mercedes-Benz Museum
    Mercedes-Benz Museum
    The Mercedes-Benz Museum is an automotive museum housed in Stuttgart, Germany. Stuttgart is home to the Mercedes-Benz brand and the international headquarters of Daimler AG. The current building, which stands directly outside the main gate of the Daimler factory in Stuttgart-Untertürkheim, was...

     (1936, moved in 2006), now the most visited museum in Stuttgart (440,000 visits per year. The museum traces the 125 year history of the automobile from the legendary silver arrow to the Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz
    Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

     brand of today
  • Stuttgart Art Museum
    Kunstmuseum Stuttgart
    The Kunstmuseum Stuttgart is a contemporary and modern art museum in Stuttgart, Germany, built and opened in 2005.-Description:The cubic museum building with 5000 m² of display space was designed by Berlin architects Hascher and Jehle...

     (Kunstmuseum Stuttgart, 2005), the number two museum in Stuttgart in terms of visitors with a strong leaning towards modern art (the foremost exhibition of Otto Dix
    Otto Dix
    Wilhelm Heinrich Otto Dix was a German painter and printmaker, noted for his ruthless and harshly realistic depictions of Weimar society and the brutality of war. Along with George Grosz, he is widely considered one of the most important artists of the Neue Sachlichkeit.-Early life and...

     works. The museum stands on the corner of Schlossplatz, Stuttgart
    Schlossplatz, Stuttgart
    Schlossplatz is the largest square in the centre of the city of Stuttgart and home to the New Castle which was built between 1746 and 1807....

     in a huge glass cube, in strong contrast to the surrounding traditional architecture.
  • The Porsche Museum
    Porsche Museum, Stuttgart
    The Porsche Museum is an automotive museum in the Zuffenhausen district of Stuttgart, Germany on the site of carmaker Porsche.- The new museum :The new Porsche museum stands on a conspicuous junction just outside Porsche Headquarters in Zuffenhausen...

     (1976, reopened in 2008 on new premises).
  • Hegel House
    Hegel House
    The Hegel House is a museum in Stuttgart, Germany, located in the house where the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was born.Born in 1770, Hegel lived in Stuttgart for the first 18 years of his life; he died in Berlin in 1831. The Hegel House is on Eberhardstraße, and dates from the 16th...

     (Hegelhaus), birthplace of the philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality as a whole revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism.Hegel developed a comprehensive...

     which documents his life works
  • The Linden Museum
    Linden Museum
    The Linden Museum is an ethnological museum located in Stuttgart, Germany....

    , established in 1911, a leading international ethnological
    Ethnology
    Ethnology is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyzes the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the ethnic, racial, and/or national divisions of humanity.-Scientific discipline:Compared to ethnography, the study of single groups through direct...

     museum
  • Stuttgart Tram Museum in Zuffenhausen, a display of historical vehicles dating back to 1868
  • Theodor Heuss House (Theodor-Heuss
    Theodor Heuss
    Theodor Heuss was a liberal German politician who served as the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany after World War II from 1949 to 1959...

    -Haus, 2002) in Killesbergpark
    Killesbergpark
    The Killesbergpark is an urban public park of half a square kilometre in Stuttgart, Germany. It is just north of the state capital, and borders the city's fairgrounds. The park dates back to the horticultural show of 1939. Before the show, a large area of the park had been a quarry...

    , a tribute to the life and times of the former German president
  • The North Station Memorial (Gedenkstätte am Nordbahnhof Stuttgart) in memory of the 2000 or so Jewish holocaust
    The Holocaust
    The Holocaust , also known as the Shoah , was the genocide of approximately six million European Jews and millions of others during World War II, a programme of systematic state-sponsored murder by Nazi...

     victims deported by the Nazis
    Nazism
    Nazism, the common short form name of National Socialism was the ideology and practice of the Nazi Party and of Nazi Germany...

     from the now disused North Station


Churches


Stuttgart is the seat of a Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 bishop
Bishop
A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox Churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Independent Catholic Churches, and in the...

 (Protestant State Church in Württemberg) and one of the two co-seats of the bishop of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rottenburg-Stuttgart. The Stuttgart-based Pentecostal
Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism is a diverse and complex movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism in the Holy Spirit, has an eschatological focus, and is an experiential religion. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek...

 
Biblische Glaubens-Gemeinde is the largest place of worship (megachurch
Megachurch
A megachurch is a church having 2,000 or more in average weekend attendance. The Hartford Institute's database lists more than 1,300 such Protestant churches in the United States. According to that data, approximately 50 churches on the list have attendance ranging from 10,000 to 47,000...

) in Germany.

Demographics


The population of Stuttgart declined steadily between 1960 (637,539) and 2000 (586,978). Then low levels of unemployment and attractive secondary education opportunities led to renewed population growth, fuelled especially by young adults from the former East Germany. For the first time in decades, in 2006 there were also more births in the city than deaths. In April 2008 there were 590,720 inhabitants in the city.

Large immigrant community from within Germany and from abroad


More than half of the population today is not of Swabia
Swabia
Swabia is a cultural, historic and linguistic region in southwestern Germany.-Geography:Like many cultural regions of Europe, Swabia's borders are not clearly defined...

n background, as many non-Swabian Germans have moved here due to the employment situation, which is far better than in most areas of Germany. Since the 1960s, many foreigners have also immigrated to Stuttgart to work here (as part of the "Gastarbeiter
Gastarbeiter
Gastarbeiter is German for "guest worker." It refers to migrant workers who had moved to West Germany mainly in the 1960s and 70s, seeking work as part of a formal guest worker programme...

" program); another wave of immigrants came as refugees from the Wars in Yugoslavia in the 1990s
1990s
File:1990s decade montage.png|From left, clockwise: The Hubble Space Telescope floats in space after it was taken up in 1990; American F-16s and F-15s fly over burning oil fields and the USA Lexie in Operation Desert Storm, also known as the 1991 Gulf War; The signing of the Oslo Accords on...

. Thus, 40% of the city's population is of foreign background. In 2000, 22.8% of the population did not hold German citizenship
German nationality law
German citizenship is based primarily on the principle of jus sanguinis. In other words one usually acquires German citizenship if a parent is a German citizen, irrespective of place of birth....

, in 2006 this had reduced to 21.7%. The largest groups of foreign nationals were Turks
Turkish people
Turkish people, also known as the "Turks" , are an ethnic group primarily living in Turkey and in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire where Turkish minorities had been established in Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Georgia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Romania...

 (22,025), Greeks
Greeks
The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes , are a nation and ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus and neighboring regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world....

 (14,341), Italians
Italian people
The Italian people are an ethnic group that share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Within Italy, Italians are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence , and are distinguished from people...

 (13,978), Croats
Croats
Croats are a South Slavic ethnic group mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. There are around 4 million Croats living inside Croatia and up to 4.5 million throughout the rest of the world. Responding to political, social and economic pressure, many Croats have...

 (12,985), Serbs
Serbs
The Serbs are a South Slavic ethnic group of the Balkans and southern Central Europe. Serbs are located mainly in Serbia, Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and form a sizable minority in Croatia, the Republic of Macedonia and Slovenia. Likewise, Serbs are an officially recognized minority in...

 (11,547) followed by immigrants from Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Portugal, Poland, Austria and France. 39% of foreign nationals come from the European Union (mostly Italy, Greece and Poland).

Religion


The religious landscape in Stuttgart changed in 1534 as a direct result of the Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

. Since this time Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

 has been predominantly Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

. However since 1975 the number of Protestants in Stuttgart has dropped from around 300,000 to 200,000. In 2000, 33.7% of inhabitants were Protestant
Protestantism
Protestantism is one of the three major groupings within Christianity. It is a movement that began in Germany in the early 16th century as a reaction against medieval Roman Catholic doctrines and practices, especially in regards to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology.The doctrines of the...

 and 27.4% were Roman Catholic. 39% of the population fall into 'other' categories: Muslims, Jews and those who either follow no religion or follow a religion not accounted for in official statistics.


Unemployment


Unemployment in the Stuttgart Region
Stuttgart Region
Stuttgart Region is a metropolitan area in Germany and consists of the city of Stuttgart and the surrounding districts of Ludwigsburg, Esslingen, Böblingen, Rems-Murr and Göppingen . About 2.7 million inhabitants live in that area...

 is low compared to other metropolitan areas in Germany. In November 2008, before the annual winter rise, unemployment in the Stuttgart Region stood at 3.8%, 0.1% lower than the rate for Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

, in February 2009 it was 4.7%. Unemployment in the actual city of Stuttgart during the same periods stood at 5.2% and 6.0% (8 Nov and 9 Feb respectively). By comparison: unemployment for the whole of Germany stood at 7.1% (8 Nov) and 8.5% (9 Feb).

Crime rates


Stuttgart ranks as one of the safest cities in Germany. In 2003, 8535 crimes were committed in Stuttgart for every 100,000 inhabitants (versus the average for all German cities of 12,751). Figures for 2006 indicate that Stuttgart ranked second behind Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

. 60% of Stuttgart crimes were solved in 2003, ranking second behind Nuremberg
Nuremberg
Nuremberg[p] is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population is 505,664...

.

Politics


Stuttgart's current Bürgermeister
Burgomaster
Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council of a sub-national level of administration...

 (mayor) is Wolfgang Schuster
Wolfgang Schuster
Wolfgang Schuster has been the Lord Mayor of Stuttgart, Germany, since January 1997. He is the successor to Manfred Rommel and a member of the CDU.-Studies and early positions:...

 of the conservative CDU
Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It is regarded as on the centre-right of the German political spectrum...

 party (Christian Democratic Union of Germany).

City government past and present


When Stuttgart was run as a county (or within the Duchy of Württemberg), it was governed by a type of protectorate called a Vogt
Vogt
A Vogt ; plural Vögte; Dutch voogd; Danish foged; ; ultimately from Latin [ad]vocatus) in the Holy Roman Empire was the German title of a reeve or advocate, an overlord exerting guardianship or military protection as well as secular justice...

 appointed by the Duke
Duke
A duke or duchess is a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch, and historically controlling a duchy...

. After 1811 this role was fulfilled by a City Director or 'Stadtdirektor'. After 1819 the community elected its own community mayor or 'Schultheiß'. Since 1930 the title of Oberbürgermeister (the nearest equivalent of which would be an executive form of Lord Mayor
Lord Mayor
The Lord Mayor is the title of the Mayor of a major city, with special recognition.-Commonwealth of Nations:* In Australia it is a political position. Australian cities with Lord Mayors: Adelaide, Brisbane, Darwin, Hobart, Melbourne, Newcastle, Parramatta, Perth, Sydney, and Wollongong...

 in English) has applied to Stuttgart and all other Württemberg towns of more than 20,000 inhabitants.

At the end of the Second World War, French administrators appointed the independent politician Arnulf Klett
Arnulf Klett
Arnulf Klett was a German lawyer and politician...

 as Burgomaster
Burgomaster
Burgomaster is the English form of various terms in or derived from Germanic languages for the chief magistrate or chairman of the executive council of a sub-national level of administration...

, a role he fulfilled without interruption until his death in 1974. Since this time Stuttgart has been governed by the CDU
Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It is regarded as on the centre-right of the German political spectrum...

. The previous mayor was Manfred Rommel
Manfred Rommel
Manfred Rommel, Hon. CBE is a German politician , who served as Lord Mayor of Stuttgart from 1974 until 1996. He is one of the most popular local politicians of the CDU....

 (son of perhaps the most famous German field marshal
Field Marshal
Field Marshal is a military rank. Traditionally, it is the highest military rank in an army.-Etymology:The origin of the rank of field marshal dates to the early Middle Ages, originally meaning the keeper of the king's horses , from the time of the early Frankish kings.-Usage and hierarchical...

 of World War II, Erwin Rommel
Erwin Rommel
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel , popularly known as the Desert Fox , was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He won the respect of both his own troops and the enemies he fought....

).

As the capital of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

, Stuttgart is an important political centre in Germany and the seat of the State Parliament, or Landtag
Landtag
A Landtag is a representative assembly or parliament in German-speaking countries with some legislative authority.- Name :...

 as well as all Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

 state departments.

In June 2009, for the first time the Greens gained the most seats in a German city with more than 500,000 inhabitants, effectively changing the balance of power in the city council. For the first time since 1972 the CDU
Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It is regarded as on the centre-right of the German political spectrum...

 no longer held the most seats, toppling its absolute majority shared with the Independent Party and the FDP
Free Democratic Party (Germany)
The Free Democratic Party , abbreviated to FDP, is a centre-right classical liberal political party in Germany. It is led by Philipp Rösler and currently serves as the junior coalition partner to the Union in the German federal government...

. According to the German newspaper Die Welt
Die Welt
Die Welt is a German national daily newspaper published by the Axel Springer AG company.It was founded in Hamburg in 1946 by the British occupying forces, aiming to provide a "quality newspaper" modelled on The Times...

, the main reason for the Greens' victory was disgruntlement with the controversial Stuttgart 21
Stuttgart 21
Stuttgart 21 is an urban development and under construction transport project in Stuttgart as part of the Stuttgart–Augsburg new and upgraded railway project in Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria in Germany. It consists of the replacement of the tracks and platforms of Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, the city's...

 rail project.

Recent election results

Party
Year
Regional
1999
European
1999
State
2001
National German parliament
Bundestag
The Bundestag is a federal legislative body in Germany. In practice Germany is governed by a bicameral legislature, of which the Bundestag serves as the lower house and the Bundesrat the upper house. The Bundestag is established by the German Basic Law of 1949, as the successor to the earlier...


2002
Regional
2004
European
2004
City Council
2009 (seats)
National German parliament
Bundestag
The Bundestag is a federal legislative body in Germany. In practice Germany is governed by a bicameral legislature, of which the Bundestag serves as the lower house and the Bundesrat the upper house. The Bundestag is established by the German Basic Law of 1949, as the successor to the earlier...


2005
European
2009
CDU
Christian Democratic Union (Germany)
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany is a Christian democratic and conservative political party in Germany. It is regarded as on the centre-right of the German political spectrum...

42.5 % 42.9 % 37.1 % 35.1 % 35.6 % 37.4 % 24.2 % (15) 32.7 % 29,1%
SPD
Social Democratic Party of Germany
The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...

24.5 % 27.6 % 36.3 % 35.7 % 24.4 % 21.2 % 17.0 % (10) 32.0 % 18,0%
FDP
Free Democratic Party (Germany)
The Free Democratic Party , abbreviated to FDP, is a centre-right classical liberal political party in Germany. It is led by Philipp Rösler and currently serves as the junior coalition partner to the Union in the German federal government...

5.5 % 6.2 % 9.2 % 8.5 % 5.3 % 7.7 % 10.9 % (7) 12.8 % 14,5%
Green Party
Alliance '90/The Greens
Alliance '90/The Greens is a green political party in Germany, formed from the merger of the German Green Party and Alliance 90 in 1993. Its leaders are Claudia Roth and Cem Özdemir...

14.1 % 14.3 % 11.5 % 16.2 % 17.2 % 22.1 % 25.3 % (16) 15.0 % 25,0%
Independent
Independent (politician)
In politics, an independent or non-party politician is an individual not affiliated to any political party. Independents may hold a centrist viewpoint between those of major political parties, a viewpoint more extreme than any major party, or they may have a viewpoint based on issues that they do...

5.6 % 8.5 % 10.3 % (6) 1,2%
Republicans 3.6 % 3.6 % 4.7 % 1.0 % 4.0 % 3.3 % 2.5 % (1) 0.8 % 2,0%
The Left
The Left (Germany)
The Left , also commonly referred to as the Left Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Germany. The Left is the most left-wing party of the five represented in the Bundestag....

1.4 % 1.7 % 1.9 % 4.5 % (2) 4.4 % 4,5%
SÖS 4.6 % (3)
Others 1.5 % 5.4 % 1.2% 2.1 % 3.4 % 6.5 % 0.7 % (0) 2.3 % 6,7 %
Election turnout 59.1 % 46.6 % 65.5 % 81.0 % 54.0 % 51.9 % 48.7 % 79.1 % 52,3%

Source =Stuttgart election results

Economy


The Stuttgart area is known for its high-tech industry. Some of its most prominent companies include Daimler AG, Porsche
Porsche
Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German based holding company with investments in the automotive industry....

, Bosch
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH is a multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. It is the world's largest supplier of automotive components...

, Celesio
Celesio
Celesio AG is a German healthcare and pharmaceutical company, represented in 14 countries, with a revenue of 21.5 billion euro and more than 46,000 employees...

, Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard
Hewlett-Packard Company or HP is an American multinational information technology corporation headquartered in Palo Alto, California, USA that provides products, technologies, softwares, solutions and services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including...

 and IBM
IBM
International Business Machines Corporation or IBM is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and sells computer hardware and software, and it offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas...

 – all of whom have their world or European headquarters here.


Stuttgart is home to Germany's ninth biggest exhibition centre, Stuttgart Trade Fair
Stuttgart Trade Fair
Messe Stuttgart is an exhibition centre and trade fair next to Stuttgart Airport, 7 miles south of Stuttgart, Germany. It is the ninth biggest trade fair in Germany....

 which lies on the city outskirts next to Stuttgart Airport
Stuttgart Airport
Stuttgart Airport is an international airport located approximately south of Stuttgart, Germany....

. Hundreds of SMEs are still based in Stuttgart (often termed Mittelstand
Mittelstand
Mittelstand refers to small and medium-sized enterprises in German-speaking countries, especially in Germany, Austria and Switzerland. Economic and business historians have been increasingly giving Mittelstand companies more and more credit for Germany's economic growth in the beginning of the 20th...

), many still in family ownership with strong ties to the automotive, electronics, engineering and high-tech industry. Contact Air
Contact Air
Contact Air Flugdienst is a regional airline headquartered in Stuttgart, Germany, operating scheduled services as part of Lufthansa Regional out of Stuttgart Airport, and on behalf of Swiss International Airlines out of Zürich Airport.- History :The airline was established by Gunther Eheim as a...

, a regional airline and Lufthansa
Lufthansa
Deutsche Lufthansa AG is the flag carrier of Germany and the largest airline in Europe in terms of overall passengers carried. The name of the company is derived from Luft , and Hansa .The airline is the world's fourth-largest airline in terms of overall passengers carried, operating...

 subsidiary, is headquartered in Stuttgart.

Stuttgart has the highest general standard of prosperity of any city in Germany. Its nominal GDP per capita is €57,100 and GDP purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita is €55,400. Total GDP of Stuttgart is €33.9 billion, of which service sector contributes around 65.3%, industry 34.5%, and agriculture 0.2%.

The cradle of the automobile


The automobile and motorcycle were invented in Stuttgart (by Karl Benz
Karl Benz
Karl Friedrich Benz, was a German engine designer and car engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered car, and together with Bertha Benz pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz...

 and subsequently industrialised in 1887 by Gottlieb Daimler
Gottlieb Daimler
Gottlieb Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf , in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development...

 and Wilhelm Maybach
Wilhelm Maybach
Wilhelm Maybach was an early German engine designer and industrialist. During the 1890s he was hailed in France, then the world centre for car production, as the "King of constructors"....

 at the Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft). As a result it is considered by many to be the starting point of the worldwide automotive industry and is sometimes referred to as "The cradle of the automobile". Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz
Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of automobiles, buses, coaches, and trucks. Mercedes-Benz is a division of its parent company, Daimler AG...

, Porsche
Porsche
Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German based holding company with investments in the automotive industry....

 and Maybach
Maybach
Maybach-Motorenbau GmbH is a German luxury car manufacturer. It was founded in 1909 by Wilhelm Maybach and his son. The company was originally a subsidiary of Luftschiffbau Zeppelin GmbH and was itself known as Luftfahrzeug-Motorenbau GmbH until 1912.Today, the ultra-luxury car brand is owned by...

 are all produced in Stuttgart and nearby towns. The very first prototypes of the VW Beetle
Volkswagen Beetle
The Volkswagen Type 1, widely known as the Volkswagen Beetle or Volkswagen Bug, is an economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen from 1938 until 2003...

 were manufactured in Stuttgart based on a design by Ferdinand Porsche
Ferdinand Porsche
Ferdinand Porsche was an Austrian automotive engineer and honorary Doctor of Engineering. He is best known for creating the first hybrid vehicle , the Volkswagen Beetle, and the Mercedes-Benz SS/SSK, as well as the first of many Porsche automobiles...

. Also automotive parts giants Bosch
Robert Bosch GmbH
Robert Bosch GmbH is a multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. It is the world's largest supplier of automotive components...

 and Mahle
Mahle GmbH
Mahle GmbH is one of the 30 largest automotive suppliers worldwide. As the leading manufacturer of components and systems for combustion engines and its periphery, the Mahle Group is among the top three systems suppliers worldwide for piston systems, cylinder components, valve train systems, air...

 are based in the city. A number of auto-enthusiast magazines are published in Stuttgart.

Science and R&D


The region currently has Germany's highest density of scientific, academic and research organisations. No other region in Germany registers so many patents and designs as Stuttgart. Almost 45% of Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg
Baden-Württemberg is one of the 16 states of Germany. Baden-Württemberg is in the southwestern part of the country to the east of the Upper Rhine, and is the third largest in both area and population of Germany's sixteen states, with an area of and 10.7 million inhabitants...

 scientists involved in R&D are based directly in the Swabian capital. More than 11% of all German R&D costs are invested in the Stuttgart Region (approximately 4.3 billion euros per year). In addition to several universities and colleges (e.g. University of Stuttgart
University of Stuttgart
The University of Stuttgart is a university located in Stuttgart, Germany. It was founded in 1829 and is organized in 10 faculties....

, University of Hohenheim
University of Hohenheim
The University of Hohenheim is a university in Stuttgart, Germany. Founded in 1818 it is Stuttgart's oldest university and one of Germany's leading universities both in agricultural sciences and economics.-History:...

, Stuttgart Institute of Management and Technology
Stuttgart Institute of Management and Technology
The Stuttgart Institute of Management and Technology is an international Business School and Further Education Institute offering both full-time and part-time programs leading to the academic degree "Master of Business Administration " of the Universität Stuttgart...

 and several Stuttgart Universities of Applied Sciences
University of Applied Sciences Stuttgart
The Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences - Hochschule für Technik - is one of ten institutes for higher education in Stuttgart...

), the area is home to six Fraunhofer
Fraunhofer Society
The Fraunhofer Society is a German research organization with 60 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science . It employs around 18,000, mainly scientists and engineers, with an annual research budget of about €1.65 billion...

 institutes, four institutes of collaborative industrial research at local universities, two Max-Planck institutes
Max Planck Society
The Max Planck Society for the Advancement of Science is a formally independent non-governmental and non-profit association of German research institutes publicly funded by the federal and the 16 state governments of Germany....

 and a major establishment of the German Aerospace Centre (DLR)
German Aerospace Center
The German Aerospace Center is the national centre for aerospace, energy and transportation research of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has multiple locations throughout Germany. Its headquarters are located in Cologne. It is engaged in a wide range of research and development projects in...

.

Financial services


The Stuttgart Stock Exchange is the second largest in Germany (after Frankfurt
Frankfurt Stock Exchange
The Frankfurt Stock Exchange is the world's 12th largest stock exchange by market capitalization. Located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange is owned and operated by Deutsche Börse, which also owns the European futures exchange Eurex and the clearing company...

). Many leading companies in the financial services sector are headquartered in Stuttgart with around 100 credit institutes in total (e.g. LBBW Bank
Landesbank Baden-Württemberg
Landesbank Baden-Württemberg is a parent company of three commercial bank and the Landesbank for some Federal States of Germany.-History:...

, Wüstenrot & Württembergische, Allianz
Allianz
SE is a global financial services company headquartered in Munich, Germany. Its core business and focus is insurance. As of 2010, it was the world's 12th-largest financial services group and 23rd-largest company according to a composite measure by Forbes magazine.Its Allianz Global Investors...

 Life Assurance).

A history of wine and beer


Wine-growing in the area dates back to 1108 when, according to State archives, Blaubeuren Abbey
Blaubeuren Abbey
Blaubeuren Abbey was a house of the Benedictine Order located in Blaubeuren, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.-History: Catholic:...

 was given vineyards in Stuttgart as a gift from 'Monk Ulrich'. In the 17th century the city was the third largest German wine-growing community in the Holy Roman Empire
Holy Roman Empire
The Holy Roman Empire was a realm that existed from 962 to 1806 in Central Europe.It was ruled by the Holy Roman Emperor. Its character changed during the Middle Ages and the Early Modern period, when the power of the emperor gradually weakened in favour of the princes...

. Wine remained Stuttgart's leading source of income well into the 19th century.

Stuttgart is still one of Germany's largest wine-growing cities with more than 400 hectares of vine area, thanks in main to its location at the centre of Germany's fourth largest wine region, the Württemberg wine growing area
Württemberg (wine region)
Württemberg is a region for quality wine in Germany, and is located in the historical region of Württemberg in southwestern Germany, which today forms part of the federal state of Baden-Württemberg. Under German wine legislation, Württemberg and Baden are separate wine regions.With under vine in...

 which covers 11522 hectares (28,471.5 acre) and is one of only 13 official areas captured under German Wine law
Wine law
Wine laws are legislation regulating various aspects of production and sales of wine. The purpose of wine laws includes combating wine fraud, by means of regulated protected designations of origin, labelling practices and classification of wine, as well as regulating allowed additives and...

. The continuing importance of wine to the local economy is marked every year at the annual wine festival ('Weindorf').

Stuttgart also has several famous breweries such as Stuttgarter Hofbräu
Stuttgarter Hofbräu
Stuttgarter Hofbräu is a German brewery located in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg.It was established in 1872. It is the traditional beer of the city Stuttgart....

, Dinkelacker
Dinkelacker
Dinkelacker is a brand of German beer that is brewed in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg.The Dinkelacker brewery was founded by Carl Dinkelacker in Stuttgart's Tübinger Straße in 1888. The company still brews at that location. By the end of the 19th century Dinkelacker was the largest brewery in...

, and Schwaben Bräu
Schwaben Bräu
Schwaben Bräu is a brewery owned by Dinkelacker-Schwaben Bräu GmbH und Co. KG and located in Stuttgart, Germany. The company owns the largest brewery in the German state of Baden-Württemberg.- Products :...

.

Education and research



Stuttgart and its region have been home to some significant figures of German thought and literature, the most important ones being Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality as a whole revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism.Hegel developed a comprehensive...

, Friedrich Schiller
Friedrich Schiller
Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life , Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe...

 and Friedrich Hölderlin
Friedrich Hölderlin
Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin was a major German lyric poet, commonly associated with the artistic movement known as Romanticism. Hölderlin was also an important thinker in the development of German Idealism, particularly his early association with and philosophical influence on his...

.

The city, in its engineering tradition as the cradle of the automobile, has also always been a fruitful place of research and innovation. Stuttgart has Germany's second-highest number of institutions (six) of applied research of the Fraunhofer Society
Fraunhofer Society
The Fraunhofer Society is a German research organization with 60 institutes spread throughout Germany, each focusing on different fields of applied science . It employs around 18,000, mainly scientists and engineers, with an annual research budget of about €1.65 billion...

 (after Dresden
Dresden
Dresden is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area....

).

Tertiary education


The city is not considered a traditional university city, but nevertheless has a variety of institutions of higher education. The most significant of them are:
  • University of Stuttgart
    University of Stuttgart
    The University of Stuttgart is a university located in Stuttgart, Germany. It was founded in 1829 and is organized in 10 faculties....

    , it is the fourth biggest university in Baden-Württemberg after Heidelberg, Tübingen and Freiburg
    University of Freiburg
    The University of Freiburg , sometimes referred to in English as the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg, is a public research university located in Freiburg im Breisgau, Baden-Württemberg, Germany.The university was founded in 1457 by the Habsburg dynasty as the...

    . Founded in 1829, it was a Technische Hochschule ("Technical University") until 1967, when it was renamed to "university". Its campus for social sciences and architecture is located in the city centre, near the main train station
    Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
    is the Hauptbahnhof of the city of Stuttgart, the capital of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany. It is the largest regional and long-distance railway station in Stuttgart, the main node of the Stuttgart S-Bahn network, and, together with the halt at Charlottenplatz, the main...

    , while the natural science campus is in the southwestern city district of Vaihingen. Historically, its been especially renowned for its faculty of architecture (
    Stuttgarter Schule). Today, its main focus is on engineering and other technical subjects.
  • University of Hohenheim
    University of Hohenheim
    The University of Hohenheim is a university in Stuttgart, Germany. Founded in 1818 it is Stuttgart's oldest university and one of Germany's leading universities both in agricultural sciences and economics.-History:...

    , founded in 1818 as an academy for agricultural science
    Agricultural science
    Agricultural science is a broad multidisciplinary field that encompasses the parts of exact, natural, economic and social sciences that are used in the practice and understanding of agriculture. -Agriculture and agricultural science:The two terms are often confused...

     and forestry
    Forestry
    Forestry is the interdisciplinary profession embracing the science, art, and craft of creating, managing, using, and conserving forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human benefit. Forestry is practiced in plantations and natural stands...

    . While these subjects are still taught there today, its other focus today is on business administration. It is located in Hohenheim quarter of the southern city district of Plieningen.
  • State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart
    State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart
    The State University of Music and Performing Arts Stuttgart is a professional school for musicians and performing artists in Stuttgart, Germany...

    , founded in 1857, located in the city centre, next to the Neue Staatsgalerie
    Neue Staatsgalerie
    The Neue Staatsgalerie in Stuttgart, Germany was designed by the British firm James Stirling, Michael Wilford and Associates, although largely accredited solely to partner James Stirling. It was constructed in the 1970s and opened to the public in 1984....

    .
  • State Academy of Visual Arts Stuttgart, one of the biggest art colleges in Germany, founded in 1761, located in the Killesberg quarter of the northern city district Stuttgart-Nord.
  • Stuttgart Media University (Hochschule der Medien Stuttgart), founded in 2001 as a university of applied sciences, a merger of the former College of Printing and Publishing and the College of Librarianship, located in Vaihingen.
  • Stuttgart Technology University of Applied Sciences (Hochschule für Technik Stuttgart), founded in 1832 as a college for craftsmanship, university of applied sciences since 1971, located in the city centre, near the University of Stuttgart's city-centre campus.
  • University of Cooperative Education Baden-Württemberg, founded in 1974, with a focus on practical experience, subjects are business, technology and social work.


Historically, an elite military academy
Military academy
A military academy or service academy is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the army, the navy, air force or coast guard, which normally provides education in a service environment, the exact definition depending on the country concerned.Three...

 existed in Stuttgart in the late 18th century (1770–1794), the Hohe Karlsschule, at Solitude Castle. Friedrich Schiller and the city's most famous Classicist architect
Classicism
Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity, as setting standards for taste which the classicists seek to emulate. The art of classicism typically seeks to be formal and restrained: of the Discobolus Sir Kenneth Clark observed, "if we object to his restraint...

, Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret, were among its many esteemed alumni.

Primary and secondary education


The first Waldorf School (also known as Rudolf Steiner School) was founded here in 1919 by the director of the Waldorf Astoria tobacco factory
Waldorf-Astoria-Zigarettenfabrik
The Waldorf-Astoria-Zigarettenfabrik was a German tobacco company, established by Emil Molt and several other partners on January 1, 1906...

, Emil Molt
Emil Molt
Emil Molt was a German businessman, social reformer and anthroposophist. He was the director of the Waldorf-Astoria-Zigarettenfabrik, and with Rudolf Steiner co-founded the first Waldorf school. Hence, Waldorf education was named after the company.-External links:*...

, and Austrian social thinker Rudolf Steiner
Rudolf Steiner
Rudolf Joseph Lorenz Steiner was an Austrian philosopher, social reformer, architect, and esotericist. He gained initial recognition as a literary critic and cultural philosopher...

, a comprehensive school
Comprehensive school
A comprehensive school is a state school that does not select its intake on the basis of academic achievement or aptitude. This is in contrast to the selective school system, where admission is restricted on the basis of a selection criteria. The term is commonly used in relation to the United...

 following Steiner's educational principles of anthroposophy
Anthroposophy
Anthroposophy, a philosophy founded by Rudolf Steiner, postulates the existence of an objective, intellectually comprehensible spiritual world accessible to direct experience through inner development...

 and humanistic
Humanism
Humanism is an approach in study, philosophy, world view or practice that focuses on human values and concerns. In philosophy and social science, humanism is a perspective which affirms some notion of human nature, and is contrasted with anti-humanism....

 ideals. Today, three of these schools are located in Stuttgart.

Media and publishing


One of the headquarters of the public Südwestrundfunk
Südwestrundfunk
The Südwestrundfunk is a public broadcasting company for the southwest of Germany, specifically the states of Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate. The company has main offices in three cities: Stuttgart, Baden-Baden and Mainz, with the director's office being in Stuttgart. It is an...

 (SWR; Southwest Broadcasting) channels (several radio and one TV channel; regional focus on the southwestern German States of Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate
Rhineland-Palatinate is one of the 16 states of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has an area of and about four million inhabitants. The capital is Mainz. English speakers also commonly refer to the state by its German name, Rheinland-Pfalz ....

) is located in Stuttgart (the other ones being Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden
Baden-Baden is a spa town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the western foothills of the Black Forest, on the banks of the Oos River, in the region of Karlsruhe...

 and Mainz
Mainz
Mainz under the Holy Roman Empire, and previously was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire...

). It also has a
Landesmedienzentrum, a State media centre.

Furthermore, the city is a significant centre of publishing
Publishing
Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of literature or information—the activity of making information available to the general public...

 and specialist printing, with renowned houses such as Georg von Holtzbrinck Publishing Group, Ernst Klett Verlag (schoolbooks), Kohlhammer Verlag, Metzler Verlag and Motor Presse having their head offices there. The Reclam Verlag
Reclam
thumb|A 1902 catalogReclam Verlag or just Reclam is a German publishing house, established in Leipzig in 1828 by Anton Philipp Reclam. It is known for its "little yellow books", in particular those of its "universal library" ....

 is located in nearby Ditzingen
Ditzingen
Ditzingen is a town in the district of Ludwigsburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated about 10 km northwest of Stuttgart, and 12 km southwest of Ludwigsburg. The Hirschlanden transmitter is located near Ditzingen-Hirschlanden...

.

The newspapers Stuttgarter Zeitung
Stuttgarter Zeitung
The Stuttgarter Zeitung is a German-language daily newspaper edited in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, with a run of about 200,000 sold copies daily....

(StZ; regional, with significant supra-regional, national and international sections) and Stuttgarter Nachrichten (StN; regional) are published here as well as a number of smaller, local papers such as Cannstatter Zeitung.

Transport



Following the suit of other German cities such as Berlin, Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 and Hanover
Hanover
Hanover or Hannover, on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony , Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg...

, on 1 March 2008 a Low Emission Zone
Low Emission Zone
A Low-Emission Zone is a geographically defined area which seeks to restrict or deter access by specific polluting vehicles or only allow low emitting vehicles, such as regular or plug-in hybrids, or zero-emission vehicles, such as all-electric vehicles, with the aim of improving the air...

 (LEZ) came into effect in Stuttgart with the aim of improving air quality. This affects all vehicles entering the Stuttgart 'Environmental zone' (Umweltzone), including vehicles from abroad.

Local transport



Stuttgart has a light rail
Light rail
Light rail or light rail transit is a form of urban rail public transportation that generally has a lower capacity and lower speed than heavy rail and metro systems, but higher capacity and higher speed than traditional street-running tram systems...

 system known as the Stuttgart Stadtbahn
Stuttgart Stadtbahn
The Stuttgart Stadtbahn is a light rail system in Stuttgart, Germany. It is operated by the Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen AG , which also operates the bus systems in that city...

. In the city centre and densely built-up areas, the Stadtbahn runs underground. Stations are signposted with a 'U' symbol, which stands for
Unabhängig (independent). Until 2007, Stuttgart also operated regular trams. Stuttgart also has a large bus network. Stadtbahn lines and buses are operated by the Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen AG
Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen AG
Stuttgarter Straßenbahnen AG is the principal public transport operating company in the German city of Stuttgart. The SSB operates light rail lines, bus lines, a rack railway, and a funicular railway.- Colour:...

 (SSB).

The outlying suburbs of Stuttgart and nearby towns are served by a suburban railway system called the Stuttgart S-Bahn
Stuttgart S-Bahn
The Stuttgart S-Bahn is a suburban railway system serving the Stuttgart Region, an agglomeration of around 2.6 million people, consisting of the city of Stuttgart and the adjacent districts of Esslingen, Böblingen, Ludwigsburg and Rems-Murr. It consists of seven lines numbered S1 through S6 and...

, using tracks supplied by the national Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

 AG (DBAG).

A peculiarity of Stuttgart is the
Zahnradbahn, a rack railway
Rack railway
A rack-and-pinion railway is a railway with a toothed rack rail, usually between the running rails. The trains are fitted with one or more cog wheels or pinions that mesh with this rack rail...

 that is powered by electricity and operates between Marienplatz in the southern inner-city district of the city and the district of Degerloch. It is the only urban rack railway in Germany. Stuttgart also has a
Standseilbahn, a funicular
Funicular
A funicular, also known as an inclined plane or cliff railway, is a cable railway in which a cable attached to a pair of tram-like vehicles on rails moves them up and down a steep slope; the ascending and descending vehicles counterbalance each other.-Operation:The basic principle of funicular...

 railway that operates in the Heslach area and the forest cemetery (Waldfriedhof). In Killesberg Park
Killesbergpark
The Killesbergpark is an urban public park of half a square kilometre in Stuttgart, Germany. It is just north of the state capital, and borders the city's fairgrounds. The park dates back to the horticultural show of 1939. Before the show, a large area of the park had been a quarry...

, on a prominent hill overlooking the city, there is the miniature railway
Killesberg railway
The Killesberg Railway is a miniature railway in the Killesberg Park in Stuttgart, Germany.Opened with the park in 1939, the gauge track travels in a 2294.35 metre loop around the park...

 run by diesel (and on weekends with steam).

Rail links



Stuttgart is a hub in the InterCityExpress and InterCity
InterCity
InterCity is the classification applied to certain long-distance passenger train services in Europe...

 networks of Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn
Deutsche Bahn AG is the German national railway company, a private joint stock company . Headquartered in Berlin, it came into existence in 1994 as the successor to the former state railways of Germany, the Deutsche Bundesbahn of West Germany and the Deutsche Reichsbahn of East Germany...

 AG (DBAG), with through services to most other major German cities. It also operates international services to Strasbourg
Strasbourg
Strasbourg is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin département. The city and the region of Alsace are historically German-speaking,...

, Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

, Zurich
Zürich
Zurich is the largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zurich. It is located in central Switzerland at the northwestern tip of Lake Zurich...

 and Paris (four times a day, journey time 3 hours 40 minutes).

Long distance trains stop at Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
is the Hauptbahnhof of the city of Stuttgart, the capital of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany. It is the largest regional and long-distance railway station in Stuttgart, the main node of the Stuttgart S-Bahn network, and, together with the halt at Charlottenplatz, the main...

, the city's main line terminus which is also used by regional DBAG RegionalExpress and RegionalBahn
RegionalBahn
The Regionalbahn is a type of local passenger train in Germany.-Service:Regionalbahn trains usually call at all stations on a given line, with the exception of RB trains within S-Bahn networks, these may only call at selected stations...

 for services to stations in the Stuttgart metropolitan area. The local rail networks (see above) operate underneath the terminus.

Stuttgart also has its own rail freight centre with marshalling yards
Classification yard
A classification yard or marshalling yard is a railroad yard found at some freight train stations, used to separate railroad cars on to one of several tracks. First the cars are taken to a track, sometimes called a lead or a drill...

 and a container terminal
Container terminal
A container terminal is a facility where cargo containers are transshipped between different transport vehicles, for onward transportation. The transshipment may be between container ships and land vehicles, for example trains or trucks, in which case the terminal is described as a maritime...

 in the Obertürkheim area of Hedelfingen.

Rail: The Stuttgart 21 project


After years of political debate and controversy, plans were approved in October 2007 to convert the existing above-ground main train station
Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
is the Hauptbahnhof of the city of Stuttgart, the capital of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany. It is the largest regional and long-distance railway station in Stuttgart, the main node of the Stuttgart S-Bahn network, and, together with the halt at Charlottenplatz, the main...

 to an underground through station. The
Stuttgart 21
Stuttgart 21
Stuttgart 21 is an urban development and under construction transport project in Stuttgart as part of the Stuttgart–Augsburg new and upgraded railway project in Baden-Württemberg and Bavaria in Germany. It consists of the replacement of the tracks and platforms of Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof, the city's...

 project will include the rebuilding of surface and underground lines connecting the station in Stuttgart’s enclosed central valley with existing railway and underground lines. Building work started in 2010 and should be completed in 2020.

Air transport


Stuttgart is served by Stuttgart Airport
Stuttgart Airport
Stuttgart Airport is an international airport located approximately south of Stuttgart, Germany....

 , an international airport approximately 13 km (8 mi) south of the city centre on land belonging mainly to neighbouring towns. It takes 30 minutes to reach the airport from the city centre using S-Bahn
S-Bahn
S-Bahn refers to an often combined city center and suburban railway system metro in Austria, Germany, Switzerland and Denmark...

 lines S2 or S3. Stuttgart airport is Germany's only city airport with one runway. Despite protests and local initiatives, surveys are currently underway to assess the impact of a second runway.

Road transport


Stuttgart is served by Autobahn A8
Bundesautobahn 8
is an autobahn in southern Germany that runs 497 km from the Luxembourg A13 motorway at Schengen via Neunkirchen, Pirmasens, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Ulm, Augsburg and Munich to the Austrian West Autobahn near Salzburg....

, that runs east-west from Karlsruhe
Karlsruhe
The City of Karlsruhe is a city in the southwest of Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border.Karlsruhe was founded in 1715 as Karlsruhe Palace, when Germany was a series of principalities and city states...

 to Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

, and Autobahn A81
Bundesautobahn 81
is a motorway in Germany. It branches off the A 3 at the Würzburg-West triangle and ends near the border to Switzerland.The oldest part of the A 81 between the Weinsberg intersection near Heilbronn and the Leonberg triangle near Stuttgart was finished in the years 1938 to 1940...

 that runs north-south from Würzburg
Würzburg
Würzburg is a city in the region of Franconia which lies in the northern tip of Bavaria, Germany. Located at the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk Lower Franconia. The regional dialect is Franconian....

 to Singen
Singen
Singen is an industrial city in the very south of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany and just north of the German-Swiss border.-Location:...

. The Autobahn A831
Bundesautobahn 831
is an autobahn in Germany.The A 831 is one of the shortest autobahns in Germany, measuring 2.3 km and containing two junctions. Originally, the A 831 continued another 15 km to Gärtringen, where an intersection with a planned section of the A 81 would have been located...

 is a short spur entering the southern side of Stuttgart.

Besides these Autobahns, Stuttgart is served by a large number of expressways, many of which are built to Autobahn standards, and were once intended to carry an A-number. Important expressways like B10, B14, B27 and B29 connect Stuttgart with its suburbs. Due to the hilly surroundings, there are many road tunnels in and around Stuttgart. There are also a number of road tunnels under intersections in the centre of Stuttgart.

Football



As in the rest of Germany, football is the most popular sport in Stuttgart which is home to 'The Reds' and 'The Blues'. 'The Reds', VfB Stuttgart
VfB Stuttgart
Verein für Bewegungsspiele Stuttgart 1893 e. V., commonly known as VfB Stuttgart, is a German sports club based in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. The club is best known for its football team, which has participated in all but two Bundesliga seasons...

, are the most famous and popular local club. An established team in the German Bundesliga
Fußball-Bundesliga
The Fußball-Bundesliga is a professional association football league in Germany. At the top of Germany's football league system, it is the country's primary football competition. It is contested by 18 teams and operates on a system of promotion and relegation with the 2. Bundesliga...

, VfB was founded in 1893 and has won five German titles since 1950, most recently in 1992 and 2007. VfB is based at the Mercedes-Benz Arena in Bad Cannstatt.

'The Blues', Stuttgarter Kickers
Stuttgarter Kickers
Stuttgarter Kickers is a German association football club that plays in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, founded on 21 September 1899 as FC Stuttgarter Cickers...

, are the second most important football team. They currently play in the Regionalliga Süd
Regionalliga Süd
The Regionalliga Süd is currently the fourth tier of the German football league system. Until the introduction of the 3rd Liga in 2008, it was the third tier. It currently is the highest regional league for the southern part of Germany...

 (fourth division) at the smaller Gazi Stadium close to the TV tower
Fernsehturm Stuttgart
The Fernsehturm Stuttgart is the world's first TV tower built from concrete ....

 in Degerloch.

Other lower-division football teams are Sportfreunde Stuttgart – most famous for taking part in the Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy
Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy
The Sir Thomas Lipton Trophy was an association football competition that took place twice, in Turin, Italy, in 1909 and 1911. It is sometimes referred to as The First World Cup. However it is predated by the Torneo Internazionale Stampa Sportiva, which was hosted in 1908 also in Turin, as the...

 in 1908, considered the first
World Cup – and FV Zuffenhausen.

Other sports


Stuttgart is home to VfL Pfullingen/Stuttgart, a local handball
Team handball
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

 team that played in the national league from 2001 to 2006 in the Schleyerhalle
Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle
Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle is an indoor sporting arena located in Stuttgart, Germany. The capacity of the arena is 15,500 people. The hall was built in 1983 and is named for Hanns Martin Schleyer, a German employer representative, and former SS Officer and Nazi activist, who was kidnapped and...

. Its three-times German champion women's volleyball team, CJD Feuerbach, has now stopped playing for financial reasons but there is now Stuttgart Volleyball Club with a women's team in the 2nd southern league.

Stuttgart's ice hockey
Ice hockey
Ice hockey, often referred to as hockey, is a team sport played on ice, in which skaters use wooden or composite sticks to shoot a hard rubber puck into their opponent's net. The game is played between two teams of six players each. Five members of each team skate up and down the ice trying to take...

 team, Stuttgarter EC, plays at the Waldau ice rink in Degerloch. The strongest local water polo
Water polo
Water polo is a team water sport. The playing team consists of six field players and one goalkeeper. The winner of the game is the team that scores more goals. Game play involves swimming, treading water , players passing the ball while being defended by opponents, and scoring by throwing into a...

 team is SV Cannstatt, which won the German championship in 2006.

Stuttgart has two American Football
American football
American football is a sport played between two teams of eleven with the objective of scoring points by advancing the ball into the opposing team's end zone. Known in the United States simply as football, it may also be referred to informally as gridiron football. The ball can be advanced by...

 teams, the Stuttgart Nighthawks American football team, who play in the Western Europe Pro League and Stuttgart Scorpions
Stuttgart Scorpions
The Stuttgart Scorpions are an American football team from Stuttgart, Germany.The clubs greatest success came in 2007, when it reached the German Bowl but lost to the Braunschweig Lions.-History:The Stuttgart Scorpions were formed in December 1982...

, who play in Stuttgarter Kickers
Stuttgarter Kickers
Stuttgarter Kickers is a German association football club that plays in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg, founded on 21 September 1899 as FC Stuttgarter Cickers...

' Gazi Stadium.

Australian Football is practiced by the Stuttgart Emus
Stuttgart Emus
The Stuttgart Australian Football Club e.V., nicknamed Stuttgart Emus, is an Australian Football club, based in Stuttgart, Germany. It was founded in 2008, making it Germany's sixth Australian Football Club...

 - one of only six active teams in Germany. It participates in the Australian Football League Germany when they play their home games in the Eberhard-Bauer-Stadion

TC Weissenhof is a Stuttgart-based women's tennis team that has won the German championship four times. Another women's team is TEC Waldau Stuttgart (German champions in 2006).

HTC Stuttgarter Kickers is one of the most successful field hockey
Field hockey
Field Hockey, or Hockey, is a team sport in which a team of players attempts to score goals by hitting, pushing or flicking a ball into an opposing team's goal using sticks...

 clubs in Germany, having won the German championship in 2005 and a European title in 2006.

Sporting events


Stuttgart has a reputation for staging major events, including the FIFA World Cup 1974
1974 FIFA World Cup
The 1974 FIFA World Cup, the tenth staging of the World Cup, was held in West Germany from 13 June to 7 July. The tournament marked the first time that the current trophy, the FIFA World Cup Trophy, created by the Italian sculptor Silvio Gazzaniga, was awarded...

, the UEFA Euro 1988, and the World Championships in Athletics 1993
1993 World Championships in Athletics
The 4th World Championships in Athletics, under the auspices of the International Association of Athletics Federations, were held in the Gottlieb Daimler Stadium, Stuttgart, Germany between August 13 and August 22 with the participation of 187 nations....

. It was also one of the twelve host cities of the FIFA World Cup 2006
2006 FIFA World Cup
The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup, the quadrennial international football world championship tournament. It was held from 9 June to 9 July 2006 in Germany, which won the right to host the event in July 2000. Teams representing 198 national football associations from all six...

. Six matches, three of them second round matches, including the 3rd and 4th place playoff, were played at the Gottlieb Daimler Stadium (today Mercedes-Benz Arena). Stuttgart was also 2007 'European Capital of Sports', hosting events such as the UCI World Cycling Championships
UCI World Championships
The Union Cycliste Internationale organises UCI World Championships to determine world champion cyclists. These take place annually and are organized around nations rather than trade teams....

 Road Race and the IAAF World Athletics Final
IAAF World Athletics Final
The IAAF World Athletics Final was an annual track and field competition organised by the International Association of Athletics Federations. It was inaugurated in 2003 to replace the IAAF Grand Prix Final. The competition was part of the IAAF World Athletics Series and was the culmination of the...

.

Other famous sports venues are the Weissenhof tennis courts, where the annual Mercedes Cup tennis tournament is played, the Porsche Arena
Porsche Arena
Porsche Arena is a multi-purpose arena, located in Stuttgart, Germany. The seating capacity of the arena varies, from 5,100 to 8,000 people and it was opened in 2006, after 14 months of construction....

 (hosting tennis, basketball and handball
Team handball
Handball is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each pass a ball to throw it into the goal of the other team...

) and the Schleyerhalle
Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle
Hanns-Martin-Schleyer-Halle is an indoor sporting arena located in Stuttgart, Germany. The capacity of the arena is 15,500 people. The hall was built in 1983 and is named for Hanns Martin Schleyer, a German employer representative, and former SS Officer and Nazi activist, who was kidnapped and...

 (boxing
Boxing
Boxing, also called pugilism, is a combat sport in which two people fight each other using their fists. Boxing is supervised by a referee over a series of between one to three minute intervals called rounds...

, equestrianism
Equestrianism
Equestrianism more often known as riding, horseback riding or horse riding refers to the skill of riding, driving, or vaulting with horses...

/show jumping
Show jumping
Show jumping, also known as "stadium jumping," "open jumping," or "jumpers," is a member of a family of English riding equestrian events that also includes dressage, eventing, hunters, and equitation. Jumping classes commonly are seen at horse shows throughout the world, including the Olympics...

, gymnastics, track cycling
Track cycling
Track cycling is a bicycle racing sport usually held on specially built banked tracks or velodromes using track bicycles....

 etc.), Scharrena Stuttgart
Scharrena Stuttgart
The Scharrena Stuttgart is a multi-purpose hall in Stuttgart's Bad Cannstatt district. The hall is located on the fairgrounds Neckar Park, is the Mercedes-Benz Arena affiliated. Their capacity is a maximum of 2019 seats. Since April 2011, the Hall home ground of women's volleyball national league...

.

Twin towns – Sister cities


Stuttgart is twinned with the following cities:
St Helens
St Helens, Merseyside
St Helens is a large town in Merseyside, England. It is the largest settlement and administrative centre of the Metropolitan Borough of St Helens with a population of just over 100,000, part of an urban area with a total population of 176,843 at the time of the 2001 Census...

 in England, UK (since 1948) Cardiff
Cardiff
Cardiff is the capital, largest city and most populous county of Wales and the 10th largest city in the United Kingdom. The city is Wales' chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural and sporting institutions, the Welsh national media, and the seat of the National Assembly for...

 in Wales, UK
(since 1955) St. Louis
St. Louis, Missouri
St. Louis is an independent city on the eastern border of Missouri, United States. With a population of 319,294, it was the 58th-largest U.S. city at the 2010 U.S. Census. The Greater St...

 in Missouri
Missouri
Missouri is a US state located in the Midwestern United States, bordered by Iowa, Illinois, Kentucky, Tennessee, Arkansas, Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. With a 2010 population of 5,988,927, Missouri is the 18th most populous state in the nation and the fifth most populous in the Midwest. It...

, USA
(since 1960) Strasbourg
Strasbourg
Strasbourg is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located close to the border with Germany, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin département. The city and the region of Alsace are historically German-speaking,...

 in France
(since 1962)
Mumbai
Mumbai
Mumbai , formerly known as Bombay in English, is the capital of the Indian state of Maharashtra. It is the most populous city in India, and the fourth most populous city in the world, with a total metropolitan area population of approximately 20.5 million...

 in India (since 1968) Menzel Bourguiba
Menzel Bourguiba
Menzel Bourguiba is a town located in extreme north of Tunisia , about 60 km away from Tunis, in the Bizerte Governorate...

 in Tunisia
(since 1971) Cairo
Cairo
Cairo , is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world and Africa, and the 16th largest metropolitan area in the world. Nicknamed "The City of a Thousand Minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture, Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life...

 in Egypt
(since 1979) Łódź in Poland (since 1988)'
Brno
Brno
Brno by population and area is the second largest city in the Czech Republic, the largest Moravian city, and the historical capital city of the Margraviate of Moravia. Brno is the administrative centre of the South Moravian Region where it forms a separate district Brno-City District...

 in Czech Republic (since 1989) Samara
Samara, Russia
Samara , is the sixth largest city in Russia. It is situated in the southeastern part of European Russia at the confluence of the Volga and Samara Rivers. Samara is the administrative center of Samara Oblast. Population: . The metropolitan area of Samara-Tolyatti-Syzran within Samara Oblast...

, Russia (since 1992)

Friendships


Stuttgart also has ‘special friendships’ with the following cities:
Ōgaki
Ogaki, Gifu
is a city located in Gifu Prefecture, Japan. It was incorporated as a city on April 1, 1918. As of July 2011, the city has an estimated population of 160,999 and a total area of .Ōgaki was the final destination for the haiku poet Matsuo Bashō...

 in Gifu Prefecture
Gifu Prefecture
is a prefecture located in the Chūbu region of central Japan. Its capital is the city of Gifu.Located in the center of Japan, it has long played an important part as the crossroads of Japan, connecting the east to the west through such routes as the Nakasendō...

, Japan (since 1988) Shavei Zion
Shavei Tzion
Shavei Tzion is a moshav shitufi in northern Israel. Located between Acre and Nahariya and covering 2,000 dunams, it falls under the jurisdiction of Mateh Asher Regional Council. In 2006 it had a population of 654....

, Israel Nanjing
Nanjing
' is the capital of Jiangsu province in China and has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having been the capital of China on several occasions...

, People's Republic of China
  • The city district of Bad Cannstatt, which has the second largest mineral water
    Mineral water
    Mineral water is water containing minerals or other dissolved substances that alter its taste or give it therapeutic value, generally obtained from a naturally occurring mineral spring or source. Dissolved substances in the water may include various salts and sulfur compounds...

     sources in Europe, has a partnership with Újbuda
    Újbuda
    Újbuda is the 11th district of Budapest , Hungary. Currently it is the most populous district of Budapest with 137,426 inhabitants . Until the 1890s Újbuda's present territory was a field south to the historical town of Buda. The construction of a new residential area started in the 1900s, the...

    , the 11th district of Budapest
    Budapest
    Budapest is the capital of Hungary. As the largest city of Hungary, it is the country's principal political, cultural, commercial, industrial, and transportation centre. In 2011, Budapest had 1,733,685 inhabitants, down from its 1989 peak of 2,113,645 due to suburbanization. The Budapest Commuter...

    , Hungary  , which has the largest mineral water sources in Europe.

Notable residents


Famous people born in or associated with Stuttgart are
  • Günther Behnisch
    Günter Behnisch
    Günter Behnisch was a German architect, born in Lockwitz, near Dresden. He was one of the most prominent architects representing deconstructivism....

     – architect
  • Paul Bonatz
    Paul Bonatz
    Paul Bonatz was a German architect, member of the Stuttgart School and professor at the technical university in that city during part of World War II and from 1954 until his death....

     - architect, built Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
    Stuttgart Hauptbahnhof
    is the Hauptbahnhof of the city of Stuttgart, the capital of the Land of Baden-Württemberg, in southwestern Germany. It is the largest regional and long-distance railway station in Stuttgart, the main node of the Stuttgart S-Bahn network, and, together with the halt at Charlottenplatz, the main...

     (main train station)
  • Robert Bosch
    Robert Bosch
    Robert Bosch was a German industrialist, engineer and inventor, founder of Robert Bosch GmbH.-Biography:...

     – inventor (founded the Robert Bosch GmbH
    Robert Bosch GmbH
    Robert Bosch GmbH is a multinational engineering and electronics company headquartered in Gerlingen, near Stuttgart, Germany. It is the world's largest supplier of automotive components...

    )
  • Charles Eugene, 14th Duke of Württemberg
    Württemberg
    Württemberg , formerly known as Wirtemberg or Wurtemberg, is an area and a former state in southwestern Germany, including parts of the regions Swabia and Franconia....

    , built the New Palace of Stuttgart, Solitude Castle and Hohenheim Castle
  • Charles I of Württemberg
    Charles I of Württemberg
    Charles was the third King of Württemberg, from 25 June 1864 until his death in 1891.-Early life:He was born 6 March 1823 at Stuttgart, as HRH Charles Frederick Alexander, Crown Prince of Württemberg the son of William I, King of Württemberg and his third wife Pauline Therese of Württemberg .He...

    , king 1864 to 1891
  • Gottlieb Daimler
    Gottlieb Daimler
    Gottlieb Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf , in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development...

     – inventor of the motorbike, with Karl Benz
    Karl Benz
    Karl Friedrich Benz, was a German engine designer and car engineer, generally regarded as the inventor of the gasoline-powered car, and together with Bertha Benz pioneering founder of the automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz...

     founded what would become Mercedes-Benz
  • Wilhelm Hauff
    Wilhelm Hauff
    Wilhelm Hauff was a German poet and novelist.-Early life:Hauff was born in Stuttgart, the son of August Friedrich Hauff, a secretary in the ministry of foreign affairs, and Hedwig Wilhelmine Elsaesser Hauff...

    , poet
  • Roland Emmerich
    Roland Emmerich
    Roland Emmerich is a German film director, screenwriter, and producer.His films, most of which are Hollywood productions filmed in English, have grossed more than $3 billion worldwide, more than those of any other European director...

     – film producer, director and writer
  • Gerhard Ertl
    Gerhard Ertl
    Gerhard Ertl is a German physicist and a Professor emeritus at the Department of Physical Chemistry, Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft in Berlin, Germany...

     – Nobel Prize
    Nobel Prize
    The Nobel Prizes are annual international awards bestowed by Scandinavian committees in recognition of cultural and scientific advances. The will of the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite, established the prizes in 1895...

     laureate in chemistry 2007
  • Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel
    Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel was a German philosopher, one of the creators of German Idealism. His historicist and idealist account of reality as a whole revolutionized European philosophy and was an important precursor to Continental philosophy and Marxism.Hegel developed a comprehensive...

     – philosopher
  • Maximilian Herre
    Max Herre
    Maximilian Herre is a German musician who rose to fame as a member of the group Freundeskreis.-Biography:...

     – Influential musician and part founder of the Kolchose
    Kolchose
    The Kolchose is a group of Hip hop artists in the southern German city of Stuttgart. The group was founded in 1993 and includes the artists Freundeskreis, Massive Töne, Afrob, Breite Seite and Skillz en Masse, to name a few....

  • Theodor Heuss
    Theodor Heuss
    Theodor Heuss was a liberal German politician who served as the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany after World War II from 1949 to 1959...

     – First German Post-War President
  • Sami Khedira
    Sami Khedira
    Sami Khedira is a German footballer currently playing for Real Madrid and the German national team. Khedira moved to Real Madrid from VfB Stuttgart in 2010...

     - football player, formerly VfB Stuttgart
    VfB Stuttgart
    Verein für Bewegungsspiele Stuttgart 1893 e. V., commonly known as VfB Stuttgart, is a German sports club based in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg. The club is best known for its football team, which has participated in all but two Bundesliga seasons...

    , now Real Madrid
    Real Madrid
    Real Madrid Club de Fútbol , commonly known as Real Madrid, is a professional football club based in Madrid, Spain. The club have won a record 31 La Liga titles, the Primera División of the Liga de Fútbol Profesional , 18 Copas del Rey, 8 Spanish Super Cups, 1 Copa Eva Duarte and 1 Copa de la...

  • Arnulf Klett
    Arnulf Klett
    Arnulf Klett was a German lawyer and politician...

    , mayor 1945 to 1974
  • Jürgen Klinsmann
    Jürgen Klinsmann
    Jürgen Klinsmann is a German football manager and former player who is currently the coach of the United States Men's National Team. As a player, Klinsmann played for several prominent clubs in Europe and was part of the West German team that won the 1990 FIFA World Cup and the German one that...

     – football player, former coach of the German national football team, currently coach of the United States men's national soccer team
    United States men's national soccer team
    The United States men's national soccer team represents the United States in international association football competitions. It is controlled by the United States Soccer Federation and competes in CONCACAF...

  • Klaus von Klitzing
    Klaus von Klitzing
    Klaus von Klitzing is a German physicist known for discovery of the integer quantum Hall Effect, for which he was awarded the 1985 Nobel Prize in Physics....

     – German physicist (1985 Nobel Prize in Physics)
  • Wilhelm Maybach
    Wilhelm Maybach
    Wilhelm Maybach was an early German engine designer and industrialist. During the 1890s he was hailed in France, then the world centre for car production, as the "King of constructors"....

     – inventor together with Gottlieb Daimler
    Gottlieb Daimler
    Gottlieb Daimler was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist born in Schorndorf , in what is now Germany. He was a pioneer of internal-combustion engines and automobile development...


  • Frei Otto
    Frei Otto
    Frei Paul Otto is a German architect and structural engineer.- Life :Otto was born in Siegmar . He studied architecture in Berlin before being drafted into the Luftwaffe as a fighter pilot in the last years of World War II...

     – architect (designer of the roof on the Olympic stadium in Munich
    Olympic Stadium (Munich)
    Olympiastadion is a stadium located in Munich, Germany. Situated at the heart of the Olympiapark München in northern Munich, the stadium was built as the main venue for the 1972 Summer Olympics....

    )
  • Ferdinand Porsche
    Ferdinand Porsche
    Ferdinand Porsche was an Austrian automotive engineer and honorary Doctor of Engineering. He is best known for creating the first hybrid vehicle , the Volkswagen Beetle, and the Mercedes-Benz SS/SSK, as well as the first of many Porsche automobiles...

     – creator of the VW Beetle
    Volkswagen Beetle
    The Volkswagen Type 1, widely known as the Volkswagen Beetle or Volkswagen Bug, is an economy car produced by the German auto maker Volkswagen from 1938 until 2003...

    , founder of the Porsche
    Porsche
    Porsche Automobil Holding SE, usually shortened to Porsche SE a Societas Europaea or European Public Company, is a German based holding company with investments in the automotive industry....

     car company
  • Manfred Rommel
    Manfred Rommel
    Manfred Rommel, Hon. CBE is a German politician , who served as Lord Mayor of Stuttgart from 1974 until 1996. He is one of the most popular local politicians of the CDU....

     – Mayor of Stuttgart 1974–1996, son of Erwin Rommel
    Erwin Rommel
    Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel , popularly known as the Desert Fox , was a German Field Marshal of World War II. He won the respect of both his own troops and the enemies he fought....

  • Friedrich von Schiller
    Friedrich Schiller
    Johann Christoph Friedrich von Schiller was a German poet, philosopher, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life , Schiller struck up a productive, if complicated, friendship with already famous and influential Johann Wolfgang von Goethe...

     – famous German poet
  • Kurt Schumacher
    Kurt Schumacher (sculptor)
    Kurt Schumacher was a sculptor and Communist member of the German Resistance against National Socialism. He was married to the painter and graphic designer, Elisabeth Schumacher and was in the Red Orchestra.- Biography :...

     - sculptor, member of the German Resistance
    German Resistance
    The German resistance was the opposition by individuals and groups in Germany to Adolf Hitler or the National Socialist regime between 1933 and 1945. Some of these engaged in active plans to remove Adolf Hitler from power and overthrow his regime...

     against the Nazis
  • Berthold Graf Schenk von Stauffenberg - lawyer, member of the German Resistance who tried to kill Hitler
  • Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
    Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg
    Claus Philipp Maria Justinian Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg commonly referred to as Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg was a German army officer and Catholic aristocrat who was one of the leading members of the failed 20 July plot of 1944 to assassinate Adolf Hitler and remove the Nazi Party from...

     – Colonel, member of the German Resistance who tried to kill Hitler
  • Sophie of Württemberg
    Sophie of Württemberg
    Princess Sophia Frederika Mathilde of Württemberg was Queen of the Netherlands as the first wife of King William III of the Netherlands.-Biography:...

    , Queen of the Netherlands
    Monarchy of the Netherlands
    The Netherlands has been an independent monarchy since 16 March 1815, and has been governed by members of the House of Orange-Nassau since.-Constitutional role and position of the monarch:...

     1849 to 1877
  • Carmen Vincelj
    Carmen Vincelj
    Carmen Vincelj is a German professional dancer. Together with Bryan Watson she has won the WDC World Latin Dance Championships in the professional category nine times .- External links :*...

     – Professional dancer and nine times Latin dance World Championship winner
  • Dorothea Wendling
    Dorothea Wendling
    Maria Dorothea Wendling Stuttgart, 21 March 1736 - Munich, 20 August 1811, was a German soprano.She is probably best remembered today for being the singer for whom Mozart wrote the role of Ilia in Idomeneo, re di Creta.-References:...

     – soprano for whom the role of Ilia was created by Mozart
    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart , baptismal name Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart , was a prolific and influential composer of the Classical era. He composed over 600 works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music...

     in his Idomeneo
    Idomeneo
    Idomeneo, re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante is an Italian language opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. The libretto was adapted by Giambattista Varesco from a French text by Antoine Danchet, which had been set to music by André Campra as Idoménée in 1712...

  • Richard von Weizsäcker
    Richard von Weizsäcker
    Richard Karl Freiherr von Weizsäcker , known as Richard von Weizsäcker, is a German politician . He served as Governing Mayor of West Berlin from 1981 to 1984, and as President of the Federal Republic of Germany from 1984 to 1994...

     – former German President, Mayor of Berlin (son of Ernst)


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