Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Struve Geodetic Arc

Struve Geodetic Arc

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Struve Geodetic Arc'
Start a new discussion about 'Struve Geodetic Arc'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
The Struve Geodetic
Geodesy
Geodesy , also named geodetics, a branch of earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravitational field, in a three-dimensional time-varying space. Geodesists also study geodynamical phenomena such as crustal...

 Arc
is a chain of survey triangulations stretching from Hammerfest
Hammerfest
is a city and municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. The municipality encompasses parts of three islands: Kvaløya, Sørøya, and Seiland. Hammerfest was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838...

 in Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 to the Black Sea
Black Sea
The Black Sea is bounded by Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus and is ultimately connected to the Atlantic Ocean via the Mediterranean and the Aegean seas and various straits. The Bosphorus strait connects it to the Sea of Marmara, and the strait of the Dardanelles connects that sea to the Aegean...

, through ten countries and over 2,820 km, which yielded the first accurate measurement of a meridian.

The chain was established and used by the German-born Russian scientist Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve
Friedrich Georg Wilhelm von Struve was a Danish-Baltic German astronomer from a famous dynasty.-Life:...

 in the years 1816 to 1855 to establish the exact size and shape
Reference ellipsoid
In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically-defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body....

 of the earth
Earth
Earth is the third planet from the Sun, and the densest and fifth-largest of the eight planets in the Solar System. It is also the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets...

. At that time, the chain passed merely through two countries: Union of Sweden-Norway
Union between Sweden and Norway
The Union between Sweden and Norway , officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, consisted of present-day Sweden and Norway between 1814 and 1905, when they were united under one monarch in a personal union....

 and the Russian Empire
Russian Empire
The Russian Empire was a state that existed from 1721 until the Russian Revolution of 1917. It was the successor to the Tsardom of Russia and the predecessor of the Soviet Union...

. The Arc's first point is located in Tartu Observatory
Tartu Observatory
The Tartu Observatory is the largest astronomical observatory in Estonia. It is located on the Tõravere hill, about 20 km south-west of Tartu in Nõo Parish, Tartu County...

, where Struve conducted much of his research.

In 2005, the chain was inscribed on the World Heritage List as a memorable ensemble of the chain made up of 34 commemorative plaques or built obelisks out of the original 265, main station points which are marked by drilled holes in rocks, iron crosses, cairns, others.

Measurement of the triangulation chain comprises 258 main triangles and 265 geodetic vertices. The northernmost point is located near Hammerfest in Norway and the southernmost point near the Black Sea in Ukraine.

Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

  • Fuglenes in Hammerfest
    Hammerfest
    is a city and municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. The municipality encompasses parts of three islands: Kvaløya, Sørøya, and Seiland. Hammerfest was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838...

  • Raipas in Alta
    Alta, Norway
    -Birdlife:For those interested in bird watching, the river outlet, known locally as Altaosen is well worth a visit. This tidal area is used as a stopover for many wetland species.-Transportation:...

  • Luvdiidcohkka in Kautokeino
    Kautokeino
    or Guovdageaidnu , is a municipality in Finnmark county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Guovdageaidnu/Kautokeino...

  • Baelljasvarri in Kautokeino

Sweden
Sweden
Sweden , officially the Kingdom of Sweden , is a Nordic country on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Sweden borders with Norway and Finland and is connected to Denmark by a bridge-tunnel across the Öresund....

  • "Pajtas-vaara" (Tynnyrilaki
    Tynnyrilaki
    Tynnyrilaki is a 445-meter-high mountain 120 km E. of Kiruna, Sweden.It's the highest point of an area called Pingisvaara.This mountain marks one of the locations for the Struve Geodetic Arc....

    ) in Kiruna
    Kiruna
    Kiruna is the northernmost city in Sweden, situated in Lapland province, with 18,154 inhabitants in 2005. It is the seat of Kiruna Municipality Kiruna (Northern Sami: Giron, Finnish: Kiiruna) is the northernmost city in Sweden, situated in Lapland province, with 18,154 inhabitants in 2005. It is...

  • "Kerrojupukka" (Jupukka
    Jupukka
    Jupukka is a Swedish mountain north of Pajala in Swedish Lapland. Jupukka is 277 metres high.This mountain marks one of the locations for the Struve Geodetic Arc....

    ) in Pajala
    Pajala
    Pajala is a locality and the seat of Pajala Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden with 1,985 inhabitants in 2005.-History:Lars Levi Læstadius lived and worked in Pajala Municipality in the middle of the 19th century...

  • Pullinki
    Pullinki
    Pullinki is a 335 meter high mountain in northern Sweden, near the town of Övertorneå.This mountain marks one of the locations for the Struve Geodetic Arc, a world heritage....

     in Övertorneå
    Övertorneå
    Övertorneå is a locality and the seat of Övertorneå Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden with 1,965 inhabitants in 2005.It is located at the shore of the Torne River, opposite to Ylitornio...

  • "Perra-vaara" (Perävaara) in Haparanda
    Haparanda
    Haparanda is a locality and the seat of Haparanda Municipality in Norrbotten County, Sweden with 4,778 inhabitants in 2005. It is adjacent to Tornio, Finland...


Finland
Finland
Finland , officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country situated in the Fennoscandian region of Northern Europe. It is bordered by Sweden in the west, Norway in the north and Russia in the east, while Estonia lies to its south across the Gulf of Finland.Around 5.4 million people reside...

  • Stuor-Oivi (currently Stuorrahanoaivi) in Enontekiö
    Enontekiö
    Enontekiö is a municipality in the Finnish part of Lapland with approx. inhabitants. It is situated in the outermost northwest of the country and occupies a large and very sparsely populated area of about between the Swedish and Norwegian border...

     (68°40′57"N 22°44′45"E)
  • Avasaksa (currently Aavasaksa
    Aavasaksa
    Aavasaksa is a sharp-edged hill in Ylitornio municipality in Finnish Lapland. It has an elevation of . Aavasaksa is famous for its sights both towards Finland and Sweden and it is included to the list of the National Views of Finland. The emperor Alexander II of Russia visited the site in 1876...

    ) in Ylitornio
    Ylitornio
    Ylitornio is a municipality of Finland.It is located in the province of Lapland at the shore of the Torne River, opposite to Övertorneå. The municipality has a population of and covers an area of of which is water. The population density is ....

     (66°23′52"N 23°43′31"E)
  • Tornea (currently Alatornion kirkko) in Tornio
    Tornio
    Tornio is a town and municipality in Lapland, Finland. The municipality covers an area of of which is water. The population density is , with a total population of . It borders to the Swedish municipality of Haparanda...

     (65°49′48"N 24°09′26"E)
  • Puolakka (currently Oravivuori) in Korpilahti
    Korpilahti
    Korpilahti is a former municipality of Finland. Together with Jyväskylän maalaiskunta, Korpilahti was consolidated with Jyväskylä on January 1, 2009....

     (61°55′36"N 25°32′01"E)
  • Porlom II (currently Tornikallio) in Lapinjärvi
    Lapinjärvi
    Lapinjärvi is a municipality of Finland. It is located in the Uusimaa region. The municipality has a population of and covers an area of ofwhich is water...

     (60°42′17"N 26°00′12"E)
  • Svartvira (currently Mustaviiri) in Pyhtää
    Pyhtää
    -Overview:It is located in the province of Southern Finland and is part of the Kymenlaakso region. The municipality has a population of and covers an area of of which is water. The population density is ....

     (60°16′35"N 26°36′12"E)

http://www.mapscroll.fi/maailmanperinto/struven-ketju-kartalla

Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

  • "Mäki-päälys" (Mäkipäällys (Finland 1917/1920-1940) in Hogland
    Hogland
    Gogland or Hogland is an island in the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, located some 180 km west of Saint Petersburg and 35 km away from the coast of Finland . The island is a part of the Leningrad Oblast, Russia. The area of Hogland Island is approximately...

     (Suursaari)
  • "Hogland, Z" (Gogland, Tochka Z) in Hogland
    Hogland
    Gogland or Hogland is an island in the Gulf of Finland of the Baltic Sea, located some 180 km west of Saint Petersburg and 35 km away from the coast of Finland . The island is a part of the Leningrad Oblast, Russia. The area of Hogland Island is approximately...

     (60°5′9.8"N 26°57′37.5"E)

Estonia
Estonia
Estonia , officially the Republic of Estonia , is a state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by the Gulf of Finland, to the west by the Baltic Sea, to the south by Latvia , and to the east by Lake Peipsi and the Russian Federation . Across the Baltic Sea lies...

  • "Woibifer" (Võivere
    Võivere
    Võivere is a village in Väike-Maarja Parish, Lääne-Viru County, in northeastern Estonia. It has a population of 49 .One of the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc is located in Võivere....

    ) in Väike-Maarja Parish
    Väike-Maarja Parish
    Väike-Maarja Parish is a rural municipality of Estonia, in Lääne-Viru County. It has a population of 5,421 and an area of 457.39 km².-Settlements:Small boroughsKiltsi, Simuna, Väike-MaarjaVillages...

     (59°03′28"N 26°20′16"E)
  • "Katko" (Simuna
    Simuna
    R. Simuna was a Jewish Savora sage of the second generation of the Savora era. He headed the Pumbedita Yeshiva parallelly to Rav Ena running the Sura academy, and both committed the Talmud to writing...

    ) in Väike-Maarja Parish (59°02′54"N 26°24′51"E)
  • "Dorpat" (Tartu Observatory
    Tartu Observatory
    The Tartu Observatory is the largest astronomical observatory in Estonia. It is located on the Tõravere hill, about 20 km south-west of Tartu in Nõo Parish, Tartu County...

    ) in Tartu
    Tartu
    Tartu is the second largest city of Estonia. In contrast to Estonia's political and financial capital Tallinn, Tartu is often considered the intellectual and cultural hub, especially since it is home to Estonia's oldest and most renowned university. Situated 186 km southeast of Tallinn, the...

    . (58°22′43.64"N 26°43′12.61"E)

Latvia
Latvia
Latvia , officially the Republic of Latvia , is a country in the Baltic region of Northern Europe. It is bordered to the north by Estonia , to the south by Lithuania , to the east by the Russian Federation , to the southeast by Belarus and shares maritime borders to the west with Sweden...

  • "Sestu-Kalns" (Ziestu) in Ērgļu novads (56°50′24"N 25°38′12"E)
  • "Jacobstadt" in Jēkabpils
    Jekabpils
    Jēkabpils is a city in Selonia, Latvia roughly halfway between Riga and Daugavpils. The Daugava River runs through the town, and the ancient valley, branches, and islands of the river are considered picturesque...

     (56°30′05"N 25°51′24"E)

Lithuania
Lithuania
Lithuania , officially the Republic of Lithuania is a country in Northern Europe, the biggest of the three Baltic states. It is situated along the southeastern shore of the Baltic Sea, whereby to the west lie Sweden and Denmark...

  • "Karischki" (Gireišiai) in Panemunėlis
    Panemunėlis
    Panemunėlis is a small town in Panevėžys County, in northeastern Lithuania. According to the 2001 census, the town has a population of 287 people....

     (55°54′09"N 25°26′12"E)
  • "Meschkanzi" (Meškonys) in Nemenčinė
    Nemencine
    Nemenčinė is a city in Vilnius district municipality, Lithuania, it is located about north-east of Vilnius.-Names:Nemenčinė is the original name of the city reflected in historical documents and still in use today. It derives from a Lithuanian word referring to the river Nemenčia...

     (54°55′51"N 25°19′00"E)
  • "Beresnäki" (Paliepiukai) in Nemėžis
    Nemežis
    Nemėžis is a village in the Vilnius district municipality, Lithuania. It is located south-east of Vilnius along a railway.- History:It is believed that there was a castle in Nemėžis during the reign of Vytautas the Great...

     (54°38′04"N 25°25′45"E)

Belarus
Belarus
Belarus , officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered clockwise by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest. Its capital is Minsk; other major cities include Brest, Grodno , Gomel ,...

  • "Tupischki" (Tupishki) in Oshmyany district (54°17′30"N 26°2′43"E)
  • "Lopati" (Lopaty) in Zelva
    Zelva
    Zelva is an urban settlement in Hrodna Voblast, Belarus, the administrative center of Zelva district. It is situated by the Zelvyanka River.-References:...

     district (53°33′38"N 24°52′11"E)
  • "Ossownitza" (Ossovnitsa) in Ivanovo district (52°17′22"N 25°38′58"E)
  • "Tchekutsk" (Chekutsk) in Ivanovo district (52°12′28"N 25°33′23"E)
  • "Leskowitschi" (Leskovichi) in Ivanovo district (52°9′39"N 25°34′17"E)

Moldova
Moldova
Moldova , officially the Republic of Moldova is a landlocked state in Eastern Europe, located between Romania to the West and Ukraine to the North, East and South. It declared itself an independent state with the same boundaries as the preceding Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic in 1991, as part...

  • "Rudi
    Rudi Geodetic Point
    The Rudi Geodetic Point is a point of the Struve Geodetic Arc in Rudi, Moldova. There is also an obelisk.-Overview:Rudi Geodetic Point was set up in 1847 and is a World Heritage Site . The obelisk was opened on June 17, 2006.-External links:* * *...

    " near Rudi
    Rudi, Soroca
    Rudi is a commune in Soroca district, Moldova. It is composed of a single village, Rudi....

     village, Soroca district (48°19′08"N 27°52′36"E)

Ukraine
Ukraine
Ukraine is a country in Eastern Europe. It has an area of 603,628 km², making it the second largest contiguous country on the European continent, after Russia...

  • Katerinowka in Antonivka, Khmelnytsky Oblast (49°33′57"N 26°45′22"E )
  • Felschtin in Hvardiiske, Khmelnytsky Oblast (49°19′48"N 26°40′55"E )
  • Baranowka in Baranivka
    Baranivka
    Baranivka is a town in Zhytomyr Oblast, Ukraine. The population as of 2001 is 12,584. Contained within the territory of the town, at the village Baranivka, is a geographical point of the Struve Geodetic Arc. The name, nivka, from the old Slavic language means swamp, and from eastern Slavic, ivka,...

    , Khmelnytsky Oblast (49°08′55"N 26°59′30"E )
  • Staro-Nekrassowka (Stara Nekrasivka) in Nekrasivka, Odessa Oblast
    Odessa Oblast
    Odesa Oblast, also written as Odessa Oblast , is the southernmost and largest oblast of south-western Ukraine. The administrative center of the oblast is the city of Odessa.-History:...

    (45°19′54"N 28°55′41"E )

External links