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Specific Area Message Encoding

Specific Area Message Encoding

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Specific Area Message Encoding or SAME is the protocol
Communications protocol
A communications protocol is a system of digital message formats and rules for exchanging those messages in or between computing systems and in telecommunications...

 used to encode the Emergency Alert System
Emergency Alert System
The Emergency Alert System is a national warning system in the United States put into place on January 1, 1997, when it superseded the Emergency Broadcast System , which itself had superseded the CONELRAD System...

 (EAS) and NOAA Weather Radio
NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards
NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards is a network of radio stations broadcasting continuous weather information directly from a nearby National Weather Service office. It is operated by the NWS, an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration within the United States Department of...

's SAME Public Warning System in the U.S. and Weatheradio Canada
Weatheradio Canada
Weatheradio Canada, in French Radiométéo Canada, is a Canadian radio network that broadcasts weather information. Owned and operated by Environment Canada's Meteorological Service of Canada division, the network transmits in both official languages from 199 sites across Canada.In most locations,...

 in Canada.

History


From the 1960s to the 1980s, a special feature of the NOAA Weather Radio
NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards
NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards is a network of radio stations broadcasting continuous weather information directly from a nearby National Weather Service office. It is operated by the NWS, an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration within the United States Department of...

 system was the transmission of a single tone at 1050 Hz prior to the broadcast of any message alerting the general public of significant weather events. This became known as the Warning Alarm Tone (WAT). Although it has served NOAA Weather Radio well, there were many drawbacks: without staff at media facilities to manually evaluate the need to rebroadcast a Weather Radio message using the Emergency Broadcast System
Emergency Broadcast System
The Emergency Broadcast System was an emergency warning system in the United States, used from 1963 to 1997, when it was replaced by the Emergency Alert System.-Purpose:...

 (EBS), automatic rebroadcasting of all messages preceded by just the WAT was unacceptable and impractical. Even if stations and others with that type of need were willing to allow for this type of automatic capture, assuming the events for activation were critical, there was no way for automated equipment at the station to know when the message was complete and restore it back to normal operation.

In 1985, the National Weather Service
National Weather Service
The National Weather Service , once known as the Weather Bureau, is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States government...

 forecast offices began experimenting with putting special digital codes at the beginning and end of every message concerning life- or property-threatening weather conditions targeting a specific area. The intent of what became SAME was to ultimately transmit a code with the initial broadcast of all Weather Radio messages. The NWS started implementing SAME on the full NOAA Weather Radio system in 1988. The SAME technique was later adopted by the FCC
Federal Communications Commission
The Federal Communications Commission is an independent agency of the United States government, created, Congressional statute , and with the majority of its commissioners appointed by the current President. The FCC works towards six goals in the areas of broadband, competition, the spectrum, the...

 for regular broadcasters on radio
Radio station
Radio broadcasting is a one-way wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Stations can be linked in radio networks to broadcast a common radio format, either in broadcast syndication or simulcast or both...

, television
Television station
A television station is a business, organisation or other such as an amateur television operator that transmits content over terrestrial television. A television transmission can be by analog television signals or, more recently, by digital television. Broadcast television systems standards are...

, and cable
Cable
A cable is two or more wires running side by side and bonded, twisted or braided together to form a single assembly. In mechanics cables, otherwise known as wire ropes, are used for lifting, hauling and towing or conveying force through tension. In electrical engineering cables are used to carry...

, as well as by Environment Canada
Environment Canada
Environment Canada , legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act Environment Canada (EC) (French: Environnement Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act Environment...

 for its Weatheradio Canada
Weatheradio Canada
Weatheradio Canada, in French Radiométéo Canada, is a Canadian radio network that broadcasts weather information. Owned and operated by Environment Canada's Meteorological Service of Canada division, the network transmits in both official languages from 199 sites across Canada.In most locations,...

 service. Much like the original EBS alert tone, this produces a distinct sound which is easily recognized by most Americans due to its use in weekly and monthly broadcast
Broadcast
Broadcast or Broadcasting may refer to:* Broadcasting, the transmission of audio and video signals* Broadcast, an individual television program or radio program* Broadcast , an English electronic music band...

 tests, and in weather emergencies. During the said events, viewers and/or listeners will hear these digital codes in the form of buzzes, chirps, & clicking sounds (or what broadcast engineers affectionately call "duck farts") just before the attention signal is sent out and at the conclusion of the voice message.

Functionality



In the SAME system, messages are constructed in four parts, the first and last of which are digital
Digital
A digital system is a data technology that uses discrete values. By contrast, non-digital systems use a continuous range of values to represent information...

. The first part is a header
Header (information technology)
In information technology, header refers to supplemental data placed at the beginning of a block of data being stored or transmitted. In data transmission, the data following the header are sometimes called the payload or body....

 message, which is transmitted three times, so that decoders can pick "best two out of three" for each byte
Byte
The byte is a unit of digital information in computing and telecommunications that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, a byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer and for this reason it is the basic addressable element in many computer...

, thereby eliminating most errors which can cause an activation to fail.

The header is an AFSK data burst, with each individual bit lasting 1920 μs
Microsecond
A microsecond is an SI unit of time equal to one millionth of a second. Its symbol is µs.A microsecond is equal to 1000 nanoseconds or 1/1000 millisecond...

 (1.92 ms
Millisecond
A millisecond is a thousandth of a second.10 milliseconds are called a centisecond....

) each, giving a bit rate
Bit rate
In telecommunications and computing, bit rate is the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per unit of time....

 of 520 bits per second. A mark bit is four complete cycles of a sine wave, translating to a mark frequency of 2083 Hz
Hertz
The hertz is the SI unit of frequency defined as the number of cycles per second of a periodic phenomenon. One of its most common uses is the description of the sine wave, particularly those used in radio and audio applications....

, and a space bit is three complete sine wave cycles, making the space frequency 1562.5 Hz.

The data
Data
The term data refers to qualitative or quantitative attributes of a variable or set of variables. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be the basis of graphs, images, or observations of a set of variables. Data are often viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which...

 is encode
Encode
Encode may refer to:* Can be related to "Code"* Encode ApS, a Danish software company* Encode SA, a Greek information security company* ENCODE, the ENCyclopedia Of DNA Elements...

d in 7-bit
Bit
A bit is the basic unit of information in computing and telecommunications; it is the amount of information stored by a digital device or other physical system that exists in one of two possible distinct states...

 ASCII
ASCII
The American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a character-encoding scheme based on the ordering of the English alphabet. ASCII codes represent text in computers, communications equipment, and other devices that use text...

 but uses all 8 bits, with no parity bit
Parity bit
A parity bit is a bit that is added to ensure that the number of bits with the value one in a set of bits is even or odd. Parity bits are used as the simplest form of error detecting code....

 and no stop bit ("8-N-0"). The least-significant bit of each byte is transmitted first, including the preamble.

The text of the header code is a fixed format of Preamble-ZCZC-org-eee(up to 31 of -pssccc)+tttt-jjjhhmm-llllllll:
  1. A preamble of binary 10101011 (0xAB in hex) repeated sixteen times, used for "receiver calibration" (i.e., clock synchronization
    Synchronization in telecommunications
    Many services running on modern digital telecommunications networks require accurate synchronization for correct operation. For example, if switches do not operate with the same clock rates, then slips will occur and degrade performance...

    ), then the letters ZCZC as an attention to the decoder
  2. org: Originator code; programmed per unit when put into operation
    • EAN - Emergency Action Notification Network (President or other authorized national officials. Shall be used starting November 9th 2011 for the national test)
    • PEP - Primary Entry Point Station (President or other authorized national officials)
    • CIV - Civil authorities (i.e. Governor, state/local emergency management, local police/fire officials)
    • WXR - National Weather Service
      National Weather Service
      The National Weather Service , once known as the Weather Bureau, is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration of the United States government...

       (or Environment Canada
      Environment Canada
      Environment Canada , legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act Environment Canada (EC) (French: Environnement Canada), legally incorporated as the Department of the Environment under the Department of the Environment Act Environment...

      . Any weather-related alert)
    • EAS - EAS Participant (formerly Broadcast Station or Cable System
      Cable television
      Cable television is a system of providing television programs to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through coaxial cables or digital light pulses through fixed optical fibers located on the subscriber's property, much like the over-the-air method used in traditional...

      ) (Broadcasters. Generally only used with test messages)
  3. eee: Event code; programmed at time of event
  4. pssccc: Location codes (up to 31 locations); programmed at time of event
    • The first digit is zero if the entire county or area is included in the warning, otherwise, it is a non-zero number depending on the location of the emergency.
    • In the United States, designated by FIPS state code
      FIPS state code
      FIPS state codes were numeric and two-letter alphabetic codes defined in U.S. Federal Information Processing Standard Publication 5-2 to identify U.S. states and certain other associated areas...

       and indicating the county (parish
      Parish
      A parish is a territorial unit historically under the pastoral care and clerical jurisdiction of one parish priest, who might be assisted in his pastoral duties by a curate or curates - also priests but not the parish priest - from a more or less central parish church with its associated organization...

       in Louisiana
      Louisiana
      Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

      , borough
      Borough
      A borough is an administrative division in various countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing township although, in practice, official use of the term varies widely....

       or census area in Alaska
      Alaska
      Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area. It is situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent, with Canada to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, with Russia further west across the Bering Strait...

      ), but which may be designated for the whole state by using county number 000
    • In Canada, designated by Canadian Location Code, which corresponds to a specific forecast region
      Forecast region
      A forecast region is a unique geographical area for which individual weather reports are issued.-Canada:In Canada, the Meteorological Service divides the country into several forecast regions for the purpose of issuing routine text forecasts and weather warnings, as Canada's provinces and...

       as used by the Meteorological Service of Canada
      Meteorological Service of Canada
      The Meteorological Service of Canada , also known as "The Canadian Weather Service", is a division of Environment Canada, which primarily provides public meteorological information and weather forecasts and warnings of severe weather and other environmental hazards...

  5. tttt: Purge time of the alert event (from exact time of issue)
    • In the format hhmm, using 15 minute increments up to one hour, using 30 minute increments up to six hours, and using hourly increments beyond six hours. Weekly and monthly tests typically have a 12 hour or greater purge time to assure users have an ample opportunity to verify reception of the test event messages.
    • For short term events (like a tornado) this value could be set to 0000, which will purge the warning after the message has been received. However, this is not typical, and FCC guidelines normally suggest a mimimum 15 minute purge time.
    • The purge time is not intended to coincide with the actual end of the event. Longer events that may not end for days (like hurricanes) may have a purge time of only a few hours. That an event message has been purged does not indicate or imply that the threat has passed.
  6. jjjhhmm: Exact time of issue, in UTC, without time zone
    Time zone
    A time zone is a region on Earth that has a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes. In order for the same clock time to always correspond to the same portion of the day as the Earth rotates , different places on the Earth need to have different clock times...

     adjustments
    • jjj is the Ordinal date
      Ordinal date
      An ordinal date is a calendar date typically consisting of a year and a day of year ranging between 1 and 366 , though year may sometimes be omitted...

       day of the year, with leading zeros
    • hhmm is 24-hour hours and minutes, in UTC, with leading zeros
  7. Eight-character station callsign identification, with / used instead of - (such as the first eight letters of a cable headend's location, WABC/FM for WABC-FM, or KLOX/NWS for a weather radio
    NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards
    NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards is a network of radio stations broadcasting continuous weather information directly from a nearby National Weather Service office. It is operated by the NWS, an agency of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration within the United States Department of...

     station programmed from Los Angeles).


Each field of the header code is terminated by a dash character.

Full message breakdown


An EAS message contains these elements, in this transmitted sequence:
  1. Header
  2. Attention signal: Sent if any message is included (normally sent with all messages except RWT on commercial radio/TV); must be at least eight seconds long. On Weatheradio in Canada the 1050Hz tone is only used with three event codes: RMT, SVR & TOR.
    • Single audio tone for Weatheradio
    • Combined tones for commercial radio/TV
  3. Message - audio, video image or video text
  4. Tail: (Preamble) NNNN (EOM)


There is one second of blank audio between each section, and before and after each message. For those used to packet communications systems where each packet has a checksum, note that there is no checksum used in the message format. Each message is supposed to be transmitted 3 times, and the receiver is obliged to implement columnar parity correction.

The combined tones date back to 1963 when they were part of the EAS' predecessor, the Emergency Broadcast System
Emergency Broadcast System
The Emergency Broadcast System was an emergency warning system in the United States, used from 1963 to 1997, when it was replaced by the Emergency Alert System.-Purpose:...

.

Event codes


There are roughly 80 different event codes that are currently used in EAS and are part of the voluntary Consumer Electronics Association
Consumer Electronics Association
The Consumer Electronics Association is a standards and trade organization for the consumer electronics industry in the United States. The Consumer Electronics Association is the preeminent trade association promoting growth in the $173 billion U.S...

 (CEA) standard for SAME protocol receiver decoder units. Originally, all but the first six of these were optional and could be programmed into encoder/decoder units at the request of the broadcaster. However, a July 12, 2007 memo by the FCC now requires mandatory participation in state and local level EAS. Furthermore, the creation and evolution of a voluntary standard by the CEA in December 2003 has provided participating manufacturers of receivers a single definitive reference to use when designing and programming receivers.
USA type key CAN type key Event level key
M Mandatory code AB Administrative bulletin ADV Advisory
O1 Original optional code CI Currently implemented WCH Watch
O2 2002 optional code RT Required test WRN Warning
NI Not implemented FI For future implementation

Currently Implemented:

The following event codes are currently implemented by agencies in the United States and/or Canada.

Event Code U.S. Type CAN. Type Event Description Event Level
ADR O1 AB Administrative Message ADV
AVA O2 FI Avalanche
Avalanche
An avalanche is a sudden rapid flow of snow down a slope, occurring when either natural triggers or human activity causes a critical escalating transition from the slow equilibrium evolution of the snow pack. Typically occurring in mountainous terrain, an avalanche can mix air and water with the...

 Watch
WCH
AVW O2 FI Avalanche Warning WRN
BZW O1 CI Blizzard Warning
Blizzard warning
A Blizzard Warning is an advisory issued by the National Weather Service of the United States which means sustained winds or frequent gusts of 35 mph / 15 m/s or greater with heavy snow is forecast for a period of 3 hours or more. A blizzard tends to reduce visibilities to 1/4 of a mile or...

 
WRN
CAE O2 FI Child Abduction Emergency
AMBER Alert
An AMBER Alert or a Child Abduction Emergency is a child abduction alert bulletin in several countries throughout the world, issued upon the suspected abduction of a child, since 1996...

 
ADV
CDW O2 FI Civil Danger Warning WRN
CEM O1 FI Civil Emergency Message WRN
CFA O2 FI Coastal Flood Watch WCH
CFW O2 FI Coastal Flood Warning WRN
DMO O1 AB Demonstration Message ADV
DSW O2 CI Dust Storm
Dust storm
A dust / sand storm is a meteorological phenomenon common in arid and semi-arid regions. Dust storms arise when a gust front or other strong wind blows loose sand and dirt from a dry surface. Particles are transported by saltation and suspension, causing soil to move from one place and deposition...

 Warning
WRN
EAN M FI Emergency Action Notification
Emergency Action Notification
An Emergency Action Notification is the national activation of the Emergency Alert System and can only be activated by the President or their representative . The Emergency Broadcast System also carried the Emergency Action Notification...

 (Begins a nationwide EAS activation)
WRN
EAT M FI Emergency Action Termination (Ends a national activation) ADV
EQW O2 FI Earthquake Warning  WRN
EVI O1 FI Evacuation
Emergency evacuation
Emergency evacuation is the immediate and rapid movement of people away from the threat or actual occurrence of a hazard. Examples range from the small scale evacuation of a building due to a bomb threat or fire to the large scale evacuation of a district because of a flood, bombardment or...

 Immediate
WRN
FFA O1 FI Flash Flood Watch
Flash flood watch
A Flash flood watch is issued by the National Weather Service when conditions are favorable for flash flooding in flood-prone areas where grounds are already saturated from recent rains....

 
WCH
FFS O1 FI Flash Flood
Flash flood
A flash flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas—washes, rivers, dry lakes and basins. It may be caused by heavy rain associated with a storm, hurricane, or tropical storm or meltwater from ice or snow flowing over ice sheets or snowfields...

 Statement
ADV
FFW O1 FI Flash Flood Warning
Flash Flood Warning
A Flash Flood Warning is issued when a flash flood is imminent or occurring in the warned area. A flash flood is a sudden, violent flood after a heavy rain...

 
WRN
FLA O1 FI Flood Watch
Flood watch
Flood alerts are issued by weather agencies to alert residents that flood conditions are a possibility for their area.-Types of flood alerts:...

 
WCH
FLS O1 FI Flood
Flood
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water...

 Statement
ADV
FLW O1 FI Flood Warning
Flood warning
Flood warning is closely linked to the task of flood forecasting. The distinction between the two is that the outcome of flood forecasting is a set of forecast time-profiles of channel flows or river levels at various locations, while "flood warning" is the task of making use of these forecasts to...

 
WRN
FRW O2 FI Fire Warning
Fire Warning
A Fire Warning is a warning issued by civil authorities in the United States to inform the public of major, uncontrolled fires threatening populated areas and/or major roadways...

 
WRN
FSW NI CI Flash Freeze Warning WRN
FZW NI CI Freeze Warning (in Canada, 'Frost
Frost
Frost is the solid deposition of water vapor from saturated air. It is formed when solid surfaces are cooled to below the dew point of the adjacent air as well as below the freezing point of water. Frost crystals' size differ depending on time and water vapour available. Frost is also usually...

 Warning' - See note below ** )
WRN
HLS O1 FI Hurricane Local Statement ADV
HMW O2 FI Hazardous Materials Warning WRN
HUA O1 CI Hurricane Watch  WCH
HUW O1 CI Hurricane Warning  WRN
HWA O1 FI High Wind Watch WCH
HWW O1 CI High Wind Warning WRN
LAE O2 FI Local Area Emergency ADV
LEW O2 FI Law Enforcement Warning WRN
NAT NI AB National Audible Test ADV
NIC M AB National Information Center Statement (Used to follow up an EAN) ADV
NMN O2 AB Network Message Notification ADV
NPT M AB National Periodic Test ADV
NST NI AB National Silent Test ADV
NUW O2 FI Nuclear Power Plant
Nuclear power plant
A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is one or more nuclear reactors. As in a conventional thermal power station the heat is used to generate steam which drives a steam turbine connected to a generator which produces electricity.Nuclear power plants are usually...

 Warning
WRN
RHW O2 FI Radiological Hazard Warning WRN
RMT M RT Required Monthly Test ADV
RWT M RT Required Weekly Test ADV
SMW O2 TS Special Marine Warning WRN
SPS O1 FI Special Weather Statement ADV
SPW O2 FI Shelter In-place Warning
Shelter in Place
Shelter in place is a process for taking immediate shelter in a location readily accessible to the affected individual by sealing a single area from outside contaminants and shutting off all HVAC systems. These actions would generally be taken after a chemical accident or terrorist attack...

 
WRN
SVA O1 CI Severe Thunderstorm Watch
Severe thunderstorm watch
[File:Annual_severe_thunderstorm_watch_frequency_in_the_United_States.svg|thumb|right|300px|Map of average annual severe thunderstorm watches in the United States between 1999 and 2008.Legend:...

 
WCH
SVR O1 CI Severe Thunderstorm Warning
Severe thunderstorm warning
A severe thunderstorm warning is issued when trained storm spotters or a Doppler weather radar indicate a strong thunderstorm is producing dangerously large hail or high winds, capable of causing significant damage. In the United States, it does not account for lightning or flooding...

 
WRN
SVS O1 TS Severe Weather Statement (U.S.
Severe weather terminology (United States)
This article describes the United States National Weather Service severe weather terminology. The NWS defines precise meanings for nearly all its weather terms. This article describes NWS terminology and related NWS weather scales...

, CAN
Severe weather terminology (Canada)
This article describes Severe weather Terminology used by the Environment Canada's Meteorological Service of Canada. This article primarily describes various weather warnings, and their criteria. Related weather scales and general weather terms are also addressed in this article...

)
ADV
TOA O1 CI Tornado Watch
Tornado watch
A tornado watch is issued when conditions are right for a tornado to form. Since any thunderstorm capable of producing a tornado is defined as severe, a tornado watch is also automatically a severe thunderstorm watch...

 
WCH
TOE O2 FI 911
9-1-1
9-1-1 is the emergency telephone number for the North American Numbering Plan .It is one of eight N11 codes.The use of this number is for emergency circumstances only, and to use it for any other purpose can be a crime.-History:In the earliest days of telephone technology, prior to the...

 Telephone Outage Emergency
ADV
TOR O1 CI Tornado Warning
Tornado warning
A tornado warning is an alert issued by government weather services to warn that severe thunderstorms with tornadoes may be imminent. It can be issued after a tornado or funnel cloud has been spotted by eye, or more commonly if there are radar indications of tornado formation...

 
WRN
TRA O2 CI Tropical Storm Watch  WCH
TRW O2 CI Tropical Storm Warning  WRN
TSA O1 TS Tsunami
Tsunami
A tsunami is a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake...

 Watch
WCH
TSW O1 TS Tsunami Warning  WRN
VOW O2 FI Volcano Warning  WRN
WSA O1 CI Winter Storm Watch
Winter Storm Watch
A Winter Storm Watch is issued by the National Weather Service of the United States when there is a potential for heavy snow or significant ice accumulations. The watch is usually issued at least 24 to 36 hours before the storm's arrival in the area...

 
WCH
WSW O1 CI Winter Storm Warning
Winter Storm Warning
A Winter Storm Warning is a statement made by the National Weather Service of the United States which means a winter storm is occurring or is about to occur in the area, usually within 24 hours. Generally, a Winter Storm Warning is issued if at least to or more of snow or or more of snow with...

 (Canada, see note below † )
WRN
??A O2 CI Unrecognized Watch WCH
??E O2 CI Unrecognized Emergency ADV
??S O2 CI Unrecognized Statement ADV
??W O2 CI Unrecognized Warning WRN

** While the CEA standard lists the FZW event code as "Freeze Warning", Environment Canada refers to it as a "Frost Warning". However, it will be displayed as a "Freeze Warning" on receivers that are compliant to the CEA standard.
Environment Canada additionally uses the WSW event code to refer to any of the following weather conditions: Blowing Snow Warning, Freezing Drizzle Warning, Freezing Rain Warning, Snowfall Warning, Snow Squall Warning

Internal Use Only:

Receiver decoders that comply to the CEA standard will neither display the messages below, nor activate a warning tone if applicable. While the message will be stored in memory, it will not be displayed to the user. The FCC has also designated these event codes as being for "internal use only", and not for display. Environment Canada lists these messages as "Administrative Bulletins".

Event Code U.S. Type CAN. Type Event Description Event Level
TXB O2 AB Transmitter backup on ADV
TXF O2 AB Transmitter carrier off ADV
TXO O2 AB Transmitter carrier on ADV
TXP O2 AB Transmitter primary on ADV


Future Implementation:

The following codes are part of the CEA standard for receiver decoders, but are not listed as currently being in use by any agencies in the United States. Environment Canada lists these codes as being "for future implementation".

Event Code U.S. Type CAN. Type Event Description Event Level
BHW NI FI Biological Hazard
Biological hazard
Biological hazards, refer to biological substances that pose a threat to the health of living organisms, primarily that of humans. This can include medical waste or samples of a microorganism, virus or toxin that can impact human health. It can also include substances harmful to animals...

 Warning
WRN
BWW NI FI Boil Water Warning  WRN
CHW NI FI Chemical Hazard
Chemical hazard
A chemical hazard arises from contamination of an area with harmful or potentially harmful chemicals. Possible sources of chemical hazards include the burning of fossils, materials and chemicals used in construction and industry, pollution of the environment and water supply, chemical spillages,...

 Warning
WRN
CWW NI FI Contaminated Water Warning WRN
DBA NI FI Dam
Dam
A dam is a barrier that impounds water or underground streams. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water, while other structures such as floodgates or levees are used to manage or prevent water flow into specific land regions. Hydropower and pumped-storage hydroelectricity are...

 Watch
WCH
DBW NI FI Dam Break Warning WRN
DEW NI FI Contagious Disease
Contagious disease
A contagious disease is a subset category of infectious diseases , which are easily transmitted by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by their secretions or objects touched by them....

 Warning
WRN
EVA NI FI Evacuation
Emergency evacuation
Emergency evacuation is the immediate and rapid movement of people away from the threat or actual occurrence of a hazard. Examples range from the small scale evacuation of a building due to a bomb threat or fire to the large scale evacuation of a district because of a flood, bombardment or...

 Watch
WCH
FCW NI FI Food Contamination Warning WRN
IBW NI FI Iceberg
Iceberg
An iceberg is a large piece of ice from freshwater that has broken off from a snow-formed glacier or ice shelf and is floating in open water. It may subsequently become frozen into pack ice...

 Warning
WRN
IFW NI FI Industrial Fire
Industrial fire
An Industrial fire is a type of industrial disaster involving a conflagration which occurs in an industrial setting. Industrial fires often, but not always, occur together with explosions. They are most likely to occur in facilities where there is a lot of flammable material present. Such...

 Warning
WRN
LSW NI FI Land Slide Warning WRN
POS NI FI Power Outage Statement ADV
WFA NI FI Wild Fire
Wildfire
A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, squirrel fire, vegetation fire, veldfire, and wilkjjofire may be used to describe the same...

 Watch
WCH
WFW NI FI Wild Fire Warning WRN

SAME on weather radio receivers


There are many weather/all-hazards radio receivers that are equipped with the SAME alert feature. It allows users to program SAME/FIPS
FIPS county code
The FIPS county code is a five-digit Federal Information Processing Standard code which uniquely identifies counties and county equivalents in the United States, certain U.S. possessions, and certain freely associated states. The first two digits are the FIPS state code and the last three are...

/CLC
Forecast region
A forecast region is a unique geographical area for which individual weather reports are issued.-Canada:In Canada, the Meteorological Service divides the country into several forecast regions for the purpose of issuing routine text forecasts and weather warnings, as Canada's provinces and...

 codes for their designated area or areas of their interest and/or concern rather than the entire broadcast area (Examples given: If a person were to live in Irving, Texas
Irving, Texas
Irving is a city located in the U.S. state of Texas within Dallas County. According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the city population was 216,290. Irving is within the Dallas–Plano–Irving metropolitan division of the Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, designated...

, he or she would program a FIPS code for Dallas
Dallas County, Texas
As of the census of 2000, there were 2,218,899 people, 807,621 households, and 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile . There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi...

 County. However, if he or she needs to be in the know of severe weather from the west and northwest ahead of time, the user would program additional FIPS codes for Denton
Denton County, Texas
Denton County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2000, its population was 432,976; in 2009 the estimated population had reached 628,300. Part of the Dallas – Fort Worth Metroplex, it is one of the fastest-growing counties in the United States. The county seat is Denton. The county...

 and Tarrant
Tarrant County, Texas
Tarrant County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, it had a population of 1,809,034. Its county seat is Fort Worth. Tarrant County is the sixteenth most populous county in the United States and the third most populous in Texas. The county is named in honor...

 Counties. On a more specialized receiver, a user has the option to eliminate any SAME alert codes that may not apply to their area such as a Special Marine Warning or a Coastal Flood Warning
Coastal flood warning
A Coastal Flood Warning is issued by the National Weather Service of the United States when coastal flooding is either imminent or occurring along the coast of the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico. The flooding must be due to water being forced from the nearby body of water onto...

. Once the SAME header is sent by NOAA/NWS and if it matches the desired code(s), the receivers then decode the event, scroll it on their display screens, and sound an alarm.

Receivers receive on one of the following National Weather Service network frequencies (in MHz): 162.400, 162.425, 162.450, 162.475, 162.500, 162.525, and 162.550. The signals are typically receivable up to 40 miles from the transmitters.

SAME in popular culture

  • The SAME EOM (end of message) tone was heard in the movie trailer for Knowing, where its familiar emergency use and its increasing cadence
    Cadence
    Cadence may refer to:Music:*Cadence , a melodic configuration the end of a phrase, section, or piece of music*Cadence Magazine, a monthly review of jazz, blues and improvised music...

     create a sense of foreboding
    Foreshadowing
    Foreshadowing or adumbrating is a literary device in which an author indistinctly suggests certain plot developments that might come later in the story.-Repetitive designation and Chekhov's gun:...

    .

See also

  • Common Alerting Protocol
    Common Alerting Protocol
    The Common Alerting Protocol is an XML-based data format for exchanging public warnings and emergencies between alerting technologies. CAP allows a warning message to be consistently disseminated simultaneously over many warning systems to many applications...

    (CAP) — A SAME-compatible digital format for multi-system warning coordination.

External links