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Sodium adsorption ratio

Sodium adsorption ratio

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Sodium adsorption ratio is a measure of the suitability of water for use in agricultural irrigation
Irrigation may be defined as the science of artificial application of water to the land or soil. It is used to assist in the growing of agricultural crops, maintenance of landscapes, and revegetation of disturbed soils in dry areas and during periods of inadequate rainfall...

, as determined by the concentrations of solids dissolved in the water. It is also a measure of the sodicity of soil, as determined from analysis of water extracted from the soil.

The formula for calculating sodium adsorption ratio is:
SAR = [Na+] / {([Ca2+] + [Mg2+]) / 2}1/2

where sodium
Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal and is a member of the alkali metals; its only stable isotope is 23Na. It is an abundant element that exists in numerous minerals, most commonly as sodium chloride...

, calcium
Calcium is the chemical element with the symbol Ca and atomic number 20. It has an atomic mass of 40.078 amu. Calcium is a soft gray alkaline earth metal, and is the fifth-most-abundant element by mass in the Earth's crust...

, and magnesium
Magnesium is a chemical element with the symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and common oxidation number +2. It is an alkaline earth metal and the eighth most abundant element in the Earth's crust and ninth in the known universe as a whole...

 are in milliequivalents/liter.

Although SAR is only one factor in determining the suitability of water for irrigation, in general, the higher the sodium adsorption ratio, the less suitable the water is for irrigation. Irrigation using water with high sodium adsorption ratio may require soil amendments to prevent long-term damage to the soil.

If irrigation water with a high SAR is applied to a soil for years, the sodium in the water can displace the calcium and magnesium in the soil. This will cause a decrease in the ability of the soil to form stable aggregates and a loss of soil structure and tilth. This will also lead to a decrease in infiltration and permeability of the soil to water leading to problems with crop production.

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