Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Solingen

Solingen

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Solingen'
Start a new discussion about 'Solingen'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
Solingen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia
North Rhine-Westphalia is the most populous state of Germany, with four of the country's ten largest cities. The state was formed in 1946 as a merger of the northern Rhineland and Westphalia, both formerly part of Prussia. Its capital is Düsseldorf. The state is currently run by a coalition of the...

, Germany. It is located on the northern edge of the region called Bergisches Land
Bergisches Land
The Bergisches Land is a low mountain range region within the state of Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany, east of Rhine river, south of the Ruhr. The landscape is shaped by woods, meadows, rivers and creeks and contains over 20 artificial lakes...

, south of the Ruhr area
Ruhr Area
The Ruhr, by German-speaking geographers and historians more accurately called Ruhr district or Ruhr region , is an urban area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. With 4435 km² and a population of some 5.2 million , it is the largest urban agglomeration in Germany...

, and with a 2009 population of 161,366 is the second largest city in the Bergisches Land. It is a member of the regional authority of the Rhineland
Rhineland
Historically, the Rhinelands refers to a loosely-defined region embracing the land on either bank of the River Rhine in central Europe....

.

Solingen is called the "City of Blades", since it has long been renowned for the manufacturing of fine swords, knives, scissors and razors made by famous firms such as DOVO Solingen
DOVO Solingen
DOVO Solingen, or DOVO Steelware, or DOVO, is an independent German company, based in Solingen. They are a manufacturer of scissors, shaving equipment such as straight razors and safety razors, as well as manicure tools. Shaving equipment and razors are produced by Merkur Solingen, a subsidiary of...

, Wüsthof
Wüsthof
Wüsthof is a knife-maker based in Solingen, Germany, noted for its very high quality products...

, J. A. Henckels
J. A. Henckels
J.A. Henckels is a knife manufacturer based in Solingen, Germany. Henckels is one of the largest and oldest manufacturers of kitchen knives, scissors, cookware and flatware.-History:...

, Böker
Böker
Böker or Tree Brand is a commercial manufacturer and distributor of knives, based in Solingen, Germany. Böker primarily makes folding and outdoor knives...

, Hen & Rooster, Eickhorn-Solingen, and numerous other manufacturers. Wilkinson
Wilkinson Sword
Wilkinson Sword is a brand name for companies that make gardening tools and razors. Wilkinson Sword's origins are in the manufacture of swords. The company was founded in London in 1772. The brand is currently owned by Energizer Holdings. Past product lines have included guns, bayonets, and other...

 is also based here. Compare with Sheffield
Sheffield
Sheffield is a city and metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire, England. Its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and with some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its largely...

 and Birmingham
Birmingham
Birmingham is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London, with a population of 1,036,900 , and lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a...

 in England.

In Medieval times, the swordsmiths of Solingen coined the town's image, which is preserved to this date. In the latter part of the 17th century, a group of swordsmiths from Solingen broke their guild oaths by taking their sword-making secrets with them to Shotley Bridge
Shotley Bridge
Shotley Bridge is a village in the Derwent Valley, adjoining the town of Consett in County Durham, England. Shotley Bridge was once the heart of Britain's swordmaking industry.The origins of swordmaking here dated from 1691...

, County Durham
County Durham
County Durham is a ceremonial county and unitary district in north east England. The county town is Durham. The largest settlement in the ceremonial county is the town of Darlington...

 in England. Some 90% of German knives are produced in Solingen.

Geography


Solingen lies southwest of Wuppertal
Wuppertal
Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in and around the Wupper river valley, and is situated east of the city of Düsseldorf and south of the Ruhr area. With a population of approximately 350,000, it is the largest city in the Bergisches Land...

 in the Bergisches Land. The city has an area of 89.45 square kilometres (34.5 sq mi), of which roughly 50% is used for agriculture, horticulture, or forestry. The city's border is 62 kilometres (38.5 mi) long, and the city's dimensions are 15.6 kilometres (9.7 mi) east to west and 11.7 kilometres (7.3 mi) north to south. The Wupper river
Wupper
The Wupper is a right tributary to the Rhine river in the state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Rising near Marienheide in western Sauerland it runs through the mountainous area of the Bergisches Land Berg County and enters the Rhine at Leverkussen, south of Düsseldorf...

, a right tributary the Rhine, flows through the city for 26 kilometres (16.2 mi). The city's highest point at 276 metres (906 ft) is in the northern borough of Gräfrath
Grafrath
Grafrath is a municipality in the district of Fürstenfeldbruck in Bavaria in Germany. It takes its name from Saint Rasso , who was a count who founded a Benedictine abbey here in the 10th century.- References :...

 at the Light Tower, previously the water tower
Water tower
A water tower or elevated water tower is a large elevated drinking water storage container constructed to hold a water supply at a height sufficient to pressurize a water distribution system....

, and the lowest point at 53 metres (174 ft) is in the southwest.

Neighbouring cities and communities


The following cities and communities share a border with Solingen, starting in the northeast and going clockwise around the city:
  • Wuppertal
    Wuppertal
    Wuppertal is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in and around the Wupper river valley, and is situated east of the city of Düsseldorf and south of the Ruhr area. With a population of approximately 350,000, it is the largest city in the Bergisches Land...

     (unitary urban district
    Urban districts of Germany
    This is a list of urban districts in Germany. Germany's sixteen states are further subdivided into 402 districts of which 107 are urban districts – cities which constitute a district in their own right. A similar concept is the Statutarstadt in Austria...

    )

  • Remscheid
    Remscheid
    Remscheid is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is, after Wuppertal and Solingen, the third largest municipality in Bergisches Land, being located on the northern edge of the region, on south side of the Ruhr area....

     (unitary urban district)

  • Wermelskirchen
    Wermelskirchen
    Wermelskirchen is a town in the Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, southeast of Remscheid. It is home to the world's biggest live Christmas tree.-Coat of arms:...

     (within the Rheinisch-Bergischer district
    Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis
    The Rheinisch-Bergische Kreis is a Kreis in the Cologne Bonn Region of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Neighboring are the districts Oberbergischer Kreis and Rhein-Sieg, and the district-free citiesCologne, Leverkusen, Solingen and Remscheid....

    )

  • Leichlingen
    Leichlingen
    Leichlingen is a town in the Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Leichlingen is a centre for apple and berry growing in the region.-Notable places:...

     (Rheinisch-Bergischer district)

  • Langenfeld
    Langenfeld, Rhineland
    Langenfeld is a town in North-Rhine-Westphalia in the district of Mettmann. The suburban city is located between Düsseldorf and Cologne...

     (within the district of Mettmann
    Mettmann (district)
    Mettmann is a Kreis in the middle of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Neighboring are the Ennepe-Ruhr and thedistrict-free cities Wuppertal, Solingen, Düsseldorf,Duisburg, Mülheim, Essen...

    )

  • Hilden
    Hilden
    Hilden is a city in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is situated in the District of Mettmann, west of Solingen and east of Düsseldorf on the right side of the Rhine. It is a middle sized industrial town with a forest and numerous attractions....

     (Mettmann)

  • Haan
    Haan
    Haan is a town in the Bergian district of Mettmann, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.- Geography :Haan is located close to Düsseldorf. In 1975, Gruiten was incorporated into Haan.-International relations:...

     (Mettmann)

City administration


Solingen currently consists of five borough
Borough
A borough is an administrative division in various countries. In principle, the term borough designates a self-governing township although, in practice, official use of the term varies widely....

s. Each borough has a municipal council of either 13 or 15 representatives (Bezirksvertreter) elected every five years by the borough's population. The municipal councils are responsible for many of the boroughs' important administrative affairs.

The five city boroughs:
  • Gräfrath
    Grafrath
    Grafrath is a municipality in the district of Fürstenfeldbruck in Bavaria in Germany. It takes its name from Saint Rasso , who was a count who founded a Benedictine abbey here in the 10th century.- References :...

  • Wald (Solingen)
  • (Solingen-)Mitte
  • Ohligs/Aufderhöhe/Merscheid
  • Höhscheid/Burg


The individuals boroughs are in part composed of separate quarters or residential areas with their own names, although they often lack precise borders. Examples of these areas are Balkhausen, Brabant, Broßhaus, Central, Dahl, Demmeltrath, Dorperhof, Flachsberg, Fürk, Fürkeltrath, Fuhr, Glüder, Gosse, Hackhausen, Haasenmühle, Hasseldelle, Hästen, Ittertal, Kannenhof, Katternberg, Ketzberg, Kohlfurth, Kotzert, Krahenhöhe, Külf, Landwehr, Mangenberg, Mankhaus, Maubes, Meigen, Müngsten, Nümmen, Papiermühle, Piepersberg, Rüden, Schaberg, Schieten, Schnittert, Theegarten, Unterland, Weyer, Widdert, Wilzhaus, and Zum Holz.

History


Solingen was first mentioned in 1067 by a chronicler who called the area "Solonchon". Early variations of the name included "Solengen", "Solungen", and "Soleggen", although the modern name seems to have been in use since the late 14th and early 15th centuries.


Blacksmith smelters, dating back to over 2000 years, have been found around the town adding to Solingen's fame as a Northern Europe blacksmith centre. Swords from Solingen have turned up in places such as the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms in the British Isles. Northern Europe prized the quality of Solingen's manufactured weaponry, and they were traded across the European continent. Solingen today remains the knife-centre of Germany.

It was a tiny village for centuries, but became a fortified town in the 15th century. In World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

 the Old Town was completely destroyed by an air raid
Airstrike
An air strike is an attack on a specific objective by military aircraft during an offensive mission. Air strikes are commonly delivered from aircraft such as fighters, bombers, ground attack aircraft, attack helicopters, and others...

 in 1944 and 1,040 people died, so there are few sights in the centre.

In 1929 Ohligs, located in the Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

n Rhine Province
Rhine Province
The Rhine Province , also known as Rhenish Prussia or synonymous to the Rhineland , was the westernmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia, within the German Reich, from 1822-1946. It was created from the provinces of the Lower Rhine and Jülich-Cleves-Berg...

, 17 miles (27.4 km) by rail north of Cologne
Cologne
Cologne is Germany's fourth-largest city , and is the largest city both in the Germany Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.Cologne is located on both sides of the...

 became part of Solingen. Its chief manufactures were cutlery
Cutlery
Cutlery refers to any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world. It is more usually known as silverware or flatware in the United States, where cutlery can have the more specific meaning of knives and other cutting instruments. This is probably the...

 and hardware
Hardware
Hardware is a general term for equipment such as keys, locks, hinges, latches, handles, wire, chains, plumbing supplies, tools, utensils, cutlery and machine parts. Household hardware is typically sold in hardware stores....

, and there were iron-foundries and flour mills. Other industries are brewing, dyeing, weaving and brick-making. Before 1891 it was known as Merscheid.

More recently, the city became well-known because of a May 29, 1993 arson incident in which two women and three girls died in a fire attack on the house
Solingen arson attack of 1993
The Solingen arson attack of 1993 was one of the most severe instances of anti-foreigner violence in modern Germany. On the night of May 28 to May 29, 1993, four young German men belonging to the far right skinhead scene, with neo-Nazi ties, set fire to the house of a large Turkish family in...

 of a Turkish family in Solingen. Seven more people were severely injured. The fire was started by local followers of Neo-Nazism
Neo-Nazism
Neo-Nazism consists of post-World War II social or political movements seeking to revive Nazism or some variant thereof.The term neo-Nazism can also refer to the ideology of these movements....

. The incident ignited further controversy when the German Chancellor, Helmut Kohl
Helmut Kohl
Helmut Josef Michael Kohl is a German conservative politician and statesman. He was Chancellor of Germany from 1982 to 1998 and the chairman of the Christian Democratic Union from 1973 to 1998...

, refused to attend the funeral for the Solingen victims.

Population


Solingen's population doubled between the years 1880 and 1890 due to the incorporation of the city Dorp into Solingen in 1889, at which time the population reached 36,000. The population again received a large boost on August 1, 1929 through the incorporation of Ohligs, Wald, Höhscheid, and Gräfrath into the city limits. This brought the population above the 100,000 mark, which gave Solingen the distinction of "large city" (Großstadt). The number of inhabitants peaked in 1971 with 177,899 residents, and the 2006 population figure was 163,263.

The following chart shows the population figures within Solingen's city limits at the respective points in time. The figures are derived from census
Census
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. It is a regularly occurring and official count of a particular population. The term is used mostly in connection with national population and housing censuses; other common...

 estimates or numbers provided by statistical offices or city agencies, with the exception of figures preceding 1843, which were gathered using inconsistent recording techniques.

Rail


Solingen Hauptbahnhof
Solingen Hauptbahnhof
Solingen Hauptbahnhof is the only train station in Solingen, Germany offering ICE and IC long distance trains....

 is served by Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn line S1 from Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf
Düsseldorf is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.Düsseldorf is an important international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the...

. RegionalBahn
RegionalBahn
The Regionalbahn is a type of local passenger train in Germany.-Service:Regionalbahn trains usually call at all stations on a given line, with the exception of RB trains within S-Bahn networks, these may only call at selected stations...

 service Der Müngstener (RB 47) links Solingen (including the station nearest the town centre, Solingen Mitte
Solingen Mitte station
Solingen Mitte station is in the city of Solingen in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is on the Wuppertal-Oberbarmen–Solingen railway. The line through the site of Solingen Mitte station was opened on 2 December 1890 as part of the Solingen–Wuppertal-Vohwinkel line, known as the...

, and Solingen Grünewald
Solingen Grünewald station
Solingen Grünewald station is in the city of Solingen in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is on the Wuppertal-Oberbarmen–Solingen railway. The line through the site of Solingen Grünewald station was opened on 12 February 1890 as part of the Solingen–Wuppertal-Vohwinkel line, known as...

) to Wuppertal via Hauptbahnhof
Remscheid Hauptbahnhof
Remscheid Hauptbahnhof is in the Bergisch city of Remscheid in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is located in Willy-Brandt-Platz near central Remscheid and is classified by Deutsche Bahn as a category 5 station....

, Lennep
Remscheid-Lennep station
Remscheid-Lennep station is in the city of Remscheid in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is the second most important station in the city after Remscheid Hauptbahnhof...

 and Ronsdorf. The Rhein-Wupper-Bahn (RB 48) runs over the Gruiten–Cologne-Deutz line
Gruiten–Köln-Deutz railway
The Gruiten–Cologne-Deutz railway is a major German railway. It is part of a major axis for long distance and regional rail services between Wuppertal and Cologne, and is served by Intercity Express, InterCity, Regional-Express and regionalbahn trains....

 to Cologne
Köln Hauptbahnhof
Köln Hauptbahnhof is the central railway station in Cologne, Germany.The station is an important local, national and international hub, with many ICE, Thalys and Intercity trains calling there, as well as regional RegionalExpress, RegionalBahn and local S-Bahn trains...

 via Opladen
Opladen station
Opladen station is in the suburb of Opladen of the city of Leverkusen in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is on the Gruiten–Köln-Deutz railway, which was opened on 25 September 1867 from Ohligs by the Bergisch-Märkische Railway Company . It was extended to Mülheim BME station on 8...

.
Railway stations of Solingen
Station Lines served Destinations Notes
Solingen Hauptbahnhof
Solingen Hauptbahnhof
Solingen Hauptbahnhof is the only train station in Solingen, Germany offering ICE and IC long distance trains....

ICE42 Dortmund
Dortmund
Dortmund is a city in Germany. It is located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. Its population of 585,045 makes it the 7th largest city in Germany and the 34th largest in the European Union....

 – SolingenMannheim
Mannheim
Mannheim is a city in southwestern Germany. With about 315,000 inhabitants, Mannheim is the second-largest city in the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, following the capital city of Stuttgart....

 – Munich
Munich
Munich The city's motto is "" . Before 2006, it was "Weltstadt mit Herz" . Its native name, , is derived from the Old High German Munichen, meaning "by the monks' place". The city's name derives from the monks of the Benedictine order who founded the city; hence the monk depicted on the city's coat...

 (InterCity Express)
Interchange with Obus Solingen (trolleybus) lines 681, 682.
ICE43 Hannover – Solingen – Cologne – Mannheim – Basel
Basel
Basel or Basle In the national languages of Switzerland the city is also known as Bâle , Basilea and Basilea is Switzerland's third most populous city with about 166,000 inhabitants. Located where the Swiss, French and German borders meet, Basel also has suburbs in France and Germany...

 (InterCity Express)
ICE91 Dortmund – SolingenFrankfurt
Frankfurt
Frankfurt am Main , commonly known simply as Frankfurt, is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2010 population of 688,249. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010...

 – Vienna
Vienna
Vienna is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's primary city, with a population of about 1.723 million , and is by far the largest city in Austria, as well as its cultural, economic, and political centre...

 (InterCity Express)
IC31 Hamburg
Hamburg
-History:The first historic name for the city was, according to Claudius Ptolemy's reports, Treva.But the city takes its modern name, Hamburg, from the first permanent building on the site, a castle whose construction was ordered by the Emperor Charlemagne in AD 808...

 – Solingen – Cologne – Frankfurt (InterCity)
IC55 Leipzig
Leipzig
Leipzig Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing...

 – Hannover – Solingen – Cologne
RE7 Krefeld
Krefeld
Krefeld , also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located northwest of Düsseldorf, its centre lying just a few kilometres to the west of the River Rhine; the borough of Uerdingen is situated directly on the Rhine...

 – Cologne – Solingen – Wuppertal – Hagen
Hagen
Hagen is the 39th-largest city in Germany, located in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is located on the eastern edge of the Ruhr area, 15 km south of Dortmund, where the rivers Lenne, Volme and Ennepe meet the river Ruhr...

 – Hamm
Hamm
Hamm is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia , Germany. It is located in the northeastern part of the Ruhr area. As of December 2003 its population was 180,849. The city is situated between the A1 motorway and A2 motorway...

 – Münster
Münster
Münster is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Westphalia region. It is also capital of the local government region Münsterland...

 (RegionalExpress)
RB47 RegionalBahn to Wuppertal Hauptbahnhof via Remscheid
RB48 Wuppertal – Solingen – Cologne – Bonn
Bonn
Bonn is the 19th largest city in Germany. Located in the Cologne/Bonn Region, about 25 kilometres south of Cologne on the river Rhine in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, it was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999....

 (RegionalBahn)
S1 S-Bahn to Dortmund
Dortmund
Dortmund is a city in Germany. It is located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia, in the Ruhr area. Its population of 585,045 makes it the 7th largest city in Germany and the 34th largest in the European Union....

Solingen Mitte
Solingen Mitte station
Solingen Mitte station is in the city of Solingen in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is on the Wuppertal-Oberbarmen–Solingen railway. The line through the site of Solingen Mitte station was opened on 2 December 1890 as part of the Solingen–Wuppertal-Vohwinkel line, known as the...

RB47 Nearest station to historic centre.
Interchange with trolleybus lines 681, 683, 684, 686.
Solingen Grünewald
Solingen Grünewald station
Solingen Grünewald station is in the city of Solingen in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is on the Wuppertal-Oberbarmen–Solingen railway. The line through the site of Solingen Grünewald station was opened on 12 February 1890 as part of the Solingen–Wuppertal-Vohwinkel line, known as...

RB47 Interchange with trolleybus line 682.
Solingen Vogelpark
Solingen Vogelpark station
Solingen Vogelpark station is in the city of Solingen in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is on the Düsseldorf–Solingen railway, which was opened on was opened on 3 January 1894 by the Prussian state railways...

S1
Solingen Schaberg RB47

Trolleybus





Solingen has a Trolleybus
Trolleybus
A trolleybus is an electric bus that draws its electricity from overhead wires using spring-loaded trolley poles. Two wires and poles are required to complete the electrical circuit...

 network, one of only three in Germany remaining. The network centres on Graf-Wilhelm-Platz (Count William Place).

History
The first trolleybus was brought into service on 19 June 1952. The network was a conversion of the previous tram
Tram
A tram is a passenger rail vehicle which runs on tracks along public urban streets and also sometimes on separate rights of way. It may also run between cities and/or towns , and/or partially grade separated even in the cities...

 services. Conversion from tramway was completed on 2 December 1959. Extensions to the system were opened in 1981-2 – Schlagbaum to Haßelstraße (2.6 kilometres (1.6 mi)) and Höscheid to Brockenburg (0.8 kilometre (0.497098189319845 mi)) respectively – and in 1993 from Aufderhöhe to Mangenberg/Graf-Wilhem-Platz (8.2 kilometres (5.1 mi)).

Network
, 6 lines are in operation. The older lines (681–684) are served every ten minutes, and the newer lines (685–686, opened 22 August 1993) run every half hour, although they are duplicated by each other for the majority of their route. Routes 681 and 682 interchange with the city's principal railway station – Solingen Hbf – which lies in the western suburb
Suburb
The word suburb mostly refers to a residential area, either existing as part of a city or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city . Some suburbs have a degree of administrative autonomy, and most have lower population density than inner city neighborhoods...

s. Line 683 – at 14.5 kilometres (9 mi), by far the network's longest – also connects to the Wuppertal Schwebebahn at Vohwinkel, the northern end of the route and the western terminus of the Schwebebahn. The southern extent of 683 is the picturesque town of Burg an der Wupper, which contains Schloss Burg
Schloss Burg
Burg Castle , located in Burg an der Wupper , is the largest reconstructed castle in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a popular tourist attraction...

 (Burg Castle). Burg is also home to the world's only trolleybus turntable
Turntable (railroad)
A railway turntable is a device for turning railroad rolling stock. When steam locomotives were still in wide use, many railroads needed a way to turn the locomotives around for return trips as their controls were often not configured for extended periods of running in reverse and in many...

, owing to lack of space to provide a full turning circle. This precludes the use of articulated vehicle
Articulated vehicle
An articulated vehicle is a vehicle which has a permanent or semi-permanent pivoting joint in its construction, allowing the vehicle to turn more sharply. There are many kinds of articulated vehicles, from heavy equipment to buses, trams and trains...

s like on the rest of the network. Until November 2009 this turntable was in regular use for line 683. Since November 2009 line 683 has been extended to Burger Bahnhof. On the new section, the buses use their dieselmotor instead of the electricity, becauses no overhead wires were constructed here.

Fleet
the fleet stands at 49 vehicles: 15 articulated Berkhof buses (2001/2), 20 articulated Van Hool
Van Hool
Van Hool NV is a Belgian coachbuilder and manufacturer of buses, coaches, trolleybuses, and trailers.The company was founded in 1947 by Bernard van Hool in Koningshooikt, nearby Lier, Belgium. In the early years, the company introduced serial production and exported their products all over Europe...

 buses (2002/3), and 14 three-axle
Axle
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. On wheeled vehicles, the axle may be fixed to the wheels, rotating with them, or fixed to its surroundings, with the wheels rotating around the axle. In the former case, bearings or bushings are provided at the mounting points where the axle...

 MAN buses (1986-7). The latter are due for replacement during 2008. The power supply is 600 v
Volt
The volt is the SI derived unit for electric potential, electric potential difference, and electromotive force. The volt is named in honor of the Italian physicist Alessandro Volta , who invented the voltaic pile, possibly the first chemical battery.- Definition :A single volt is defined as the...

 dc
Direct current
Direct current is the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by such sources as batteries, thermocouples, solar cells, and commutator-type electric machines of the dynamo type. Direct current may flow in a conductor such as a wire, but can also flow through...

.

Future plans
The mid 1990s saw plans to replace the trolleybuses with diesel buses, but this was never pursued; trolleybuses being preferred over diesel
Diesel engine
A diesel engine is an internal combustion engine that uses the heat of compression to initiate ignition to burn the fuel, which is injected into the combustion chamber...

 vehicles because of superior acceleration and better suitability for the hilly terrain. Line 683 may, however, be extended from Burg an der Wupper using dual-system buses. This may avoid the need for the turntable at Burg.

Religion


Solingen has belonged from its beginnings to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne
Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cologne
The Archdiocese of Cologne is an archdiocese of the Catholic Church in western North Rhine-Westphalia and northern Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.-History:...

 (Erzbistum Köln), and more specifically to the Archdeacon
Archdeacon
An archdeacon is a senior clergy position in Anglicanism, Syrian Malabar Nasrani, Chaldean Catholic, and some other Christian denominations, above that of most clergy and below a bishop. In the High Middle Ages it was the most senior diocesan position below a bishop in the Roman Catholic Church...

ry of the Probst
Probst
People whose surname is or was Probst include:*Christoph Probst , German resistance fighter*Eva Probst , German actress*Jeff Probst , U.S. television personality*Larry Probst, CEO of Electronic Arts...

 (provost) of St. Kunibert
Cunibert, Bishop of Cologne
Saint Cunibert, Cunipert, or Kunibert was the ninth Bishop of Cologne from 627 to his death. Contemporary sources only mention him between 627 and 643....

, the deanery
Deanery
A Deanery is an ecclesiastical entity in both the Roman Catholic Church and the Church of England. A deanery is either the jurisdiction or residence of a Dean.- Catholic usage :...

 of Deutz. Although the Protestant Reformation
Protestant Reformation
The Protestant Reformation was a 16th-century split within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin and other early Protestants. The efforts of the self-described "reformers", who objected to the doctrines, rituals and ecclesiastical structure of the Roman Catholic Church, led...

 gradually made gains in the city, which was under the control of the Counts of Berg
Berg (state)
Berg was a state – originally a county, later a duchy – in the Rhineland of Germany. Its capital was Düsseldorf. It existed from the early 12th to the 19th centuries.-Ascent:...

, the population by and large remained Catholic. The Catholic community was newly endowed by the local lord in 1658 and in 1701 received a new church building. In 1827 Solingen became the seat of its own deanery within the newly defined Archdiocese of Cologne, to which the city's current parishes still belong.

As mentioned, the Reformation only gradually gained a foothold in Solingen. A reformed church affiliated with the Bergisch synod
Synod
A synod historically is a council of a church, usually convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. In modern usage, the word often refers to the governing body of a particular church, whether its members are meeting or not...

 was established in 1590, and the city's parish church
Parish church
A parish church , in Christianity, is the church which acts as the religious centre of a parish, the basic administrative unit of episcopal churches....

 became reformed in 1649. Lutherans
Lutheranism
Lutheranism is a major branch of Western Christianity that identifies with the theology of Martin Luther, a German reformer. Luther's efforts to reform the theology and practice of the church launched the Protestant Reformation...

 had been present in Solingen since the beginning of the 17th century, and a Lutheran congregation was founded in 1635. In 1672 a formalized religious agreement was reached between the city's religious groups. The Reformation was also introduced in Gräfrath in 1590, where a church council was apparently established in 1629. The Reformed and Lutheran churches were formed into a united church community
United and uniting churches
United and uniting churches are churches formed from the merger or other form of union of two or more different Protestant denominations.Perhaps the oldest example of a united church is found in Germany, where the Evangelical Church in Germany is a federation of Lutheran, United and Reformed...

 in 1838 following the general merger of Reformed and Lutheran churches
Prussian Union (Evangelical Christian Church)
The Prussian Union was the merger of the Lutheran Church and the Reformed Church in Prussia, by a series of decrees – among them the Unionsurkunde – by King Frederick William III...

 in Prussia
Prussia
Prussia was a German kingdom and historic state originating out of the Duchy of Prussia and the Margraviate of Brandenburg. For centuries, the House of Hohenzollern ruled Prussia, successfully expanding its size by way of an unusually well-organized and effective army. Prussia shaped the history...

 in 1817.

The Protestant parishes originally belonged to the district synod of Lennep, today part of the city Remscheid
Remscheid
Remscheid is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is, after Wuppertal and Solingen, the third largest municipality in Bergisches Land, being located on the northern edge of the region, on south side of the Ruhr area....

. A new synod was established in Solingen in 1843, and the city acquired its own superintendent
Superintendent (ecclesiastical)
Superintendent is the head of an administrative division of a Protestant church, largely historical but still in use in Germany.- Superintendents in Sweden :...

, a form of church administrator. This formed the basis for the present-day Church District of Solingen, a member of the Evangelical Church in the Rhineland
Evangelical Church in the Rhineland
Evangelical Church in the Rhineland is a united Protestant church body in parts of the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland and Hesse . This is actually the area covered by the former Prussian Rhine Province until 1920. It is the most important Protestant...

. With the exception of the free churches, most Protestant churches belong to the Church District of Solingen.

Today approximately 34% of Solingen's population belongs to Protestant churches, and roughly 26% belong to Catholic churches. Other church communities in Solingen include Greek Orthodox
Greek Orthodox Church
The Greek Orthodox Church is the body of several churches within the larger communion of Eastern Orthodox Christianity sharing a common cultural tradition whose liturgy is also traditionally conducted in Koine Greek, the original language of the New Testament...

, Evangelical Free
Union of Evangelical Free Church Congregations in Germany
The Union of Evangelical Free Church Congregations in Germany is a fellowship of congregations in Germany....

 (including Baptist
Baptist
Baptists comprise a group of Christian denominations and churches that subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers , and that it must be done by immersion...

 and Bretheran
Plymouth Brethren
The Plymouth Brethren is a conservative, Evangelical Christian movement, whose history can be traced to Dublin, Ireland, in the late 1820s. Although the group is notable for not taking any official "church name" to itself, and not having an official clergy or liturgy, the title "The Brethren," is...

), Methodist
United Methodist Church
The United Methodist Church is a Methodist Christian denomination which is both mainline Protestant and evangelical. Founded in 1968 by the union of The Methodist Church and the Evangelical United Brethren Church, the UMC traces its roots back to the revival movement of John and Charles Wesley...

, Seventh-day Adventist
Seventh-day Adventist Church
The Seventh-day Adventist Church is a Protestant Christian denomination distinguished by its observance of Saturday, the original seventh day of the Judeo-Christian week, as the Sabbath, and by its emphasis on the imminent second coming of Jesus Christ...

, Pentecostal
Pentecostalism
Pentecostalism is a diverse and complex movement within Christianity that places special emphasis on a direct personal experience of God through the baptism in the Holy Spirit, has an eschatological focus, and is an experiential religion. The term Pentecostal is derived from Pentecost, the Greek...

, Salvation Army
The Salvation Army
The Salvation Army is a Protestant Christian church known for its thrift stores and charity work. It is an international movement that currently works in over a hundred countries....

, and free
Free church
The term "free church" refers to a Christian denomination that is intrinsically separated from government . A free church does not define government policy, nor have governments define church policy or theology, nor seeks or receives government endorsement or funding for its general mission...

 churches. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity. The religion reports worldwide membership of over 7 million adherents involved in evangelism, convention attendance of over 12 million, and annual...

 and the New Apostolic Church
New Apostolic Church
The New Apostolic Church is a chiliastic church, converted to Protestantism as a free church from the Catholic Apostolic Church. The church has existed since 1879 in Germany and since 1897 in the Netherlands...

 also have communities in Solingen.

Main sights



Locations of note in the city include:
  • Schloss Burg
    Schloss Burg
    Burg Castle , located in Burg an der Wupper , is the largest reconstructed castle in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a popular tourist attraction...

    , the castle of the counts of Berg
  • Rhineland Industrial Museum Hendrichs Drop Forge, an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage
    European Route of Industrial Heritage
    The European Route of Industrial Heritage is a network of the most important industrial heritage sites in Europe. The aim of the project is to create interest for the common European Heritage of the Industrialisation and its remains...

  • Klosterkirche, church (1690)
  • Deutsches Klingenmuseum (German Blade Museum), presenting swords and cutlery of all epochs
  • Müngsten Bridge
    Müngsten Bridge
    Müngsten Bridge is the highest steel railroad bridge in Germany. The bridge is high and spans the valley of the river Wupper, connecting the cities of Remscheid and Solingen. This stretch is part of the Wuppertal-Oberbarmen–Solingen railway...

    , a railroad bridge connecting Solingen with the neighbour town of Remscheid
    Remscheid
    Remscheid is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is, after Wuppertal and Solingen, the third largest municipality in Bergisches Land, being located on the northern edge of the region, on south side of the Ruhr area....

    . Standing at 107 m above the ground, it is the highest railroad bridge
    Bridge
    A bridge is a structure built to span physical obstacles such as a body of water, valley, or road, for the purpose of providing passage over the obstacle...

     of Germany.
  • Botanischer Garten Solingen
    Botanischer Garten Solingen
    The Botanischer Garten Solingen is a botanical garden located at Vogelsang 2a, Solingen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is open daily without charge....

    , a botanical garden
    Botanical garden
    A botanical garden The terms botanic and botanical, and garden or gardens are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word botanic is generally reserved for the earlier, more traditional gardens. is a well-tended area displaying a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names...


Famous people

  • Painter Albert Bierstadt
    Albert Bierstadt
    Albert Bierstadt was a German-American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West. In obtaining the subject matter for these works, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion...

     was born in Solingen.
  • Heavy Metal band Accept
  • SS Obersturmbannführer Adolf Eichmann
    Adolf Eichmann
    Adolf Otto Eichmann was a German Nazi and SS-Obersturmbannführer and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust...

  • Writer Artur Möller van den Bruck was born in Solingen.
  • Ulay (Frank Uwe Laysiepen)
    Ulay
    Ulay , real name Frank Uwe Laysiepen is an important performance artist of the late 60s and the 70s.In all his works the central content is the relationship of body, space and society...

    , artist, photographer and performer who used to perform with Marina Abramović
    Marina Abramovic
    Marina Abramović is a Belgrade-born New York-based Serbian performance artist who began her career in the early 1970s. Active for over three decades, she has recently begun to describe herself as the “grandmother of performance art.” Abramović's work explores the relationship between performer and...

    .
  • Walter Scheel
    Walter Scheel
    Walter Scheel is a German politician . He served as Federal Minister of Economic Cooperation and Development from 1961 to 1966, Foreign Minister of Germany and Vice Chancellor from 1969 to 1974, acting Chancellor of Germany from 7 May to 16 May 1974 , and finally as President of the Federal...

     was the 4th President of Germany
    President of Germany
    The President of the Federal Republic of Germany is the country's head of state. His official title in German is Bundespräsident . Germany has a parliamentary system of government and so the position of President is largely ceremonial...

     in 1974 - 1979.
  • Hermann Friedrich Graebe
    Hermann Friedrich Graebe
    Herman Friedrich Graebe or Gräbe, was a German manager and engineer in charge of a German building firm in Ukraine, who witnessed mass executions of the Jews of Dubno on October 5, 1942 by Nazis...

     a 'Righteous Among the Nations' by the Israelis.
  • Veronica Ferres
    Veronica Ferres
    Veronica Maria Cäcilia Ferres is a German actress who gained fame as Pierre Richard's co-star in the French TV-movie Sans famille and as the horrible Mme. Thénardier in the 2000 French TV miniseries Les Misérables...

    , German actress.
  • Mola Adebisi, German TV-presenter.
  • Pina Bausch
    Pina Bausch
    Philippina "Pina" Bausch was a German performer of modern dance, choreographer, dance teacher and ballet director...

    , born 1940, choreographer, winner of the Goethe Prize
    Goethe Prize
    The Goethe Prize of Frankfurt-am-Main is a German literary award of high prestige named after Johann Wolfgang Goethe. It was initially an annual award, but became triennial...

     in 2008.
  • Adolf Kamphausen
    Adolf Kamphausen
    Adolf Kamphausen was a German Protestant theologian, born at Solingen and educated at Bonn. In 1855, as private secretary to Bunsen, he assisted him in his great Bibelwerk. At the same time he was privatdocent at Heidelberg, and in 1863 he became professor of theology at Bonn...

    , (1829–1909), biblical scholar.
  • J. C. C. Devaranne helped lead resistance against Napoleonic occupation in 1813.
  • Adolf Weil
    Adolf Weil (motorcyclist)
    Adolf Weil was a German motocross racer. He competed in the FIM 250cc and 500cc Motocross Grand Prix world championships as a rider for the Maico factory racing team during the 1960s and 1970s....

    , (1938–2011), professional motorcycle racer.

The founders of Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, which later became the automobile company Studebaker
Studebaker
Studebaker Corporation was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. Founded in 1852 and incorporated in 1868 under the name of the Studebaker Brothers Manufacturing Company, the company was originally a producer of wagons for farmers, miners, and the...

, trace their lineage to bladesmen from the region that migrated to America in 1736.

Twin towns

Złotoryja, Poland
Poland
Poland , officially the Republic of Poland , is a country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west; the Czech Republic and Slovakia to the south; Ukraine, Belarus and Lithuania to the east; and the Baltic Sea and Kaliningrad Oblast, a Russian exclave, to the north...

, since 1955 Gouda
Gouda
Gouda is a city and municipality in the western Netherlands, in the province of South Holland. Gouda, which was granted city rights in 1272, is famous for its Gouda cheese, smoking pipes, and 15th-century city hall....

, Netherlands
Netherlands
The Netherlands is a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, located mainly in North-West Europe and with several islands in the Caribbean. Mainland Netherlands borders the North Sea to the north and west, Belgium to the south, and Germany to the east, and shares maritime borders...

, since 1957 Chalon-sur-Saône
Chalon-sur-Saône
Chalon-sur-Saône is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne in eastern France.It is a sub-prefecture of the department. It is the largest city in the department; however, the department capital is the smaller city of Mâcon....

, France, since 1960 Blyth
Blyth, Northumberland
Blyth is a town and civil parish in southeast Northumberland, England. It lies on the coast, to the south of the River Blyth and is approximately 21 kilometres  northeast of Newcastle upon Tyne...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, since 1962 Jinotega
Jinotega
Jinotega is the capital of Jinotega Department in the north central region of Nicaragua.-About:The capital city of the Department of Jinotega is the City of Jinotega. The Department of Jinotega produces 80% of the nation's coffee. It has a population of about 51,000 living inside a vast valley...

, Nicaragua
Nicaragua
Nicaragua is the largest country in the Central American American isthmus, bordered by Honduras to the north and Costa Rica to the south. The country is situated between 11 and 14 degrees north of the Equator in the Northern Hemisphere, which places it entirely within the tropics. The Pacific Ocean...

, since 1985 Ness Ziona
Ness Ziona
Ness Ziona is a city in central Israel founded in 1883. At the end of 2009 the city had a total population of 38,100, and its jurisdiction was 15,579 dunams.-Nahalat Reuben:...

, Israel
Israel
The State of Israel is a parliamentary republic located in the Middle East, along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea...

, since 1986 Thiès
Thiès
Thiès is the third largest city in Senegal with a population officially estimated at 320,000 in 2005. It lies 60 km east of Dakar on the N2 road and at the junction of railway lines to Dakar, Bamako and St-Louis...

, Senegal
Senegal
Senegal , officially the Republic of Senegal , is a country in western Africa. It owes its name to the Sénégal River that borders it to the east and north...

, since 1990 Aue
Aue
Aue is a small town in Germany at the outlet of the river Schwarzwasser into the river Mulde in the Ore Mountains, and has roughly 18,000 inhabitants. Aue was the administrative seat of the former district of Aue-Schwarzenberg in Saxony, and is part of the Erzgebirgskreis since August 2008...

, Germany, since 1990 Concepción del Uruguay
Concepción del Uruguay
Concepción del Uruguay is a city in Argentina.It is located in the Entre Ríos province, on the western shore of the Uruguay River, some 320 kilometers north from Buenos Aires. Its population is about 65,000 inhabitants .-History:...

, Argentina
Argentina
Argentina , officially the Argentine Republic , is the second largest country in South America by land area, after Brazil. It is constituted as a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city, Buenos Aires...

, since 2005

External links