Spanish Army

Spanish Army

Encyclopedia
The Spanish Army is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces
Spanish Armed Forces
The Spanish Armed Forces are the military forces of the Kingdom of Spain. The Spanish Armed Forces are a modern military force charged with defending the Kingdom's integrity and sovereignty...

 responsible for land-based military operations. It is one of the oldest active armies - dating back to the 15th century.

Introduction


The Spanish Army has existed continuously since the reign of King Fernando and Queen Isabel (late 15th century). The oldest and largest of the three services, its mission was the defense of peninsular Spain, the Balearic Islands
Balearic Islands
The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.The four largest islands are: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain with Palma as the capital...

, the Canary Islands
Canary Islands
The Canary Islands , also known as the Canaries , is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union...

, Melilla
Melilla
Melilla is a autonomous city of Spain and an exclave on the north coast of Morocco. Melilla, along with the Spanish exclave Ceuta, is one of the two Spanish territories located in mainland Africa...

, Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 and the Spanish islands and rocks off the northern coast of Africa.

The army is completing a major reorganization. It had previously been organized into nine regional operational commands. These were reduced to six commands in conjunction with a revised deployment of forces: Central Command, Southern Command, Levante Command, Eastern Pyrenees Command, Northwestern Command, and Western Pyrenees Command. In addition there were the two military zones of the Canary Islands and the Balearic Islands. Ceuta and Melilla fell within the Southern Command. At the head of each regional and zonal command was an officer of three-star rank. Although his authority had been reduced, the regional commander, who held the title of captain general (Spanish: Capitán General), was still among the most senior officers of the army.

Under its earlier organization, the army was grouped into two basic categories: the Immediate Intervention Forces and the Territorial Operational Defence Forces. In theory, the former, consisting of three divisions and ten brigades, had the missions of defending the Pyrenean and the Gibraltar frontiers and of fulfilling Spain's security commitments abroad. The latter force, consisting of two mountain divisions and fourteen brigades, had the missions of maintaining security in the regional commands and of reinforcing the Civil Guard (Spanish: Guardia Civil) and the police against subversion and terrorism. In reality, most of the Immediate Intervention Forces were not positioned to carry out their ostensible mission of protecting the nation's borders. Many units were stationed near major cities—as a matter of convenience for officers who held part-time jobs—from which they also could be called upon to curb disturbances or unrest.

In a gradual process that had not been fully completed, the division of the army into the Immediate Intervention Forces and the Territorial Operational Defence Forces was being abolished. The brigade had become the fundamental tactical unit. The total number of brigades had been reduced from twenty-four to fifteen by the dismantling of nine territorial defence brigades. Eleven of the brigades had been organized within the existing five divisions; three brigades were to be independent, and one was to be in general reserve.

The best equipped of the five was the First Division, the Brunete Armored Division, with its armored brigade in the Madrid
Madrid
Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

 area and its mechanized brigade farther to the southwest near Badajoz. The motorized Second Division, Guzman el Bueno Division, which had acquired a third brigade as a result of the reorganization, was the major defensive force in the south, with full capability for rapid maneuver. The mechanized Third Division, the Maestrazgo Division, under the Levante Command, consisted of two brigades considered to have a moderate degree of mobility. The two mountain divisions, the Fourth Division—or Urgel Division and the Fifth Division—or Navarra Division, each consisting of two mountain brigades, remained in the Pyrenees border area of the north. Two of the four independent brigades were armored cavalry, one was an airborne brigade, and one was a paratroop brigade (in general reserve).

Numerous other changes were introduced as well, including the reorganization of artillery forces not included in the major combat units. This involved the creation of a field artillery command that consisted of a restructured and consolidated former artillery brigade, the creation of a single straits coastal artillery command that replaced two former coastal artillery regiments, and the introduction of an antiaircraft artillery command that was expected to benefit from significant modernizing of its weapons inventory.

The personnel strength of the army, which previously had been maintained at about 280,000, including 170,000 conscripts, had been trimmed to 240,000 by 1987. This was achieved through lower intakes of conscripts and volunteers and through cuts in the table of organization for officers and NCOs. The government's goal was a smaller but more capable army of 195,000 effective by 1991. Outside peninsular Spain, about 19,000 troops were stationed in Ceuta
Ceuta
Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

 and Melilla
Melilla
Melilla is a autonomous city of Spain and an exclave on the north coast of Morocco. Melilla, along with the Spanish exclave Ceuta, is one of the two Spanish territories located in mainland Africa...

. These included, in addition to the Spanish Legion and other specialized units, four regular regiments of North Africans. An additional 5,800 troops were assigned to the Balearic Islands, and 10,000 were in the Canary Islands.

The Spanish Legion
Spanish Legion
The Spanish Legion , formerly Spanish Foreign Legion, is an elite unit of the Spanish Army and Spain's Rapid Reaction Force. Founded as the Tercio de Extranjeros , it was originally intended as a Spanish equivalent of the French Foreign Legion, but in practice it recruited almost exclusively...

, founded in Spanish Morocco
Spanish Morocco
The Spanish protectorate of Morocco was the area of Morocco under colonial rule by the Spanish Empire, established by the Treaty of Fez in 1912 and ending in 1956, when both France and Spain recognized Moroccan independence.-Territorial borders:...

 in 1920, has always been under the direct command of the chief of the army staff. It has had a reputation as the toughest combat unit in the service, although modelled after the French Foreign Legion, reduced in size in 1987, as a result of successive reorganizations, the legion was scheduled to undergo further cuts to an overall strength of 6,500. It had a higher number of career soldiers than other units, but it was manned mostly by conscripts who had volunteered for the legion. Recruitment of non-Spanish personnel, who had never exceeded 10 percent of the group's manpower, ended in 1986. Foreign legionnaires already in the service were not affected.

The Spanish Legion is grouped into four tercios (sing., tercio), a unit intermediate between a regiment and a brigade, each commanded by a colonel. The first and the second tercios constituted the core of the military garrisons at Melilla and Ceuta (North Africa). Each had been reduced by a motorized battalion, leaving it with a single motorized battalion, a mechanized battalion, an antitank company, and a headquarters company. They were equipped with BMR armored personnel carriers. The Third Tercio, stationed in the Canary Islands, consisted of two motorized battalions and a headquarters company. The Fourth Tercio was being converted from a support role to a combat unit at the legion headquarters in Ronda near Malaga. Although, probably not as "glamorous" outside Spain as their French counterparts, the Spanish legion is as professional and fierce as any other elite force in the world.

The Ministry of Defence was planning the creation of a rapid deployment force composed entirely of volunteers. This force, which would include the Spanish Legion, the Paratroop Brigade, the Airborne Brigade, and Marine units, would be available for use in trouble spots on twelve hours' notice. Lack of adequate air and naval transport would, however, be a limiting factor.

In spite of new procurement programs, introduced in the mid-1980s, weapons and equipment were not in sufficient supply, and they were not up to the standards of other NATO armies. The inventory of medium tanks was made up of nearly 700 American models, as well as about 300 Franco-Spanish AMX-30s manufactured in Spain between 1974 and 1983. Although the military felt that it was essential to adopt a new main battle tank for the 1990s, some considerations led to a postponement of the decision and the upgrading of the AMX-30s with new German-designed diesel engines and transmissions, reactive armor panels, and laser fire-control systems.

Armored troop carriers included about 1,200 M-113
M113 armored personnel carrier
The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier that has formed the backbone of the United States Army's mechanized infantry units from the time of its first fielding in Vietnam in April 1962. The M113 was the most widely used armored vehicle of the U.S...

s as well as AML-60
Panhard AML
-Former Operators:: unknown number of AML-60s and AML-90s in service between 1960-1975.: 34 Eland 90s and Eland 60s in service with the Rhodesian Security Forces in 1979, passed on to successor state.-Trivia:...

s and AML-90
Panhard AML
-Former Operators:: unknown number of AML-60s and AML-90s in service between 1960-1975.: 34 Eland 90s and Eland 60s in service with the Rhodesian Security Forces in 1979, passed on to successor state.-Trivia:...

s and Pizarro
ASCOD AFV
The ASCOD armoured fighting vehicle family is the product of a cooperation agreement between Austrian Steyr-Daimler-Puch AG and Spanish Santa Bárbara Sistemas The ASCOD (Austrian Spanish Cooperation Development) armoured fighting vehicle family is the product of a cooperation agreement between...

 infantry fighting vehicles. The Spanish army is in the process of being equipped with more than 1,200 BMRs, a new armored vehicle designed and manufactured in Spain. A variety of towed and self-propelled artillery guns was available, ranging from 105 mm to 203 mm guns and howitzers. The main antitank weapons were recoilless rifles; 88.9 mm rocket launchers; Milan, Cobra, and Dragon missiles; and a small number of TOW (tube-launched, optically tracked, wireguided) and HOT (high subsonic, optically guided, tube-launched) antitank missile systems. A considerable quantity of additional antitank missiles and rocket launchers was on order. The army aircraft inventory included about 280 helicopters, about 40 of which were armed with 20 mm guns or HOT antitank missiles.

Manpower


The army was about 135,000 troops (50,000 officers and 86,000 soldiers) by the end of 2001 when compulsory military service was still in effect. Currently, the Spanish Army is a fully professionalized force (size 86,000). In case of war or state of siege, an additional force of 80,000 Civil Guards comes under the Ministry of Defence command. In 2013 the army will have 130,000 troops, 6000 soldiers less than now, 10,000 less than that desired by the army, and the minimum proposed by the Military Career law 2007.

Ranks


The military rank
Military rank
Military rank is a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces or civil institutions organized along military lines. Usually, uniforms denote the bearer's rank by particular insignia affixed to the uniforms...

s of the Spanish Army are as follows below. For a comparison with other NATO ranks see Ranks and Insignia of NATO
Ranks and insignia of NATO
Ranks and insignia of NATO are combined military insignia used by the member countries of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.The rank scale is used for specifying posts within NATO.-Definitions:...

. Ranks are wore on the cuff, sleeves and shoulders of all Army uniforms, but differ by the type of the uniform being used.


>
  • 1 Retained by His Majesty the King of Spain as his constitutional role.


>

Officer ranks

  • Caballero Cadete - Cadet
    Cadet
    A cadet is a trainee to become an officer in the military, often a person who is a junior trainee. The term comes from the term "cadet" for younger sons of a noble family.- Military context :...

     Cavalier
    Cavalier
    Cavalier was the name used by Parliamentarians for a Royalist supporter of King Charles I and son Charles II during the English Civil War, the Interregnum, and the Restoration...

  • Caballero Alferez Cadete - Cadet Ensign Cavalier
  • Alferez - Ensign
    Ensign
    An ensign is a national flag when used at sea, in vexillology, or a distinguishing token, emblem, or badge, such as a symbol of office in heraldry...

  • Teniente - Lieutenant
    Lieutenant
    A lieutenant is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces. Typically, the rank of lieutenant in naval usage, while still a junior officer rank, is senior to the army rank...

  • Capitan - Captain
  • Comandante - Commander
    Commander
    Commander is a naval rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. Commander is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the armed forces, particularly in police and law enforcement.-Commander as a naval...

    , Major
    Major
    Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in almost every military in the world.When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an Army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. ...

  • Teniente Coronel - Lieutenant Colonel
    Lieutenant colonel
    Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies and most marine forces and some air forces of the world, typically ranking above a major and below a colonel. The rank of lieutenant colonel is often shortened to simply "colonel" in conversation and in unofficial correspondence...

  • Coronel - Colonel
    Colonel
    Colonel , abbreviated Col or COL, is a military rank of a senior commissioned officer. It or a corresponding rank exists in most armies and in many air forces; the naval equivalent rank is generally "Captain". It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures...

  • General de Brigada - Brigade General
    Brigade General
    Brigade General is a rank used in many armies to denote the lowest rank of general, corresponding to command of a brigade. The rank is mostly used in countries where it is used as a modern alternative to a previous older rank of Brigadier or Brigadier General...

  • General de Division - Divisional General
    Divisional General
    Divisional General is a rank used in many armies to denote a rank of general, corresponding to command of a division. For convenience Divisional General is almost always translated into English as Major-General, the equivalent rank used by the UK, USA, etc., although this translation is, strictly...

  • Teniente General - Lieutenant General
    Lieutenant General
    Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. The rank traces its origins to the Middle Ages where the title of Lieutenant General was held by the second in command on the battlefield, who was normally subordinate to a Captain General....

  • General de Ejercito - General of the Army
    General of the Army
    General of the Army is a military rank used in some countries to denote a senior military leader, usually a General in command of a nation's Army. It may also be the title given to a General who commands an Army in the field....

  • Capitan General - Captain General
    Captain General
    Captain general is a high military rank and a gubernatorial title.-History:This term Captain General started to appear in the 14th century, with the meaning of commander in chief of an army in the field, probably the first usage of the term General in military settings...


Ranks of non-commissioned officers and enlisted

  • Soldado - Private
    Private (rank)
    A Private is a soldier of the lowest military rank .In modern military parlance, 'Private' is shortened to 'Pte' in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries and to 'Pvt.' in the United States.Notably both Sir Fitzroy MacLean and Enoch Powell are examples of, rare, rapid career...

  • Soldado de Primera - Private First Class
    Private First Class
    Private First Class is a military rank held by junior enlisted persons.- Singapore :The rank of Private First Class in the Singapore Armed Forces lies between the ranks of Private and Lance-Corporal . It is usually held by conscript soldiers midway through their national service term...

  • Cabo - Lance Corporal
    Lance Corporal
    Lance corporal is a military rank, used by many armed forces worldwide, and also by some police forces and other uniformed organizations. It is below the rank of corporal, and is typically the lowest non-commissioned officer, usually equivalent to the NATO Rank Grade OR-3.- Etymology :The presumed...

  • Cabo Primero - Corporal
    Corporal
    Corporal is a rank in use in some form by most militaries and by some police forces or other uniformed organizations. It is usually equivalent to NATO Rank Code OR-4....

  • Cabo Mayor - Corporal Major/Lance Sergeant
    Lance Sergeant
    A lance sergeant in the armies of the Commonwealth was a corporal acting in the rank of sergeant. The appointment is retained now only in the Foot Guards and Honourable Artillery Company...

  • Sargento - Sergeant
    Sergeant
    Sergeant is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organizations around the world. Its origins are the Latin serviens, "one who serves", through the French term Sergent....

  • Sargento Primero - Staff Sergeant
    Staff Sergeant
    Staff sergeant is a rank of non-commissioned officer used in several countries.The origin of the name is that they were part of the staff of a British army regiment and paid at that level rather than as a member of a battalion or company.-Australia:...

  • Brigada - Brigadier
    Brigadier
    Brigadier is a senior military rank, the meaning of which is somewhat different in different military services. The brigadier rank is generally superior to the rank of colonel, and subordinate to major general....

    /Sergeant First Class
    Sergeant First Class
    Sergeant First Class is the seventh enlisted rank in the U.S. Army, above Staff Sergeant and below Master Sergeant and First Sergeant, and is the first senior non-commissioned officer rank...

  • Subteniente- Sublieutenant
  • Suboficial Mayor - Sub-officer
    Sub-Officer
    Sub-Officer is a term used in many military forces used to indicate ranks below commissioned officers. Sub-Officer is equivalent to the term NCO in the Commonwealth and USA...

     Major

1985: situation and equipment


In this year the Spanish Army began a reorganization that included a reduction by 45,000 men. It had, at the time, one armoured division (2 active armoured brigades and one reserve), one mechanized division, one motorized division, and five separate brigades (one each: airborne, armored, air-assault, infantry, heavy artillery). These units, together with some separate regiments, were in the active component of the army (Field Army or FII).

In the Territorial Army (reserve forces, known in Spanish as FDOT) there were:
  • 2 Mountain TA divisions
  • 1 Alpine TA brigade
  • 9 infantry brigades of the TA (each based on: three battalions, one artillery group, one scout company, one signal company, one logistics company)
  • 4 TA Tercios of the Spanish Legion
  • 1 TA artillery brigade
  • 1 TA brigade and five TA regiments of coastal artillery
  • 2 TA heavy artillery regiments, and some minor units.


Other forces were: in the Balearics (three infantry regiments and support units), Canary Is. (one Tercio regiment and three infantry regiments), Ceuta and Melilla (2 regiments of African [i.e. ethnic Moroccan] troops and three Tercios (two regular and one TA).

Weapons were (SP means Self Propelled):
  • tanks: M47E/E1/E2, M48A5E, AMX-30E, M41
  • Armoured: AML-60, AML-90, VEC, BMR-600, BLR, M113
  • Artillery: M108 SP, Model 56 (105 mm), M109 SP, M44 SP, M114, M59 (155 mm), M107 SP(175 mm), M110 SP (203 mm), MLR Teruel 1 (140 mm), L21 (216 mm), L10(300 mm).
  • Coastal artillery: 88, 152, 203, 305, 381 mm
  • Mortars: Esperanza 60, 81, 120 mm, M125 SP(81 mm), M125A1 SP(120 mm)
  • A.A. Weapons: M55 12,7 mm, GAO-B1 20 mm, GDF 35 mm, L70 40 mm, M117 90 mm. SAM AMX-30 Roland, HAWK, Nike Hercules.

A.T weapons: rocket launchers M65 89 mm, M 40 RLC 106 mm, ATGW Cobra, MILAN, HOT, TOW, M 47 Dragon
  • Infantry weapons: M41/59 7,62 mm, CETME automatic rifles 7,62 mm.
  • Aviation: UH-1B/H, Aluette III, BO 105, AB.212, O-58, CH-47

1991: situation and reorganization


At that time there was a plan called META, in Spanish Modernization of Army, that was discussed between 1982 and 1988. Military regions were reduced from 9 to 6, FII and DOT (Field Army and Territorial Army) were united and the brigades were reduced from 24 to 15. Men were recently reduced from 279,000 to 230,000.

Five divisions, with 11 brigades, were organized as:
  • 1st Armoured Division BRUNETE (XI Mechanized Brigade and XII Armoured Brigade)
  • 2nd Motorized Division GUZMAN EL BUENO (XXI Mechanized Brigade and XXII and XXIII Motorized Brigades)
  • 3rd Mechanized Division MAESTRAZGO (XXXII and XXXIII Mechanized Brigades)
  • 4th Mountain Division URGEL (XLI and XLII Mountain Brigades)
  • 5th Mountain Division NAVARRA (LI Mountain Brigade and LII Motorized Brigade).


Three separate brigades were: the Jarama air-assault Brigade, the Castillejos armoured brigades, and the BRIPAC airborne brigade, this latter within the General Reserve. Minor units comprised 14,000 men on the Canary Is., 9,000 on the Balearic Is. and 7,000 in Ceuta and Melilla. Six groups and three companies were devoted to special operations (GOE and COE). Standard divisional structure was:

12,000-17,000 men, with one HQ, one light armoured cavalry regiment, two or three brigades, artillery regiment of two groups (12 or 18 guns each), one Bofors-armed AAA group, and several support units (signal, NBC, transport).

Brigades were organized with a 3-5000 strength, 3 or 4 battalions, one artillery group and support units.

As for weapons, at that time there was a total of 850 tanks: 299 AMX-30E. 164 M-48
M48 Patton
The M48 Patton is a medium tank that was designed in the United States. It was the third and final tank to be officially named after General George S. Patton, commander of the U.S. Third Army during World War II and one of the earliest American advocates for the use of tanks in battle It was a...

 A5E1, 325 M-47 E1 and 46 M-47E2. The CFE agreements reduced it to a 794 maximum, but this has not yet been implemented.

AMX-30E were built under license by Empresa Nacional Santa Barbara between 1974 and 1983. They were the mainstay of the Army, and although new, they performed below expectations because of transmission problems. 150 were planned to be upgraded to AMX-30E2 with enhanced protection (with ERA bricks), fire-control systems (based on laser and ballistic computers) and improvements in mobility. Total cost was budgeted at 30 billion (30,000,000,000) pesetas. Over 80% of this bill was allocated to replacement of Hispano-Suiza HA-110 engines and mechanical transmissions, the same as with Leopard 1 (MTU 833, 840 hp) and ZF LSG-3000 automatic transmissions. FCS is Hughes Mk 9, while ERA is the Israeli-made Blazer.

M-47 E1 and E2 had diesel powerplants instead of original gasoline engines, M-47 E2 and M-48 A5E1 had 105 mm guns, with the latter a computerized FCS Hughes Mk 7. Advanced night-vision sistems were also in program. To replace many of these tanks there was a program for 272 M60A1 and 260 M60A3 ex-US Army main battle tanks. This meant that all M-47 and M-48 will been phased out and sent to Pakistan and Bolivia.

Cavalry had at the time 13 regiments (infantry had around 40), 7 light (RCLAC), 4 armoured (RCAC) and one school. They had several units: 1 with M113
M113 armored personnel carrier
The M113 is a fully tracked armored personnel carrier that has formed the backbone of the United States Army's mechanized infantry units from the time of its first fielding in Vietnam in April 1962. The M113 was the most widely used armored vehicle of the U.S...

 and one tank squadron with 30 vehicles (13 tanks and 17 M113 basic or with 120 mm SP mortar). BMR VEC were the mainstay of cavalry squadrons (three for each regiment). These 6x6 armoured were built in Spain, had OTO-Melara turrets and different weapons: 20 had the relatively weak 20 mm Rh-202, while 70 had Cockerill 90 mm gun, far powerful also for anti-tank actions. But the majority had M-242 Bushmaster gun, the same as the M2 Bradley (Without DU ammunition), for a total of 208 out 298. M242 have range and power to threat many tanks and all light AFV with APDS
Armour-piercing discarding sabot
Armour-piercing discarding sabot is a type of kinetic energy projectile fired from a gun to attack armoured targets. APDS rounds are sabot rounds and were commonly used in large calibre tank guns, but have now been superseded by armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot projectiles in such...

 ammunition. Other valuable machines were 1,200 M113, included special versions like 81 and 120 mortar-carriers.

MAAA (Anti-aircraft Command) and MACA (Field artillery command) were also commanded by General Reserve, directly dependent by ET HQ.

The six regiments of MAAA had 12 groups. Six had Bofors guns, 3 had Oerlikon 35 mm, 1 HAWK
Hawk
The term hawk can be used in several ways:* In strict usage in Australia and Africa, to mean any of the species in the subfamily Accipitrinae, which comprises the genera Accipiter, Micronisus, Melierax, Urotriorchis and Megatriorchis. The large and widespread Accipiter genus includes goshawks,...

 and NIKE-HERCULES, 1 Roland, and 1 with TOLEDO, a combination of 35/90 mm gun and ASPIDE missiles.

All the units had:
  • SAM: 9 launchers for Hercules, the heavier and older of all the Army a.a. weapons. This normally served in Air forces, but in Spain it's used by Army. 24 HAWK launchers (recently modernized, with 5 billions pesetas) were a minimal force with around four batteries fielded. Mistral missile was evaluated at the time together with Stinger and RBS-70, and resulted in a first order of 500 missiles and 100 launchers. They were the first for ET, before never equipped with SHORAD systems. As medium-range missiles, there were also Aspide and Roland. Roland was in 71st regiment. There were 19 launchers, 16 of them used for the armoured division. Only nine had all-weather capability with AMX-30 chassis, that allowed high mobility. All the program (19 AMX-30 launchers, and 414 missiles) cost 29 billions pesetas. Aspide missiles were for 73 Regiment, with three batteries: 12 x 35 mm guns and 12 quad-launchers for Aspide missiles. The system was called TOLEDO and had Super-Fledermaus radars. 13 ASPIDE launchers were bough, with 200 missiles and 7 Super-Fledermaus FCS. Total cost, 22 billions (average cost for each Aspide, twice than Roland). Aspide are much less mobile, and used for static target defences, like Cartagena naval base, and 3rd Division.
  • Guns: on the contrary, the successful Bofors L/70 guns were well 243, produced in Spain under license. Their production took place between 1956 and 1962, and the modernization at the time was planned for 1,6 billions pesetas. This program was about 164 artilleries, 82 fire-direction FELIS, PFHE ammunition, LPD-20 radars, and the boosting from 230 to 300 rpm. FELIS was projected by CETME and produced by INISEL. LPD-20 radar was already in service (34 pieces) in 35 mm batteries, with Super-Fledermaus FCS.


MACA was organized with an HQ and several regiments: 61 localization Regiment, 62 MLR Regiment and 63 Artillery Regiment. 62 was organized with one group TERUEL MLR (12 140 mm launchers, 40 tubes each) and two groups with old 122/46 mm guns. 63rd had one group with 122 mm guns and one with 203/25 M115 guns. Programs at the time saw the increasing to 64 TERUEL launchers and 60 new cannons with two different Spanish models, Santa Barbara REMA (155/39 mm) and SITECSA ST-102 with longer range , 40 km with Base-Bleed projectiles(155/45 mm) compared to 30 km of REMA gun. FCS for artillery was AN/TPQ-36 (four) and SORAS (Swedish model).

Totally, at the time ET had: 90 OTO Model 56 howitzers (105/26 mm), 64 122/46 mm, 64 203/25 mm M-115, 12 M110A2, 48 M108 (105/30 mm), 96 M-109, 12 TERUEL for a total of 442 pieces. Cleary, the field artillery of ET was obsolete and modest compared with a.a artillery. Other artillery were in Command coastal defence, serving in 30 batteries. These weapons were obsolete but powerful having 150, 152, 305 and even 381 mm guns. Also for them it was planned a replacement with missiles and modern artillery. Many small weapons were projected or manufactured in Spain
Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...

, among them 40 mm grenade-launchers and ECIA 81 mm mortars, both self propelled and ground used. CETMA 7,62 mm automatic rifles were the standard.

FAMET was also a part of General Reserve. This service had as main tasks the air mobility, recognition and attack for the Army and was organized with several units, among them five support and six flight units. One attack battalion was BHELA I (mainly with BO-105), One BHELTRA for transport (CH-47 and UH-1H), four BELMHA multi-role. Over 180 helicopters were in charge, making FAMET one of the most modern and effective among the ET forces. 71 BO-105, 17 OH-58, 60 UH-1H, 6 AB-212, 18 CH-47, 18 Super Puma (under license built by CASA). Weapons were HOT missiles (for 28 BO-105), 20 mm guns (for 18 BO-105), 70 mm M-158 and M-9 launchers, 7,62 (also Gatling model) and 12,7 mm weapons, 40 mm Mk 94 automatic grenade-launchers.

Spanish Legion had 7,000 men among SLEG and four Tercios: the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th.

Current structure






Heavy Forces

  • 12th Reconnaissance Cavalry Regiment “Farnesio
    Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma
    Alexander Farnese was Duke of Parma and Piacenza from 1586 to 1592, and Governor of the Spanish Netherlands from 1578 to 1592.-Biography:...

    ” (Santovenia de Pisuerga, Valladolid
    Valladolid
    Valladolid is a historic city and municipality in north-central Spain, situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers, and located within three wine-making regions: Ribera del Duero, Rueda and Cigales...

    ) with Leopard 2E
    Leopard 2E
    The Leopard 2E is a variant of the German Leopard 2 main battle tank, tailored to the requirements of the Spanish Army, which acquired it as part of an armament modernization program named Programa Coraza, or Program Armor...

     tanks and VEC-M1
    VEC-M1
    The Pegaso VEC-M1 is a Spanish military cavalry reconnaissance vehicle. It started service in the Spanish Army in 1980 as BMR-625 VEC and all of them were upgraded in late 90's to the M1 version....

     cavalry scout vehicles
  • 2nd Cavalry Brigade “Castillejos” (Zaragoza
    Zaragoza
    Zaragoza , also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain...

    )
    • HQ Squadron
    • 4th Light Armored Cavalry Regiment “Pavia
      Battle of Pavia
      The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–26.A Spanish-Imperial army under the nominal command of Charles de Lannoy attacked the French army under the personal command of Francis I of France in the great hunting preserve...

      ” with Centauro
      B1 Centauro
      The Centauro is a wheeled tank destroyer designed for light to medium territorial defense and tactical reconnaissance. It was developed by a consortium of manufacturers, the Società Consortile Iveco Fiat - Oto Melara...

       wheeled tank-destroyers
    • 9th Light Armored Cavalry Regiment “Numancia
      Numancia
      Numancia may refer to:Places*Numancia, the Spanish spelling of Celtiberian city of Numantia*Numancia de la Sagra, a town in Toledo, Spain*Numancia, Aklan, a town in the Philippines...

      ” with Centauro wheeled tank-destroyers
    • 11th Light Armored Cavalry Regiment “España” with Centauro wheeled tank-destroyers
    • 20th Field Artillery Regiment with 155/52 APU-SIAC 155mm towed howitzers
    • 22nd Engineer Battalion
    • 22nd Logistic Group
    • 2nd Signal Company

  • 10th Mechanized Infantry Brigade “Guzmán el Bueno” (Cerro Muriano, Córdoba
    Córdoba, Spain
    -History:The first trace of human presence in the area are remains of a Neanderthal Man, dating to c. 32,000 BC. In the 8th century BC, during the ancient Tartessos period, a pre-urban settlement existed. The population gradually learned copper and silver metallurgy...

    )
    • HQ Battalion
    • I/2nd Mechanized Infantry Battalion “Princesa” with Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles
    • II/2nd Mechanized Infantry Battalion “Lepanto
      Battle of Lepanto
      The Battle of Lepanto normally refers to the 1571 Holy League victory over the Ottoman fleet. There were also three earlier battles fought in the vicinity of Lepanto:*Battle of Naupactus in 429 BC, an Athenian victory during the Peleoponnesian War...

      ” with Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles
    • IV/10th Armored Infantry Battalion “Málaga
      Málaga
      Málaga is a city and a municipality in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain. With a population of 568,507 in 2010, it is the second most populous city of Andalusia and the sixth largest in Spain. This is the southernmost large city in Europe...

      " with Leopard 2E
      Leopard 2E
      The Leopard 2E is a variant of the German Leopard 2 main battle tank, tailored to the requirements of the Spanish Army, which acquired it as part of an armament modernization program named Programa Coraza, or Program Armor...

       tanks
    • 10th Self-propelled Field Artillery Group with M109A5
      M109 howitzer
      The M109 is an American-made self-propelled 155 mm howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s. It was upgraded a number of times to today's M109A6 Paladin...

       self-propelled howitzers
    • 10th Mechanized Engineer Battalion
    • 10th Logistic Group
    • 10th Mechanized Signal Company

  • 11th Mechanized Infantry BrigadeExtremadura
    Extremadura
    Extremadura is an autonomous community of western Spain whose capital city is Mérida. Its component provinces are Cáceres and Badajoz. It is bordered by Portugal to the west...

    ” (Botoa, Badajoz
    Badajoz
    Badajoz is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain, situated close to the Portuguese border, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid–Lisbon railway. The population in 2007 was 145,257....

    ).
    • HQ Battalion
    • I/6th Mechanized Infantry Battalion “Cantabria
      Cantabrian Wars
      The Cantabrian Wars occurred during the Roman conquest of the modern provinces of Cantabria, Asturias and León, against the Asturs and the Cantabri. They were the final stage of the conquest of Hispania.-Antecedents:...

      ” with Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles
    • II/6th Mechanized Infantry Battalion “Las Navas
      Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa
      The Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa, known in Arab history as the Battle of Al-Uqab , took place on 16 July 1212 and was an important turning point in the Reconquista and in the medieval history of Spain...

      ” with Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles
    • IV/16th Armored Infantry Battalion “Mérida
      Merida
      Places of the world named Mérida or Merida include:*Mérida, Spain, capital city of the Spanish Community of Extremadura*Mérida, Yucatán, capital city of the Mexican state of Yucatán*Merida, Leyte, a municipality in Leyte province in the Philippines...

      ” with Leopard 2E
      Leopard 2E
      The Leopard 2E is a variant of the German Leopard 2 main battle tank, tailored to the requirements of the Spanish Army, which acquired it as part of an armament modernization program named Programa Coraza, or Program Armor...

       tanks
    • 11th Self-propelled Field Artillery Group with M109A5 self-propelled howitzers
    • 11th Mechanized Engineer Battalion
    • 11th Logistic Group
    • 11th Mechanized Signal Company

  • 12th Armored Infantry BrigadeGuadarrama
    Guadarrama
    Guadarrama is a town in the Community of Madrid in Spain.Pop: 13032 , approx. 60000 .Co-ordinates . not true...

    ” (Colmenar Viejo, Madrid
    Madrid
    Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

    ).
    • HQ Battalion
    • I/31st Mechanized Infantry Battalion “Covadonga
      Battle of Covadonga
      The Battle of Covadonga was the first major victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors' conquest of that region in 711...

      ” with Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles
    • II/61st Armored Infantry Battalion “Wad-Ras
      Spanish-Moroccan War (1859)
      The Hispano-Moroccan War, also known as the Spanish–Moroccan War, the First Moroccan War, the Tetuán War, or, in Spain, as the African War , was fought from Spain's declaration of war on Morocco on 22 October 1859 until the Treaty of Wad-Ras on 26 April 1860...

      ” with Leopard 2E
      Leopard 2E
      The Leopard 2E is a variant of the German Leopard 2 main battle tank, tailored to the requirements of the Spanish Army, which acquired it as part of an armament modernization program named Programa Coraza, or Program Armor...

       tanks
    • III/61st Armored Infantry Battalion “León
      León (province)
      León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.About one quarter of its population of 500,200 lives in the capital, León. The weather is cold and dry during the winter....

      ” with Leopard 2E
      Leopard 2E
      The Leopard 2E is a variant of the German Leopard 2 main battle tank, tailored to the requirements of the Spanish Army, which acquired it as part of an armament modernization program named Programa Coraza, or Program Armor...

       tanks
    • 12th Self-propelled Field Artillery Group with M109A5 self-propelled howitzers
    • 12th Mechanized Engineer Battalion
    • 12th Logistic Group
    • 12th Mechanized Signal Company

Light Forces


Note that Bandera (Flags) are the names of the battalions of the Spanish Legion and the Parachute Infantry Brigade and the old term of Tercio is used to identify Spanish Legion regiments.
  • 2nd Spanish Legion
    Spanish Legion
    The Spanish Legion , formerly Spanish Foreign Legion, is an elite unit of the Spanish Army and Spain's Rapid Reaction Force. Founded as the Tercio de Extranjeros , it was originally intended as a Spanish equivalent of the French Foreign Legion, but in practice it recruited almost exclusively...

     Brigade
    “HM King Alfonso XIII” (Viator
    Viator
    -External links: - Sistema de Información Multiterritorial de Andalucía - Diputación Provincial de Almería...

    , Almería
    Almería
    Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, on the Mediterranean Sea. It is the capital of the province of the same name.-Toponym:Tradition says that the name Almería stems from the Arabic المرية Al-Mariyya: "The Mirror", comparing it to "The Mirror of the Sea"...

    )
    • HQ Battalion
    • VII Spanish Legion Bandera “Valenzuela
      Valenzuela
      Valenzuela may refer to:*Valenzuela, Paraguay*Valenzuela, Philippines*Valenzuela, Spain*Valenzuela, LouisianaValenzuela Spanish surname :* Alfred Valenzuela - Mexican-American United States Army general...

      ” with BMR-M1
      Pegaso BMR
      The Pegaso 3560 BMR is a 6x6 wheeled armoured personnel carrier produced in Spain by Enasa since 1979.Originally powered by a Pegaso 9157/8 306hp diesel engine, it has an automatic gearbox, torque converter, independent suspension in all six wheels and amphibious capability. It can also be...

       medium six-wheeled APC
    • VIII Spanish Legion Bandera “Colón
      Colón
      Colón is a Spanish and Portuguese surname, comparable to the Italian and Portuguese Colombo . It may refer to:People:* Cristóbal Colón, the Spanish language name for the explorer Christopher Columbus...

      ” with BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC
    • X (Air-transportable) Spanish Legion Bandera “Millán Astray
      José Millán Astray
      José Millán-Astray y Terreros was a Spanish soldier, the founder and first commander of the Spanish Foreign Legion, and a major early figure of Francisco Franco's Regime in Spain.- Early life :...

      ” with BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC
    • Spanish Legion Reconnaissance Group with VEC-M1
      VEC-M1
      The Pegaso VEC-M1 is a Spanish military cavalry reconnaissance vehicle. It started service in the Spanish Army in 1980 as BMR-625 VEC and all of them were upgraded in late 90's to the M1 version....

       cavalry scout vehicles
    • Spanish Legion Artillery Group with L-118A1
      L118 Light Gun
      The L118 Light Gun is a 105 mm towed howitzer, originally produced for the British Army in the 1970s and widely exported since, including to the United States, where a modified version is known as the M119A1...

       105mm light field howitzers
    • Spanish Legion Engineer Battalion
    • Spanish Legion Logistic Group
    • Spanish Legion Signal Company

  • 7th Light (Air-transportable) Infantry Brigade “Galicia” (Figueirido, Pontevedra
    Pontevedra
    Pontevedra is a city in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula. It is the capital of both the comarca and province of Pontevedra, in Galicia . It is also the capital of its own municipality which is, in fact, often considered as an extension of the actual city...

    )
    • HQ Battalion
    • I/3rd Light Infantry Battalion “Toledo
      Toledo, Spain
      Toledo's Alcázar became renowned in the 19th and 20th centuries as a military academy. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 its garrison was famously besieged by Republican forces.-Economy:...

      ” with BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC
    • II/3rd Light Infantry Battalion “San Quintín
      Battle of St. Quentin (1557)
      The Battle of Saint-Quentin of 1557 was fought during the Franco-Habsburg War . The Spanish, who had regained the support of the English, won a significant victory over the French at Saint-Quentin, in northern France.- Battle :...

      ” with BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC
    • III/29th Light Infantry Battalion “Zamora
      Zamora, Spain
      Zamora is a city in Castile and León, Spain, the capital of the province of Zamora. It lies on a rocky hill in the northwest, near the frontier with Portugal and crossed by the Duero river, which is some 50 km downstream as it reaches the Portuguese frontier...

      ” with BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC
    • 7th Reconnaissance Cavalry Squadron "Santiago" with VEC-M1 cavalry scout vehicles
    • 7th Field Artillery Group with L-118A1 105mm light field howitzers
    • 7th Engineer Battalion
    • 7th Logistic Group
    • 7th Signal Company

  • 6th Parachute Infantry Brigade “Almogávares” (Paracuellos del Jarama, Madrid) also known as BRIPAC.
    • HQ Bandera
    • 1st Parachute Infantry Bandera “Roger de Flor
      Roger de Flor
      Roger de Flor , also known as Ruggero/Ruggiero da Fiore or Rutger von Blum or Ruggero Flores, was a military adventurer active in Sicily, Italy and the Byzantine Empire...

    • 2nd Parachute Infantry Bandera “Roger de Lauria”
    • 3rd Parachute Infantry Bandera “Ortiz de Zárate” (Murcia
      Murcia
      -History:It is widely believed that Murcia's name is derived from the Latin words of Myrtea or Murtea, meaning land of Myrtle , although it may also be a derivation of the word Murtia, which would mean Murtius Village...

      )
    • 6th Parachute Artillery Group with L-118A1 105mm light field howitzers
    • 6th Parachute Engineer Battalion
    • 6th Logistic Group
    • 6th Parachute Signal Company

  • Mountain Troops Command (Jaca
    Jaca
    Jaca is a city of northeastern Spain near the border with France, in the midst of the Pyrenees in the province of Huesca...

    , Huesca
    Huesca
    Huesca is a city in north-eastern Spain, within the autonomous community of Aragon. It is also the capital of the Spanish province of the same name and the comarca of Hoya de Huesca....

    )
    • HQ Battalion
    • I/64th Mountain Infantry Battalion “Pirineos” with BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC
    • II/66th Mountain Infantry Battalion “Montejurra
      Montejurra
      The Montejurra Incidents took place on May 9, 1976, when two men were killed at the annual Carlist Party celebration that was held in Montejurra.- The incidents :...

      ” with BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC
    • III/62nd Mountain Infantry Battalion “Badajoz
      Badajoz
      Badajoz is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain, situated close to the Portuguese border, on the left bank of the river Guadiana, and the Madrid–Lisbon railway. The population in 2007 was 145,257....

      ” with BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC
    • IV/62rd Mountain Infantry Battalion “Barcelona
      Barcelona
      Barcelona is the second largest city in Spain after Madrid, and the capital of Catalonia, with a population of 1,621,537 within its administrative limits on a land area of...

      " with BMR-M1 medium six-wheeled APC

  • 5th Light Infantry BrigadeSan Marcial
    Battle of San Marcial
    At the Battle of San Marcial, 31 August 1813, the Spanish Army of Galicia under General Freire turned back MarshalNicolas Soult's last major offensive against Arthur Wellesley, Marquess of Wellington's allied army.-Background:...

    ” (Vitoria, Alava
    Álava
    Álava is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lord of Álava. Its capital city is Vitoria-Gasteiz which is also the capital of the autonomous community...

    ), is the Army's training unit for international missions.
    • HQ Battalion
    • I/67th Light Infantry Battalion “Legazpi
      Miguel López de Legazpi
      Miguel López de Legazpi , also known as El Adelantado and El Viejo , was a Spanish conquistador who established one of the first European settlements in the East Indies and the Pacific Islands in 1565. He is the first Governor-General in the Philippines...

    • III/45th Light Infantry Battalion "Guipúzcoa"

Ceuta General Command

  • Ceuta
    Ceuta
    Ceuta is an autonomous city of Spain and an exclave located on the north coast of North Africa surrounded by Morocco. Separated from the Iberian peninsula by the Strait of Gibraltar, Ceuta lies on the border of the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Ceuta along with the other Spanish...

     General Command
    • HQ Battalion
    • 3rd Armored Cavalry Regiment “Montesa
      Montesa
      Montesa may refer to:* the Spanish motorcycle manufacturer, now known as Montesa Honda;* Order of Montesa, a Christian military order;* Montesa, Valencia, a municipality in Spain....

      ” with Leopard 2A4
      Leopard 2
      The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the early 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and twelve...

       tanks and Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles
    • IV Spanish Legion Bandera “Cristo de Lepanto
      Battle of Lepanto
      The Battle of Lepanto normally refers to the 1571 Holy League victory over the Ottoman fleet. There were also three earlier battles fought in the vicinity of Lepanto:*Battle of Naupactus in 429 BC, an Athenian victory during the Peleoponnesian War...

      ” with BMR-M1
      Pegaso BMR
      The Pegaso 3560 BMR is a 6x6 wheeled armoured personnel carrier produced in Spain by Enasa since 1979.Originally powered by a Pegaso 9157/8 306hp diesel engine, it has an automatic gearbox, torque converter, independent suspension in all six wheels and amphibious capability. It can also be...

       medium six-wheeled APC
    • 54th Regulares
      Regulares
      The Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas , known simply as the Regulares , were the volunteer infantry and cavalry units of the Spanish Army recruited in Spanish Morocco. They consisted of Moroccans officered by Spaniards...

       Light Infantry Regiment “Ceuta”
    • 30th Mixed Artillery Regiment (Field & Air-defense Artillery) with 155/52 APU-SIAC 155mm towed howitzers and Mistral air-defense missiles
    • 7th Engineer Regiment
    • 23rd Logistic Group
    • 17th Signal Company

Melilla General Command

  • Melilla
    Melilla
    Melilla is a autonomous city of Spain and an exclave on the north coast of Morocco. Melilla, along with the Spanish exclave Ceuta, is one of the two Spanish territories located in mainland Africa...

     General Command
    • HQ Battalion
    • 10th Armored Cavalry Regiment “Alcántara
      Alcántara
      Alcántara is a municipality in the province of Cáceres, Extremadura, Spain, on the Tagus, near Portugal. The toponym is from the Arabic word al-QanTarah meaning "the bridge".-History:...

      ” with Leopard 2A4
      Leopard 2
      The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the early 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and twelve...

       tanks and Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles
    • I Spanish Legion Bandera* with BMR-M1
      Pegaso BMR
      The Pegaso 3560 BMR is a 6x6 wheeled armoured personnel carrier produced in Spain by Enasa since 1979.Originally powered by a Pegaso 9157/8 306hp diesel engine, it has an automatic gearbox, torque converter, independent suspension in all six wheels and amphibious capability. It can also be...

       medium six-wheeled APC
    • 52nd Regulares
      Regulares
      The Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas , known simply as the Regulares , were the volunteer infantry and cavalry units of the Spanish Army recruited in Spanish Morocco. They consisted of Moroccans officered by Spaniards...

       Light Infantry Regiment “Melilla”
    • 32nd Mixed Artillery Regiment (Field & Air-dfense Artillery) with 155/52 APU-SIAC 155mm towed howitzers and Mistral air-defense missiles
    • 8th Engineer Regiment
    • 24th Logistic Group
    • 18th Signal Company

*I Bandera name "Commandante Franco
Francisco Franco
Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was a Spanish general, dictator and head of state of Spain from October 1936 , and de facto regent of the nominally restored Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in November, 1975...

" is not used officially anymore

Balearics General Command

  • Balearics
    Balearic Islands
    The Balearic Islands are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.The four largest islands are: Majorca, Minorca, Ibiza and Formentera. The archipelago forms an autonomous community and a province of Spain with Palma as the capital...

     General Command
    • 47th Light Infantry Regiment "Palma"
      47th Palma Light Infantry Regiment
      Created in Tortosa by the Royal Decree of 27 July 1877, with the designation 52nd Philippines Infantry Regiment, it was raised from the 44th Tarragona and 73rd Lorca Reserve Battalions, which constituted its first and second Battalions. The new Regiment stayed in Catalonia with detachments in...


Support units of the land forces

  • Special Operations Command
    Special Operations Command (Spain)
    The Special Operations Command is the command charged with overseeing the various Special Operations Groups of the Spanish Army.-Organization:The three Special Operations Groups are subordinated:...

    (Alicante
    Alicante
    Alicante or Alacant is a city in Spain, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community. It is also a historic Mediterranean port. The population of the city of Alicante proper was 334,418, estimated , ranking as the second-largest...

    )
    • HQ Group
    • 3rd Special Forces Battalion "Valencia"
    • 4th Special Forces Battalion "Tercio del Ampurdán"
    • 19th Special Forces Battalion "Maderal Oleaga"
    • Signal Company

  • Field Artillery Command (San Andrés del Rabanedo
    San Andrés del Rabanedo
    San Andrés del Rabanedo is a municipality located in the province of León, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2007 census , the city has a population of 33,056 inhabitants....

    ), León
    León (province)
    León is a province of northwestern Spain, in the northwestern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León.About one quarter of its population of 500,200 lives in the capital, León. The weather is cold and dry during the winter....

    )
    • 4th Coastal Artillery Regiment (San Fernando, Cádiz) with 155/52 APU (V07) 155mm towed howitzers
    • 11th Field Artillery Regiment (Castrillo del Val
      Castrillo del Val
      Castrillo del Val is a municipality located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census , the municipality has a population of 515 inhabitants....

      , Burgos
      Burgos
      Burgos is a city of northern Spain, historic capital of Castile. It is situated at the edge of the central plateau, with about 178,966 inhabitants in the city proper and another 20,000 in its suburbs. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León...

      ) with M109A5
      M109 howitzer
      The M109 is an American-made self-propelled 155 mm howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s. It was upgraded a number of times to today's M109A6 Paladin...

       self-propelled howitzers
    • 62nd Rocket Artillery Regiment (Astorga
      Astorga, Spain
      Astorga is a town in the province of León, northern Spain. It lies southwest of the provincial capital of León, and is the head of the council of La Maragatería. The river Tuerto flows through it. , its population was about 12,100 people....

      , León) with Teruel MRL
      Teruel MRL
      The Teruel multiple rocket launcher is in service with the Spanish Army. This system is capable of launching 140mm rockets from 40 launch tubes in less than 30 seconds. It is mounted on a Pegaso truck....

       multiple rocket launchers
      Multiple rocket launcher
      A multiple rocket launcher is a type of unguided rocket artillery system. Like other rocket artillery, multiple rocket launchers are less accurate and have a much lower rate of fire than batteries of traditional artillery guns...

    • 63rd Field Artillery Regiment (San Andrés del Rabanedo) with 155/52 APU-SIAC 155mm towed howitzers

  • Air Defence Command
    Spanish Army Air Defence Command
    The Spanish Army Air Defence Command is a specific command of the Spanish Army, composed of anti-air artillery units under a same command, formed, trained and equipped to contribute, into a joint or joint/combined frame, to the air space control and defense...

    (Madrid
    Madrid
    Madrid is the capital and largest city of Spain. The population of the city is roughly 3.3 million and the entire population of the Madrid metropolitan area is calculated to be 6.271 million. It is the third largest city in the European Union, after London and Berlin, and its metropolitan...

    )
    • 71st Air Defence Artillery Regiment (Madrid)
    • 72nd Air Defence Artillery Regiment (Zaragoza
      Zaragoza
      Zaragoza , also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza Province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain...

      ) with MIM-23 HAWK
      MIM-23 Hawk
      The Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk is a U.S. medium range surface-to-air missile. The Hawk was initially designed to destroy aircraft and was later adapted to destroy other missiles in flight. The missile entered service in 1960, and a program of extensive upgrades has kept it from becoming obsolete. It was...

       surface-to-air missile systems
    • 73rd Air Defence Artillery Regiment (Cartagena
      Cartagena, Spain
      Cartagena is a Spanish city and a major naval station located in the Region of Murcia, by the Mediterranean coast, south-eastern Spain. As of January 2011, it has a population of 218,210 inhabitants being the Region’s second largest municipality and the country’s 6th non-Province capital...

      , Murcia
      Murcia
      -History:It is widely believed that Murcia's name is derived from the Latin words of Myrtea or Murtea, meaning land of Myrtle , although it may also be a derivation of the word Murtia, which would mean Murtius Village...

      ) with Skyguard-Aspide
      AIM-7 Sparrow
      The AIM-7 Sparrow is an American, medium-range semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile operated by the United States Air Force, United States Navy and United States Marine Corps, as well as various allied air forces and navies. Sparrow and its derivatives were the West's principal beyond visual...

        surface-to-air missile systems
    • 74th Air Defence Artillery Regiment (San Roque, Cádiz
      Cádiz
      Cadiz is a city and port in southwestern Spain. It is the capital of the homonymous province, one of eight which make up the autonomous community of Andalusia....

      ) with MIM-23 HAWK
      MIM-23 Hawk
      The Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk is a U.S. medium range surface-to-air missile. The Hawk was initially designed to destroy aircraft and was later adapted to destroy other missiles in flight. The missile entered service in 1960, and a program of extensive upgrades has kept it from becoming obsolete. It was...

       and MIM-104 Patriot
      MIM-104 Patriot
      The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. It is manufactured by the Raytheon Company of the United States. The Patriot System replaced the Nike Hercules system as the U.S. Army's primary High to Medium...

       surface-to-air missile systems
    • 81st Air Defence Artillery Regiment (Marines
      Marines, Valencia
      Marines is a municipality in the comarca of Camp de Túria in the Valencian Community, Spain....

      , Valencia
      Valencia (province)
      Valencia or València is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Community.It is bordered by the provinces of Alicante, Albacete, Cuenca, Teruel, Castellón, and the Mediterranean Sea...

      ) with Roland
      Roland (air defence)
      The Roland is a Franco-German mobile short-range surface-to-air missile system. The Roland was also purchased by the U.S. Army as one of very few foreign SAM systems....

       surface-to-air missile systems
    • Signal Battalion (Madrid)

  • Engineer Command (Salamanca
    Salamanca
    Salamanca is a city in western Spain, in the community of Castile and León. Because it is known for its beautiful buildings and urban environment, the Old City was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1988. It is the most important university city in Spain and is known for its contributions to...

    )
    • 1st Engineer Regiment (Caceres
      Cáceres
      - Places :* Cáceres in Spain** Cáceres which covers the province* Cáceres, Spain, the capital of Cáceres Province* Cáceres, Antioquia, municipality in Colombia...

      )
    • 11th (Road Building) Engineer Regiment (Castrillo del Val
      Castrillo del Val
      Castrillo del Val is a municipality located in the province of Burgos, Castile and León, Spain. According to the 2004 census , the municipality has a population of 515 inhabitants....

      )
    • 12th (Bridge) Engineer Regiment (Zaragoza)

  • Army Aviation (Colmenar Viejo
    Colmenar Viejo
    Colmenar Viejo is a town of about 44,000 inhabitants, located in the Community of Madrid, Spain, 30 kilometers north of Madrid on the M-607 motorway.-Main sights:The most important tourist attractions places in Colmenar Viejo are:...

    , Madrid)
    • 1st Attack Helicopter Battalion (Almagro, Ciudad Real
      Almagro, Ciudad Real
      Almagro is a city situated in Ciudad Real province, in the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha, Spain.A tourist destination, Almagro is an important Historical-Artistic Zone ....

      ) with Eurocopter Tiger
      Eurocopter Tiger
      The Eurocopter Tiger is an attack helicopter manufactured by Eurocopter. In Germany it is known as the Tiger; in France and Spain it is called the Tigre.-Origins:...

       helicopters
    • 2nd Emergency Helicopter Battalion (Bétera
      Bétera
      Bétera is a municipality in the comarca of Camp de Túria in the Valencian Community, Spain. With 19,491 inhabitants, it is the second most populous town in the Camp de Túria shire , in the second zone of the Valencia metropolitan area....

      , Valencia) with Eurocopter AS 532 helicopters
    • 3rd Maneuver Helicopter Battalion” (Agoncillo
      Agoncillo, La Rioja
      Agoncillo is a town and municipality in La Rioja province in northern Spain.Club Deportivo Agoncillo is a football team based in Agoncillo.-History:...

      , La Rioja
      La Rioja (Spain)
      La Rioja is an autonomous community and a province of northern Spain. Its capital is Logroño. Other cities and towns in the province include Calahorra, Arnedo, Alfaro, Haro, Santo Domingo de la Calzada, and Nájera.-History:...

      )
    • 4th Maneuver Helicopter Battalion (El Copero, Sevilla)
    • 5th Transport Helicopter Battalion (Colmenar Viejo) with Boeing CH-47 Chinook helicopters
    • Signal Battalion (Colmenar Viejo)
    • Logistic Support Group (Colmenar Viejo)

  • Signal Brigade (Bétera
    Bétera
    Bétera is a municipality in the comarca of Camp de Túria in the Valencian Community, Spain. With 19,491 inhabitants, it is the second most populous town in the Camp de Túria shire , in the second zone of the Valencia metropolitan area....

    , Valencia)
    • 1st Signal Regiment (Castrillo del Val, Burgos
      Burgos
      Burgos is a city of northern Spain, historic capital of Castile. It is situated at the edge of the central plateau, with about 178,966 inhabitants in the city proper and another 20,000 in its suburbs. It is the capital of the province of Burgos, in the autonomous community of Castile and León...

      )
    • 2nd Signal Regiment (Alcalá de Henares
      Alcalá de Henares
      Alcalá de Henares , meaning Citadel on the river Henares, is a Spanish city, whose historical centre is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites, and one of the first bishoprics founded in Spain...

      , Madrid)
    • 21st Signal Regiment (Marines, Valencia)
    • 31st Electronic Warfare
      Electronic warfare
      Electronic warfare refers to any action involving the use of the electromagnetic spectrum or directed energy to control the spectrum, attack an enemy, or impede enemy assaults via the spectrum. The purpose of electronic warfare is to deny the opponent the advantage of, and ensure friendly...

       Regiment (El Pardo
      El Pardo
      The Royal Palace of El Pardo is a historical building near Madrid, Spain, in the present-day district of Fuencarral-El Pardo. Owned by the Spanish state and administered by the Patrimonio Nacional agency, the palace began as a hunting lodge.-Overview:...

      , Madrid)


Other Units of the Land Forces:
  • 1st King's Immemorial Infantry Regiment of AHQ
    1st King's Immemorial Infantry Regiment of AHQ
    The King's Own Immemorial 1st Infantry Regiment of the Spanish Army is considered to be the oldest armed unit in the world. There is certain proof of this and according to what the chronicles mention, King Ferdinand III, "The Saint," in 1248, during the conquest of Seville, with some of his...

     (Madrid)
  • NBC-defense Regiment “Valencia” (Valencia)
  • Civil Affairs Battalion (Valencia)

Canarias General Command

  • Canarias General Command
    Canary Islands
    The Canary Islands , also known as the Canaries , is a Spanish archipelago located just off the northwest coast of mainland Africa, 100 km west of the border between Morocco and the Western Sahara. The Canaries are a Spanish autonomous community and an outermost region of the European Union...

    • 94th Air-defense Artillery Regiment with NASAMS
      NASAMS
      NASAMS is a distributed and networked medium to long range air-defence system. NASAMS was the first surface-based application for the AIM-120 AMRAAM and the first surface-to-air missile system in the western world with active radar guidance...

       surface-to-air missile systems
    • 6th Maneuver Helicopter Battalion (San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife) with Bell 212 helicopters
    • 16th Light Infantry Brigade “Canarias” (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
      Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
      Las Palmas de Gran Canaria commonly known as Las Palmas is the political capital, jointly with Santa Cruz, the most populous city in the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands and the ninth largest city in Spain, with a population of 383,308 in 2010. Nearly half of the people of the island...

      , Las Palmas)
      • HQ Battalion
      • 9th Light Infantry Regiment “Soria
        Soria
        Soria is a city in north-central Spain, the capital of the province of Soria in the autonomous community of Castile and León. , the municipality has a population of c. 39,500 inhabitants, nearly 40% of the population of the province...

        ” (Fuerteventura
        Fuerteventura
        Fuerteventura , a Spanish island, is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa. It is situated at 28°20' north, 14°00' west. At 1,660 km² it is the second largest of the Canary Islands, after Tenerife...

        , Las Palmas)
      • 49th Light Infantry Regiment “Tenerife
        Tenerife
        Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the seven Canary Islands, it is also the most populated island of Spain, with a land area of 2,034.38 km² and 906,854 inhabitants, 43% of the total population of the Canary Islands. About five million tourists visit Tenerife each year, the...

        ” (Santa Cruz de Tenerife
        Santa Cruz de Tenerife
        Santa Cruz de Tenerife is the capital , second-most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Canary Islands and the 21st largest city in Spain, with a population of 222,417 in 2009...

        , Tenerife)
      • 50th Light Infantry Regiment “Canarias”
      • 93rd Field Artillery Regiment (San Cristóbal de La Laguna
        San Cristóbal de la Laguna
        San Cristóbal de La Laguna is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands . The city is third-most populous city of the archipelago and second-most populous city of the island. It is a suburban area of the...

        , Tenerife)
      • 15th Engineer Battalion (San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife)
      • 16th Logistic Group
      • 16th Signal Company

Logistic Forces Command

  • Logistic Forces Command (La Coruna)
    • Logistic Brigade (Zaragoza)
      • 11th Logistic Support Group (Colmenar Viejo, Madrid).
      • 21st Logistic Support Group (Sevilla)
      • 41st Logistic Support Group (Zaragoza)
      • 61st Logistic Support Group (Valladolid
        Valladolid
        Valladolid is a historic city and municipality in north-central Spain, situated at the confluence of the Pisuerga and Esgueva rivers, and located within three wine-making regions: Ribera del Duero, Rueda and Cigales...

        )
      • 81st Logistic Support Group (San Cristóbal de la Laguna, Santa Cruz de Tenerife)
    • Medical Brigade (Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid)
      • 1st Medical Battalion
      • 2nd Medical Battalion
      • Field Hospital Battalion
      • Medical Logistic Support Battalion

Weapons

  • Heckler & Koch USP
    Heckler & Koch USP
    The USP is a semi-automatic pistol developed in Germany by Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar as a replacement for the P7 series of handguns.-History:...

     - 9 mm pistol
    Pistol
    When distinguished as a subset of handguns, a pistol is a handgun with a chamber that is integral with the barrel, as opposed to a revolver, wherein the chamber is separate from the barrel as a revolving cylinder. Typically, pistols have an effective range of about 100 feet.-History:The pistol...

     Standard weapon.
  • Heckler & Koch MP5
    Heckler & Koch MP5
    The Heckler & Koch MP5 is a 9mm submachine gun of German design, developed in the 1960s by a team of engineers from the German small arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch GmbH of Oberndorf am Neckar....

     - 9 mm submachinegun Special Operations Forces.
  • HK G36E
    Heckler & Koch G36
    The Heckler & Koch G36 is a 5.56×45mm assault rifle, designed in the early 1990s by Heckler & Koch in Germany as a replacement for the 7.62mm G3 battle rifle. It was accepted into service with the Bundeswehr in 1997, replacing the G3...

     - 5.56 mm assault rifle
    Assault rifle
    An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine. Assault rifles are the standard infantry weapons in most modern armies...

      Standard weapon. G36 export variant (no red dot sight, 1.5x day scope) and other variants like G-36K & G-36C for Special forces and other singular units, some units have been equipped with 4x day scope, Aimpoint and holographic weapon sight
    Holographic weapon sight
    A holographic weapon sight or holographic diffraction sight is a non-magnifying gun sight that allows the user to look through a glass optical window and see a reticle image superimposed at a distance on the field of view...

     variants.
  • Heckler & Koch G36KE and G36CE - 5.56 mm assault rifle
    Assault rifle
    An assault rifle is a selective fire rifle that uses an intermediate cartridge and a detachable magazine. Assault rifles are the standard infantry weapons in most modern armies...

     Special Operations Forces.
  • MG3 - 7.62 mm NATO medium machine gun
  • HK MG4 - 5.56 mm light machine gun (standard LMG)
  • Browning M2 HB - 12.70 mm heavy machine gun
  • SB LAG 40
    SB LAG 40
    The SB-40 LAG is a 40 mm automatic grenade launcher developed and produced in Spain by the Empresa Nacional Santa Bárbara company .-See also:...

     grenade Launcher
    Grenade launcher
    A grenade launcher or grenade discharger is a weapon that launches a grenade with more accuracy, higher velocity, and to greater distances than a soldier could throw it by hand....

  • Instalaza Alhambra-DO hand grenade
    Hand grenade
    A hand grenade is any small bomb that can be thrown by hand. Hand grenades are classified into three categories, explosive grenades, chemical and gas grenades. Explosive grenades are the most commonly used in modern warfare, and are designed to detonate after impact or after a set amount of time...

  • Instalaza C-100 Alcotán - 100 mm anti-tank grenade launcher
  • Instalaza C-90 CR (M3) - 90 mm disposable anti-tank grenade launcher
  • Spike
    Spike (missile)
    Spike is a fourth generation man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank guided missile with tandem-charged HEAT warhead, developed and designed by the Israeli company Rafael Advanced Defense Systems and in service with a number of nations....

     - anti-tank missile launcher
  • Milan
    MILAN
    MILAN " is French and German for "kite bird") is a European anti-tank guided missile. Design of the MILAN started in 1962. It was ready for trials in 1971, and was accepted for service in 1972. It is a wire guided SACLOS missile, which means the sight of the launch unit has to be aimed at the...

     - anti-tank missile launcher
  • Tow 2
    BGM-71 TOW
    The BGM-71 TOW is an anti-tank missile. "BGM" is a weapon classification that stands for "Multiple Environment , Surface-Attack , Missile ". "TOW" is an acronym that stands for "Tube-launched, Optically-tracked, Wire command data link, guided missile"...

     - anti-tank missile launcher
  • Barrett M95
    Barrett M95
    The Barrett M95 is a bolt-action sniper rifle chambered in .50 BMG , and manufactured by Barrett Firearms Company.-Overview:The M95 is an improved version of the earlier Barrett M90. It is a bolt-action sniper rifle in a bullpup design...

     - 12.7 mm heavy sniper rifle
  • Accuracy International Arctic Warfare
    Accuracy International Arctic Warfare
    The Accuracy International Arctic Warfare rifle is a family of bolt-action sniper rifles designed and manufactured by the British company Accuracy International...

     - 7.62 mm sniper rifle
  • ECIA L65/60 60 mm light mortar
  • ECIA L65/81 mortar
    Mortar (weapon)
    A mortar is an indirect fire weapon that fires explosive projectiles known as bombs at low velocities, short ranges, and high-arcing ballistic trajectories. It is typically muzzle-loading and has a barrel length less than 15 times its caliber....

     - 81 mm medium mortar
  • ECIA L65/105 mortar - 105 mm medium mortar
  • ECIA L65/120 mortar - 120 mm heavy mortar

Combat vehicles


  • 219 Leopard 2E
    Leopard 2E
    The Leopard 2E is a variant of the German Leopard 2 main battle tank, tailored to the requirements of the Spanish Army, which acquired it as part of an armament modernization program named Programa Coraza, or Program Armor...

     (A6) Main Battle Tank
  • 108 Leopard 2
    Leopard 2
    The Leopard 2 is a main battle tank developed by Krauss-Maffei in the early 1970s for the West German Army. The tank first entered service in 1979 and succeeded the earlier Leopard 1 as the main battle tank of the German Army. Various versions have served in the armed forces of Germany and twelve...

     A4 Main Battle Tank
  • 84 VRC-105B1 Centauro
    B1 Centauro
    The Centauro is a wheeled tank destroyer designed for light to medium territorial defense and tactical reconnaissance. It was developed by a consortium of manufacturers, the Società Consortile Iveco Fiat - Oto Melara...

     wheeled tank-destroyer
  • 356 Pizarro infantry fighting vehicles in five versions
  • 500+ M113 armored personnel carriers in seven versions
  • 648 BMR-M1
    Pegaso BMR
    The Pegaso 3560 BMR is a 6x6 wheeled armoured personnel carrier produced in Spain by Enasa since 1979.Originally powered by a Pegaso 9157/8 306hp diesel engine, it has an automatic gearbox, torque converter, independent suspension in all six wheels and amphibious capability. It can also be...

     medium six-wheeled APC
  • 135 VEC-M1
    VEC-M1
    The Pegaso VEC-M1 is a Spanish military cavalry reconnaissance vehicle. It started service in the Spanish Army in 1980 as BMR-625 VEC and all of them were upgraded in late 90's to the M1 version....

     cavalry scout vehicle
  • 90 TOM Bv206S tracked vehicle
  • 500 IVECO LMV Lince
    Iveco LMV
    Iveco LMV is a 4WD tactical vehicle developed by Iveco, and in service with several countries.After its adoption by the Italian Army under the name VTLM Lince , it won the “FCLV” competition of the British Army as the Panther and has been adopted by the armies of Belgium, Croatia, Norway, Russia...

     4WD tactical vehicle (575 total order)
  • 180 RG-31
    RG-31
    The RG-31 Nyala is a 4×4 multi-purpose mine-protected armoured personnel carrier  manufactured in South Africa by Land Systems OMC, a division of BAE Systems. It is based on the Mamba APC of TFM Industries...

     Mk5E Nyala (MRAP) 4WD tactical vehicle (MRAP)
  • URO VAMTAC
    URO VAMTAC
    The URO VAMTAC is a Spanish four-wheel drive military vehicle manufactured by the UROVESA. It is similar in appearance and design to the HMMWV of the United States military. More than 2,000 of the vehicles have been delivered to the Spanish Armed Forces. Several other countries operate the VAMTAC...

    , all terrain 4x4 tactical vehicle (more than 1,500)
  • Santana Anibal, an all terrain 4x4 utility vehicle (more than 1,500)
  • Iveco Eurocargo all terrain utility vehicle
  • Iveco M250W.37
  • VEMPAR Tactic Heavy Lorry 450HP, 20t cargo lorry

Artillery

  • M109A5
    M109 howitzer
    The M109 is an American-made self-propelled 155 mm howitzer, first introduced in the early 1960s. It was upgraded a number of times to today's M109A6 Paladin...

     - 155/39 mm self-propelled howitzer
    Howitzer
    A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles at relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent...

    , as the M109A5(+96)
  • 155/52 APU SBT - 155/52 mm howitzer (84)
  • L-118A1
    L118 Light Gun
    The L118 Light Gun is a 105 mm towed howitzer, originally produced for the British Army in the 1970s and widely exported since, including to the United States, where a modified version is known as the M119A1...

     - 105/37 mm light field howitzer (59)
  • Teruel MRL
    Teruel MRL
    The Teruel multiple rocket launcher is in service with the Spanish Army. This system is capable of launching 140mm rockets from 40 launch tubes in less than 30 seconds. It is mounted on a Pegaso truck....

     - Self Propelled Multi Launch Rocket System
  • OERLIKON GDF-005 35/90
    Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon
    The Oerlikon 35 mm twin cannon is a towed anti-aircraft gun made by Oerlikon Contraves . The system was originally designated as 2 ZLA/353 ML but this was later changed to GDF-001...

     35 mm Anti-aircraft artillery piece
  • Raytheon
    Raytheon
    Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007...

     MIM-23 HAWK
    MIM-23 Hawk
    The Raytheon MIM-23 Hawk is a U.S. medium range surface-to-air missile. The Hawk was initially designed to destroy aircraft and was later adapted to destroy other missiles in flight. The missile entered service in 1960, and a program of extensive upgrades has kept it from becoming obsolete. It was...

     - Surface-to-Air missile system
  • Raytheon
    Raytheon
    Raytheon Company is a major American defense contractor and industrial corporation with core manufacturing concentrations in weapons and military and commercial electronics. It was previously involved in corporate and special-mission aircraft until early 2007...

     MIM-104 Patriot
    MIM-104 Patriot
    The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile system, the primary of its kind used by the United States Army and several allied nations. It is manufactured by the Raytheon Company of the United States. The Patriot System replaced the Nike Hercules system as the U.S. Army's primary High to Medium...

     - Surface-to-Air missile system
  • Roland
    Roland (air defence)
    The Roland is a Franco-German mobile short-range surface-to-air missile system. The Roland was also purchased by the U.S. Army as one of very few foreign SAM systems....

     - Surface-to-Air missile system
  • Skyguard-Aspide
    AIM-7 Sparrow
    The AIM-7 Sparrow is an American, medium-range semi-active radar homing air-to-air missile operated by the United States Air Force, United States Navy and United States Marine Corps, as well as various allied air forces and navies. Sparrow and its derivatives were the West's principal beyond visual...

     - Surface-to-Air missile system
  • NASAMS
    NASAMS
    NASAMS is a distributed and networked medium to long range air-defence system. NASAMS was the first surface-based application for the AIM-120 AMRAAM and the first surface-to-air missile system in the western world with active radar guidance...

     - Surface-to-Air missile system
  • MBDA
    MBDA
    MBDA is a missile developer and manufacturer with operations in France, Britain, Germany, Italy, and the United States. It was formed by a merger of Aérospatiale-Matra Missiles , Finmeccanica and Matra BAe Dynamics in December 2001. In 2003 the company had 10,000 employees...

     SATCP Mistral missile
    Mistral missile
    Mistral is an infrared homing surface-to-air missile manufactured by the European multinational company MBDA missile systems . Based on the French SATCP , the portable missile later to become the Mistral began development in 1974...

     - Anti-aircraft infrared homing missile system


Helicopters


  • 17 Boeing CH-47 Chinook - heavy transport (Spanish denomination HT-17)
  • 16 Eurocopter AS 332 Super Puma
    Eurocopter Super Puma
    The Eurocopter AS332 Super Puma is a four-bladed, twin-engine, medium-size utility helicopter marketed for both civil and military use. Originally designed and built by Aérospatiale, it is an enlarged and re-engined version of the original Aérospatiale Puma...

      - transport helicopter (Spanish denomination HT-21 UC)
  • 14 Eurocopter AS 532
  • 50 Eurocopter EC 135
    Eurocopter EC 135
    The Eurocopter EC135 is a twin-engine civil helicopter produced by Eurocopter, widely used amongst police and ambulance services and for executive transport. It is capable of flight under instrument flight rules .-Development:...

  • 31 Bell 212 to be replaced with NH90
  • 24 Eurocopter Tiger
    Eurocopter Tiger
    The Eurocopter Tiger is an attack helicopter manufactured by Eurocopter. In Germany it is known as the Tiger; in France and Spain it is called the Tigre.-Origins:...

     under delivery
  • 50 NHI NH90
    NHI NH90
    The NHIndustries NH90 is a medium sized, twin-engine, multi-role military helicopter manufactured by NHIndustries. The first prototype had its maiden flight in December 1995...

     under delivery

Unmanned aerial vehicles

  • 4 Siva UAV
  • 4 IAI Searcher
    IAI Searcher
    |-See also:-References:This article contains material that originally came from the web article by Greg Goebel, which exists in the Public Domain....

     MK II J
  • 27 RQ-11 Raven
  • EADS Barracuda
    EADS Barracuda
    |- See also :- External links :* *...

    (German - Spanish Joint Venture. Prototype stage)

External links and further reading