Spanish Armada

Spanish Armada

Overview
{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2011}} {{Campaignbox Anglo-Spanish War}} {{Campaignbox Eighty Years' War}} ''This article refers to the Battle of Gravelines, for the modern navy of Spain, see [[Spanish Navy]]'' The '''Spanish Armada''' ({{lang-es|link=no|Grande y Felicísima Armada}}, "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was the [[Habsburg Spain|Spanish]] fleet that sailed against England under the command of the [[Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia|Duke of Medina Sidonia]] in 1588, with the intention of overthrowing [[Elizabeth I of England]] to stop English involvement in the [[Spanish Netherlands]] and English [[privateering]] in the Atlantic and the Pacific. The fleet's mission was to sail to [[Gravelines]] in Flanders and transport an army under the [[Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma|Duke of Parma]] across the Channel to England.
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{{Use dmy dates|date=August 2011}} {{Campaignbox Anglo-Spanish War}} {{Campaignbox Eighty Years' War}} ''This article refers to the Battle of Gravelines, for the modern navy of Spain, see [[Spanish Navy]]'' The '''Spanish Armada''' ({{lang-es|link=no|Grande y Felicísima Armada}}, "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was the [[Habsburg Spain|Spanish]] fleet that sailed against England under the command of the [[Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia|Duke of Medina Sidonia]] in 1588, with the intention of overthrowing [[Elizabeth I of England]] to stop English involvement in the [[Spanish Netherlands]] and English [[privateering]] in the Atlantic and the Pacific. The fleet's mission was to sail to [[Gravelines]] in Flanders and transport an army under the [[Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma|Duke of Parma]] across the Channel to England. The Armada achieved its first goal and anchored outside Gravelines but while awaiting communications from Parma's army, it was driven from its anchorage by an English [[fire ship]] attack, and in the ensuing naval battle at Gravelines the Spanish were forced to abandon their rendezvous. The Armada managed to regroup and withdraw north, with the English fleet harrying it for some distance up the east coast of England. A return voyage to Spain was plotted, and the fleet sailed north of Scotland, into the Atlantic and past Ireland, but severe storms disrupted the fleet's course. More than 24 vessels were wrecked on the north and western coasts of Ireland. Of the fleet's initial complement of 130 ships, about fifty failed to make it back to Spain. The expedition was the largest engagement of the [[undeclared war|undeclared]] [[Anglo–Spanish War (1585)|Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604)]]. ===Background=== [[File:Philip II, King of Spain from NPG.jpg|thumb|left|150px|[[Philip II of Spain]] c. 1580, [[National Portrait Gallery, London]]]] [[Philip II of Spain]] had been [[List of English monarchs|co-monarch of England]] until the death of his wife [[Mary I of England|Mary I]] in 1558. A devout Roman Catholic, he deemed Mary's Protestant half-sister Elizabeth a [[heretic]] and illegitimate ruler of England. He had previously supported plots to have her overthrown in favour of her Catholic cousin and [[heir presumptive]], [[Mary, Queen of Scots]], but was thwarted when Elizabeth had Mary imprisoned, and finally executed in 1587. In addition, Elizabeth, who sought to advance the cause of Protestantism where possible, had supported the [[Dutch Revolt]] against Spain. In retaliation, Philip planned an expedition to invade England so as to overthrow the Protestant regime of Elizabeth, thereby ending the English material support for the [[Dutch Republic|United Provinces]]— that part of the [[Low Countries]] that had successfully seceded from Spanish rule – and cutting off English attacks on Spanish trade and settlements in the [[New World]]. The king was supported by [[Pope Sixtus V]], who treated the invasion as a [[crusades|crusade]], with the promise of a subsidy should the Armada make land. The Armada's appointed commander was the highly experienced [[Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz|Marquis of Santa Cruz]], but he died in February 1588 and [[Alonso Pérez de Guzmán, 7th Duke of Medina Sidonia|Medina Sidonia]], a high-born courtier with no experience at sea, took his place. The fleet set out with 22 warships of the Spanish Royal Navy and 108 converted merchant vessels, with the intention of sailing through the [[English Channel]] to anchor off the coast of [[Flanders]], where the [[Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma|Duke of Parma]]'s army of ''[[tercio]]s'' would stand ready for an invasion of the [[South East of England|south east of England]]. ===Planned invasion of England=== {{Contradict|discuss=talk:Spanish Armada#Numbers don't add up|date=August 2010}} [[Image:Routes of the Spanish Armada.gif|thumb|Route taken by the Spanish Armada]] {{Main|List of ships of the Spanish Armada}} Prior to the undertaking, [[Pope Sixtus V]] allowed [[Philip II of Spain]] to collect [[crusades|crusade]] taxes and granted his men [[indulgence]]s. The blessing of the Armada's banner on 25 April 1588 was similar to the ceremony used prior to the [[Battle of Lepanto (1571)|Battle of Lepanto in 1571]]. On 28 May 1588, the Armada set sail from [[Lisbon]] (Portugal), headed for the English Channel. The fleet was composed of 151 ships, 8,000 sailors and 18,000 soldiers, and bore 1,500 brass guns and 1,000 iron guns. The full body of the fleet took two days to leave port. It contained 28 purpose-built warships: twenty [[galleon]]s, four [[galley]]s and four (Neapolitan) [[galleass]]es. The remainder of the heavy vessels consisted mostly of armed [[carrack]]s and [[Hulk (medieval ship type)|hulk]]s; there were also 34 light ships. In the Spanish Netherlands 30,000 soldiersawaited the arrival of the armada, the plan being to use the cover of the warships to convey the army on barges to a place near London. All told, 55,000 men were to have been mustered, a huge army for that time. On the day the Armada set sail, Elizabeth's ambassador in the Netherlands, Dr [[Valentine Dale]], met Parma's representatives in peace negotiations, and the English made a vain effort to intercept the Armada in the [[Bay of Biscay]]. On 16 July negotiations were abandoned, and the English fleet stood prepared, if ill-supplied, at [[Plymouth]], awaiting news of Spanish movements. The English fleet outnumbered the Spanish, with 200 to 130 ships, while the Spanish fleet outgunned the English—its available firepower was 50% more than that of the English. The English fleet consisted of the 34 ships of the royal fleet (21 of which were galleons of 200 to 400 tons), and 163 other ships, 30 of which were 200 to 400 tons and carried up to 42 guns each; 12 of these were [[privateers]] owned by [[Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham|Lord Howard of Effingham]], [[John Hawkins|Sir John Hawkins]] and [[Sir Francis Drake]]. [[Image:CulmstockBeacon.jpg|thumb|right|Signal station built in 1588 above the Devon village of Culmstock, to warn when the Armada was sighted]]The Armada was delayed by bad weather, forcing the four galleys and one of the galleons to leave the fleet, and was not sighted in England until 19 July, when it appeared off [[The Lizard]] in [[Cornwall]]. The news was conveyed to London by a system of [[beacon]]s that had been constructed all the way along the south coast. On that evening the English fleet was trapped in Plymouth Harbour by the incoming tide. The Spanish convened a [[council of war]], where it was proposed to ride into the harbour on the tide and incapacitate the defending ships at anchor and from there to attack England; but Medina Sidonia declined to act, because this had been explicitly forbidden by Philip, and chose to sail on to the east and toward the [[Isle of Wight]]. As the tide turned, 55 English ships set out to confront them from [[Plymouth]] under the command of [[Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham|Lord Howard of Effingham]], with [[Francis Drake|Sir Francis Drake]] as [[Vice Admiral]]. Howard ceded some control to Drake, given his experience in battle, and the [[Rear Admiral]] was [[John Hawkins|Sir John Hawkins]]. ===First actions=== [[Image:Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham from NPG.jpg|170px|thumb|right|Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham]] On 20 July the English fleet was off [[Eddystone Rocks]], with the Armada upwind to the west. That night, in order to execute their attack, the English tacked upwind of the Armada, thus gaining the [[weather gage]], a significant advantage. At daybreak on 21 July the English fleet engaged the Armada off Plymouth near the Eddystone rocks. The Armada was in a defensive formation in a crescent convexed towards the east. The galleons and great ships were concentrated in the centre and at the tips of the crescent's horns giving cover to the transports and supply ships in between. Opposing them the English were in two sections, Drake to the north in [[HMS Revenge (1577)|''Revenge'']] with 11 ships, and Howard to the south in [[HMS Ark Royal (1587)|''Ark Royal'']] with the bulk of the fleet. Given the Spanish advantage in close quarter fighting, the English ships used their superior speed and manoeuvrability to keep beyond grappling range and bombarded the Spanish ships from a distance with cannon fire. However the distance was too great for this to be effective, and at the end of the first day's fighting neither fleet had lost a ship, though two of the Spanish ships, the carrack ''Rosario'' and the galleon ''San Salvador'', were abandoned after they collided. When night fell, Francis Drake turned his ship back to loot the ships, capturing supplies of much-needed [[gunpowder]], and gold. However, Drake had been guiding the English fleet by means of a lantern. Because he snuffed out the lantern and slipped away for the abandoned Spanish ships, the rest of his fleet became scattered and was in complete disarray by dawn. It took an entire day for the English fleet to regroup and the Armada gained a day's grace. The English ships then used their superior speed and manoeuvrability to catch up with the Spanish fleet after a day of sailing. On 23 July the English fleet and the Armada engaged once more, off [[Isle of Portland|Portland]]. This time a change of wind gave the Spanish the weather-gage, and they sought to close with the English, but were foiled by the smaller ships' greater manoeuvrability. At one point Howard formed his ships into a line of battle, to attack at close range bringing all his guns to bear, but this was not followed through and little was achieved. At the Isle of Wight the Armada had the opportunity to create a temporary base in protected waters of the [[Solent]] and wait for word from Parma's army. In a full-scale attack, the English fleet broke into four groups – [[Martin Frobisher]] of the [[HMS Aid (1562)|''Aid'']] now also being given command over a squadron – with Drake coming in with a large force from the south. At the critical moment Medina Sidonia sent reinforcements south and ordered the Armada back to open sea to avoid [[Owers Bank|the Owers]] [[sandbank]]s. There were no secure harbours nearby, so the Armada was compelled to make for Calais, without regard to the readiness of Parma's army. On 27 July, the Armada anchored off [[Calais]] in a tightly packed defensive crescent formation, not far from [[Dunkirk]], where Parma's army, reduced by disease to 16,000, was expected to be waiting, ready to join the fleet in barges sent from ports along the [[Flemish]] coast. Communications had proven to be far more difficult than anticipated, and it only now became clear that this army had yet to be equipped with sufficient transport or assembled in port, a process which would take at least six days, while Medina Sidonia waited at anchor; and that Dunkirk was [[blockade]]d by a Dutch fleet of thirty [[flyboat]]s under Lieutenant-Admiral [[Justinus van Nassau|Justin of Nassau]]. Parma desired that the Armada send its light ''petaches'' to drive away the Dutch, but Medina Sidonia could not do this because he feared that he might need these ships for his own protection. There was no deepwater port where the fleet might shelter – always acknowledged as a major difficulty for the expedition – and the Spanish found themselves vulnerable as night drew on. At midnight on 28 July, the English set alight eight [[fire ship|fireships]], sacrificing regular warships by filling them with [[Pitch (resin)|pitch]], [[brimstone]], some gunpowder and [[tar]], and cast them downwind among the closely anchored vessels of the Armada. The Spanish feared that these uncommonly large fireships were "[[hellburners]]", specialised fireships filled with large gunpowder charges, which had been used to deadly effect at the [[Fall of Antwerp (1584–1585)|Siege of Antwerp]]. Two were intercepted and towed away, but the remainder bore down on the fleet. Medina Sidonia's [[flagship]] and the principal warships held their positions, but the rest of the fleet cut their anchor cables and scattered in confusion. No Spanish ships were burnt, but the crescent formation had been broken, and the fleet now found itself too far to [[leeward]] of Calais in the rising southwesterly wind to recover its position. The English closed in for battle. ===Battle of Gravelines=== [[Image:Gheeraerts Francis Drake 1591.jpg|170px|right|thumb|Sir [[Francis Drake]] in 1591]] The small port of [[Gravelines]] was then part of [[Flanders]] in the [[Southern Netherlands|Spanish Netherlands]], close to the border with France and the closest Spanish territory to England. Medina Sidonia tried to re-form his fleet there and was reluctant to sail further east knowing the danger from the shoals off Flanders, from which his Dutch enemies had removed the [[sea mark]]s. The English had learned more of the Armada's strengths and weaknesses during the skirmishes in the English Channel and had concluded it was necessary to close within 100 yards to penetrate the oak hulls of the Spanish ships. They had spent most of their gunpowder in the first engagements and had after the Isle of Wight been forced to conserve their heavy shot and powder for a final attack near Gravelines. During all the engagements, the Spanish heavy guns could not easily be run in for reloading because of their close spacing and the quantities of supplies stowed between decks, as Francis Drake had discovered on capturing the damaged ''Rosario'' in the Channel. Instead the cannoneers fired once and then jumped to the rigging to attend to their main task as marines ready to [[boarding (attack)|board]] enemy ships. In fact, evidence from Armada wrecks in Ireland shows that much of the fleet's ammunition was never spent. Their determination to thrash out a victory in hand-to-hand fighting proved a weakness for the Spanish; it had been effective on occasions such as the Battle of Lepanto and the [[Battle of Ponta Delgada]] (1582), but the English were aware of this strength and sought to avoid it by keeping their distance. With its superior manoeuvrability, the English fleet provoked Spanish fire while staying out of range. The English then closed, firing repeated and damaging broadsides into the enemy ships. This also enabled them to maintain a position to [[Windward and leeward|windward]] so that the heeling Armada hulls were exposed to damage below the water line. Many of the gunners were killed or wounded, and the Spanish ships had more priests on board than trained gunners, so the task of manning the cannons often fell to the regular foot soldiers on board, who did not know how to operate the complex cannons. Sailors positioned on the upper decks of the English and Spanish ships were able to exchange musket fire, as their ships were in proximity. After eight hours, the English ships began to run out of ammunition, and some gunners began loading objects such as chains into cannons. Around 4:00 pm, the English fired their last shots and were forced to pull back. Five Spanish ships were lost. The galleass ''San Lorenzo'' ran aground at Calais and was taken by Howard after murderous fighting between the crew, the galley slaves, the English and the French who ultimately took possession of the wreck. The galleons ''San Mateo'' and ''San Felipe'' drifted away in a sinking condition, ran aground on the island of [[Walcheren]] the next day, and were taken by the Dutch. One carrack ran aground near [[Blankenberge]]; another foundered. Many other Spanish ships were severely damaged, especially the Spanish and Portuguese Atlantic-class galleons which had to bear the brunt of the fighting during the early hours of the battle in desperate individual actions against groups of English ships. The Spanish plan to join with Parma's army had been defeated and the English had afforded themselves some breathing space. But the Armada's presence in northern waters still posed a great threat to England. ===Tilbury speech=== [[Image:Elizabeth I (Armada Portrait).jpg|thumb|250px|[[Elizabeth I of England]], the Armada portrait]] {{Main|Speech to the Troops at Tilbury}} On the day after the battle of Gravelines, the wind had backed southerly, enabling Medina Sidonia to move his fleet northward away from the French coast. Although their shot lockers were almost empty, the English pursued in an attempt to prevent the enemy from returning to escort Parma. On 2 August [[Old Style and New Style dates|Old Style]] (12 August [[Old Style and New Style dates|New Style]]) Howard called a halt to the pursuit in the latitude of the [[Firth of Forth]] off [[Scotland]]. By that point, the Spanish were suffering from thirst and exhaustion, and the only option left to Medina Sidonia was to chart a course home to Spain, by a very hazardous route. The threat of invasion from the Netherlands had not yet been discounted by the English, and [[Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester|Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester]] maintained a force of 4,000 soldiers at [[West Tilbury]], Essex, to defend the [[Thames Estuary]] against any incursion up river towards London. On 8 August (Old Style) (18 August New Style) [[Elizabeth I of England|Queen Elizabeth]] went to Tilbury to encourage her forces, and the next day gave to them what is probably her most famous speech: {{quote|''"My loving people, we have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed multitudes for fear of treachery; but, I do assure you, I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself, that under God I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and goodwill of my subjects; and, therefore, I am come amongst you as you see at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of battle, to live or die amongst you all – to lay down for my God, and for my kingdoms, and for my people, my honour and my blood even in the dust. I know I have the body of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king – and of a King of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which, rather than any dishonour should grow by me, I myself will take up arms – I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, for your forwardness, you have deserved rewards and crowns, and, we do assure you, on the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean time, my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom never prince commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my general, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people."''}} ===Return to Spain=== {{Contradict|discuss=talk:Spanish Armada#Numbers don't add up|date=August 2010}} {{Main|Spanish Armada in Ireland}} In September 1588 the Armada sailed around Scotland and Ireland into the North Atlantic. The ships were beginning to show wear from the long voyage, and some were kept together by having their hulls bundled up with cables. Supplies of food and water ran short, and the cavalry horses were cast overboard into the sea. The intention would have been to keep well to the west of the coast of Scotland and Ireland, in the relative safety of the open sea. However, there being at that time no way of accurately measuring [[longitude]], the Spanish were not aware that the [[Gulf Stream]] was carrying them north and east as they tried to move west, and they eventually turned south much further to the east than planned, a devastating navigational error. Off the coasts of Scotland and Ireland the fleet ran into a series of powerful westerly gales, which drove many of the damaged ships further towards the [[lee shore]]. Because so many anchors had been abandoned during the escape from the English fireships off Calais, many of the ships were incapable of securing shelter as they reached the coast of Ireland and were driven onto the rocks. The late 16th century, and especially 1588, was marked by unusually strong North Atlantic storms, perhaps associated with a high accumulation of polar ice off the coast of [[Greenland]], a characteristic phenomenon of the "[[Little Ice Age]]." As a result many more ships and sailors were lost to cold and stormy weather than in combat. Following the gales it is reckoned that 5,000 men died, whether by drowning and starvation or by slaughter at the hands of English forces after they were driven ashore in Ireland; only half of the Spanish Armada fleet returned home to Spain. Reports of the passage around Ireland abound with strange accounts of brutality and survival and attest to the qualities of the Spanish seamanship. Some survivors were concealed by Irish people, but few shipwrecked Spanish survived to be taken into Irish service, fewer still to return home. In the end, 67 ships and around 10,000 men survived. Many of the men were near death from disease, as the conditions were very cramped and most of the ships ran out of food and water. Many more died in Spain, or on hospital ships in Spanish harbours, from diseases contracted during the voyage. It was reported that, when Philip II learned of the result of the expedition, he declared, "I sent the Armada against men, not God's winds and waves". ===Aftermath=== [[Image:The Spanish Barn, Torquay.jpg|thumb|The Spanish Barn in [[Torquay]] held 397 Spanish prisoners of war.]] [[Image:The Spanish Barn plaque, Torquay.jpg|thumb|A plaque in the Spanish Barn]] English losses stood at 50–100 dead and 400 wounded, and none of their ships had been sunk. But after the victory, [[typhus]], [[dysentery]] and hunger killed many sailors and troops (estimated at 6,000–8,000) as they were discharged without pay: a demoralising dispute occasioned by the government's fiscal shortfalls left many of the English defenders unpaid for months, which was in contrast to the assistance given by the Spanish government to its surviving men. The English fleet was unable to prevent the regrouping of the Armada at the Battle of Gravelines, requiring it to remain on duty even as thousands of its sailors died. ==Technological revolution== The outcome vindicated the English strategy resulting in a revolution in naval warfare with the promotion of gunnery, which until then had played a supporting role to the tasks of ramming and boarding. The battle of Gravelines is regarded by some specialists in military history as reflecting a lasting shift in the naval balance in favour of the English, in part because of the gap in naval technology and armament it confirmed between the two nations, which continued into the next century. In the words of [[Geoffrey Parker (historian)|Geoffrey Parker]], by 1588 'the capital ships of the Elizabethan navy constituted the most powerful battlefleet afloat anywhere in the world.' The English navy yards were leaders in technical innovation, and the captains devised new tactics. Geoffrey Parker argues that the full-rigged ship was one of the greatest technological advances of the century and permanently transformed naval warfare. In 1573 English shipwrights introduced designs, first demonstrated in the "Dreadnaught," that allowed the ships to sail faster and maneuver better and permitted heavier guns. Whereas before warships had tried to grapple with each other so that soldiers could board the enemy ship, now they more often stood off and fired broadsides that could sink the enemy vessel. When Spain finally decided to invade and conquer England, it was a fiasco. Superior English ships and seamanship thus foiled the invasion. Technically, the Armada failed because Spain's over-complex strategy required coordination between the invasion fleet and the Spanish army on shore. But the poor design of the Spanish cannons meant they were much slower in reloading in a close-range battle, allowing the English to take control. Spain and France still had numerically larger fleets, but England was catching up. ==Legacy== In England, the boost to national pride lasted for years, and Elizabeth's legend persisted and grew long after her death. The repulse of Spanish naval might gave heart to the [[Protestantism|Protestant]] cause across Europe, and the belief that God was behind the Protestant cause was shown by the striking of commemorative medals that bore the inscription, ''[[He blew with His winds, and they were scattered]]''. There were also more lighthearted medals struck, such as the one with the play on [[Julius Caesar]]'s words: ''Venit, Vidit, Fugit'' (''he came, he saw, he fled''). The victory was acclaimed by the English as their greatest since [[Battle of Agincourt|Agincourt]].{{Citation needed|date=February 2008}} However, an attempt to press home the English advantage failed the following year, when the [[English Armada|Drake–Norris Expedition of 1589]], with a comparable fleet of English privateers, sailed to establish a base in the [[Azores]], attack Spain, and raise a revolt in [[Portugal]]. The Norris–Drake Expedition or [[English Armada|Counter Armada]] raided [[La Coruña|Corunna]], but withdrew from [[Lisbon]] after failing to co-ordinate its strategy effectively with the Portuguese. In 1596 and 1597, two more armadas were sent but were scattered by storms. The [[Spanish Navy]] underwent a major organisational reform that helped it to maintain control over its trans-Atlantic routes. High seas buccaneering and the supply of troops to Philip II's enemies in the Netherlands and France continued but brought few tangible rewards for England. The memory of the victory over the Armada was evoked during both the Napoleonic Wars and the Second World War, when Britain again faced a concrete danger of invasion. ==Historiography== Knerr (1989) has reviewed the main trends in historiography over five centuries. For 150 years writers relied heavily on [[Petruccio Ubaldini]]'s ''A Discourse Concernye the Spanish Fleete Invadinye Englande'' (1590), which argued that God decisively favoured the Protestant cause. [[William Camden]] (1551-1623) pointed in addition to elements of English nationalism and the private enterprise of the sea dogs. He also emphasized that the Duke of Medina Sidonia was an incompetent seaman. [[David Hume]] (1711-76) praised the leadership of Queen Elizabeth. However the Whig historians, led by [[James A. Froude]] (1818-94), rejected Hume's interpretation and argued that Elizabeth was vacillating and almost lost the conflict by her unwillingness to spend enough to maintain the fleet. Scientific modern historiography came of age with the publication of two volumes of primary documents by John K. Laughton in 1894. This enabled the leading naval scholar of the day [[Julian Corbett]] (1854-1922), to reject the Whig views and turn attention to the professionalization of the Royal Navy as a critical factor. Twentieth century historians have focused on technical issues, such as the relative power of English and Spanish guns and the degree of credit due Francis Drake and Charles Howard. == Panorama == [[Image: Senyeres-Invencible-Plymouth.jpg|700px|thumb|centre|“Elizabeth I and the Spanish Armada”; the [[Worshipful Society of Apothecaries |Apothecaries]] painting, sometimes attributed to [[Nicholas Hilliard]] A stylised depiction of key elements of the Armada story; the alarm beacons, Queen Elizabeth at Tilbury, and the sea battle at Gravelines.]] ==In popular culture== The preparations of the Armada and the Battle of Gravelines form the backdrop of two graphic novels in [[Bob de Moor]]s "Cori le Moussaillon" (''Les Espions de la Reine'' and ''Le Dragon des Mers'''). In them, Cori the cabin boy works as a spy in the Armada for the English. The Armada and intrigues surrounding its threat to England form the backdrop of the films ''[[Fire Over England]]'' (1937), with [[Laurence Olivier]] and [[Flora Robson]], and ''[[The Sea Hawk (1940 film)|The Sea Hawk]]'' with [[Errol Flynn]]. The Battle of Gravelines and the subsequent chase around the northern coast of Scotland form the climax of [[Charles Kingsley]]'s 1855 novel [[Westward Ho! (novel)|''Westward Ho!'']], which in 1925 became the first novel to be adapted into a radio drama by [[BBC]]. In golf, [[Seve Ballesteros]] and [[José María Olazábal]], who had a [[Ryder Cup]] record of 11–2–2 as a team—the best record for a pairing in the history of the competition—came to be called the "Spanish Armada". The Battle of Gravelines is the climax of the 2007 film, ''[[Elizabeth: The Golden Age]]'' starring [[Cate Blanchett]] and [[Clive Owen]]. In the twentieth season of ''[[The Simpsons]]'', [[Four Great Women and a Manicure|an episode]] depicts the reason for the Armada's attack as Queen Elizabeth's rebuff of the King of Spain. [[Homer Simpson]] accidentally sets the only English ship [[fire ship|on fire]]; then collides with the Armada, setting all their ships on fire, creating victory for England. The ''Final Jeopardy!'' response on 20 May 2009 on ''[[Jeopardy!]]'' was "The Spanish Armada". The clue was ''"It was the 'they' in the medal issued by Elizabeth I reading, 'God breathed and they were scattered.'"'' [[Winston Graham]] wrote a history of "The Spanish Armadas" and a historical novel, ''The Grove of Eagles'', based on it - the plural "Armadas" referring to a lesser-known second attempt by [[Philip II of Spain]] to conquer England during 1598, which Graham argued was better planned and organized than the famous one of 1588 but was foiled by a fierce storm scattering the Spanish ships and sinking many of them. Several [[Science Fiction]] writers published variant descriptions of how history might have proceeded had the Spanish Armada won, including [[John Brunner (novelist)|John Brunner]] ("[[Times Without Number]]", 1962), [[Keith Roberts]] ("[[Pavane (novel)|Pavane]]", 1969) and [[Harry Turtledove]] ("[[Ruled Britannia]]" 2002). ==See also== *[[English Armada]] *[[Black Legend]] *[[Spanish Armada in Ireland]] *[[Francisco de Cuellar]] *[[Carlos de Amésquita]] – Landed Spanish forces in England *[[Spanish Empire]] ===Popular studies=== *''The Confident Hope of a Miracle. The True History of the Spanish Armada'', by Neil Hanson, Knopf (2003), ISBN 1-4000-4294-1. *[[Richard Holmes (military historian)|Holmes, Richard]]. ''The Oxford Campanion to Military History''. Oxford University Press. 2001. ISBN 978-0198606963 *''From Merciless Invaders: The Defeat of the Spanish Armada'', Alexander McKee, Souvenir Press, London, 1963. Second edition, Grafton Books, London, 1988. *''The Spanish Armadas'', Winston Graham, Dorset Press, New York, 1972. *''Mariner's Mirror'', Geoffrey Parker, 'The Dreadnought Revolution of Tudor England', 82 (1996): pp. 269–300. *''The Spanish Armada'', Michael Lewis (1960). First published Batsford, 1960 – republished Pan, 1966 *''Armada: A Celebration of the Four Hundredth Anniversary of the Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588–1988'' (1988) ISBN 0-575-03729-6 *''England and the Spanish Armada'' (1990) ISBN 0-7317-0127-5 *''The Enterprise of England'' (1988) ISBN 0-86299-476-4 *''The Return of the Armadas: the Later Years of the Elizabethan War against Spain, 1595–1603'', RB Wernham ISBN 0-19-820443-4 *''The Voyage of the Armada: The Spanish Story'', David Howarth (1981) ISBN 0-00-211575-1 *T.P.Kilfeather ''Ireland: Graveyard of the Spanish Armada'' (Anvil Books, 1967) *Winston Graham ''The Spanish Armadas'' (1972; reprint 2001) ISBN 0-14-139020-4 *''Historic Bourne etc.'', J.J. Davies (1909) {{Refend}} ==External links== {{Spoken Wikipedia|SpanishArmada.ogg|2008-05-28}} {{commons|Spanish Armada}} *[http://www.historybuff.com/library/refspain.html The Defeat of the Spanish Armada. Insight into the context, personalities, planning and consequences. Wes Ulm] *[http://www.ucc.ie/celt/published/T108200/index.html English translation of Francisco de Cuellar's account of his service in the Armada and on the run in Ireland] *[http://www.bl.uk/learning/histcitizen/uk/armada/intro.html Elizabeth I and the Spanish Armada] – a learning resource and teachers notes from the British Library *[http://www.mgsanchez.net/2008/08/writing-armada-myth-monumentalism-and.html Writing the Armada: myth, monumentalism and the transformation of event into national epic in Elizabethan literature] – An essay by the Gibraltar writer and academic Dr. M. G. Sanchez *[http://www.awesomestories.com/flicks/elizabeth-I/the-armada-sails The story of the Armada battles with pictures from the House of Lords tapestries] *[http://forum.stirpes.net/historical-revisionism/8495-top-10-myths-muddles-about-spanish-armada.html Top Ten Myths and Muddles]. Wes Ulm. *[[Dutch Republic]] and the links from it give an insight into the politics in the Netherlands which ran parallel with political developments in England. *BBC-ZDF etc. TV coproduction ''Natural History of Europe'' *Discovery Civilization ''Battlefield Detectives – What Sank The Armada?'' {{coord missing|France}}