Social security

Social security

Overview
Social security is primarily a social insurance
Social insurance
Social insurance is any government-sponsored program with the following four characteristics:* the benefits, eligibility requirements and other aspects of the program are defined by statute;...

 program providing social protection
Social protection
Social protection, as defined by the United Nations Research Institute For Social Development, is concerned with preventing, managing, and overcoming situations that adversely affect people’s well being...

 or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. Social security may refer to:
  • social insurance, where people receive benefits or services in recognition of contributions to an insurance program. These services typically include provision for retirement pensions, disability insurance
    Disability insurance
    Disability Insurance, often called DI or disability income insurance, is a form of insurance that insures the beneficiary's earned income against the risk that a disability will make working uncomfortable , painful , or impossible...

    , survivor benefits and unemployment insurance.
  • income maintenance—mainly the distribution of cash in the event of interruption of employment, including retirement, disability and unemployment
  • services provided by administrations responsible for social security.
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Encyclopedia
Social security is primarily a social insurance
Social insurance
Social insurance is any government-sponsored program with the following four characteristics:* the benefits, eligibility requirements and other aspects of the program are defined by statute;...

 program providing social protection
Social protection
Social protection, as defined by the United Nations Research Institute For Social Development, is concerned with preventing, managing, and overcoming situations that adversely affect people’s well being...

 or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. Social security may refer to:
  • social insurance, where people receive benefits or services in recognition of contributions to an insurance program. These services typically include provision for retirement pensions, disability insurance
    Disability insurance
    Disability Insurance, often called DI or disability income insurance, is a form of insurance that insures the beneficiary's earned income against the risk that a disability will make working uncomfortable , painful , or impossible...

    , survivor benefits and unemployment insurance.
  • income maintenance—mainly the distribution of cash in the event of interruption of employment, including retirement, disability and unemployment
  • services provided by administrations responsible for social security. In different countries this may include medical care, aspects of social work and even industrial relations.
  • More rarely, the term is also used to refer to basic security, a term roughly equivalent to access to basic necessities—things such as food
    Food
    Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for the body. It is usually of plant or animal origin, and contains essential nutrients, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, or minerals...

    , clothing
    Clothing
    Clothing refers to any covering for the human body that is worn. The wearing of clothing is exclusively a human characteristic and is a feature of nearly all human societies...

    , housing
    Housing
    Housing may refer to:* A House* Social or public housing* Enclosure containing some equipment or mechanism*House dance...

    , education
    Education
    Education in its broadest, general sense is the means through which the aims and habits of a group of people lives on from one generation to the next. Generally, it occurs through any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts...

    , money
    Money
    Money is any object or record that is generally accepted as payment for goods and services and repayment of debts in a given country or socio-economic context. The main functions of money are distinguished as: a medium of exchange; a unit of account; a store of value; and, occasionally in the past,...

    , and medical care
    Medicine
    Medicine is the science and art of healing. It encompasses a variety of health care practices evolved to maintain and restore health by the prevention and treatment of illness....

    .


The right to social security
Right to social security
The right to social security is recognized as a human right and establishes the right to social security assistance for those unable to work due to sickness, disability, maternity, employment injury, unemployment or old age...

 is recognised in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
Universal Declaration of Human Rights
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly . The Declaration arose directly from the experience of the Second World War and represents the first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled...

 and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights is a multilateral treaty adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 16, 1966, and in force from January 3, 1976...

.

Income maintenance



This policy is usually applied through various programs designed to provide a population with income at times when they are unable to care for themselves. Income maintenance is based in a combination of five main types of program:
  • Social insurance, considered above
  • Means-tested benefits. This is financial assistance provided for those who are unable to cover basic needs, such as food, clothing and housing, due to poverty
    Poverty
    Poverty is the lack of a certain amount of material possessions or money. Absolute poverty or destitution is inability to afford basic human needs, which commonly includes clean and fresh water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter. About 1.7 billion people are estimated to live...

     or lack of income because of unemployment, sickness, disability, or caring for children. While assistance is often in the form of financial payments, those eligible for social welfare can usually access health and educational services free of charge. The amount of support is enough to cover basic needs and eligibility is often subject to a comprehensive and complex assessment of an applicant's social and financial situation. See also, Income Support
    Income Support
    Income support is an income-related means-tested benefit in the United Kingdom for people who are on a low income. Claimants of Income Support may be entitled to certain other benefits, for example, Housing Benefit, Council Tax Benefit and help with health costs...

    .
  • Non-contributory benefits. Several countries have special schemes, administered with no requirement for contributions and no means test, for people in certain categories of need - for example, veterans of armed forces, people with disabilities and very old people.
  • Discretionary benefits. Some schemes are based on the discretion of an official, such as a social worker.
  • Universal or categorical benefits, also known as demogrants. These are non-contributory benefits given for whole sections of the population without a test of means or need, such as family allowances or the public pension in New Zealand (known as New Zealand Superannuation). See also, Alaska Permanent Fund Dividend.

Social protection


Social protection refers to a set of benefits available (or not available) from the state, market, civil society and households, or through a combination of these agencies, to the individual/households to reduce multi-dimensional deprivation
Deprivation
Deprivation may refer to:* Poverty* Relative deprivation* Sleep deprivation* Maternal deprivation...

. This multi-dimensional deprivation could be affecting less active poor persons (e.g. the elderly, disabled) and active poor
Poor
Poor is an adjective related to a state of poverty, low quality or pity.People with the surname Poor:* Charles Henry Poor, a US Navy officer* Charles Lane Poor, an astronomer* Edward Erie Poor, a vice president of the National Park Bank...

 persons (e.g. unemployed).

This broad framework makes this concept more acceptable in developing countries than the concept of social security. Social security is more applicable in the conditions, where large numbers of citizens depend on the formal economy for their livelihood. Through a defined contribution, this social security may be managed.

But, in the context of wide spread informal economy, formal social security arrangements are almost absent for the vast majority of the working population. Besides, in developing countries, the state's capacity to reach the vast majority of the poor people may be limited because of its limited resources. In such a context, multiple agencies that could provide for social protection is important for policy consideration. The framework of social protection is thus capable of holding the state responsible to provide for the poorest sections by regulating non-state agencies.

Collaborative research from the Institute of Development Studies
Institute of Development Studies
The Institute of Development Studies based at the University of Sussex is a global organisation for research, teaching and communications on international development....

 debating Social Protection from a global perspective, suggests that advocates for social protection fall into two broad categories: 'instrumentalists' and 'activists'. 'Instrumentalists' argue that extreme poverty, inequality and vulnerability, is dysfunctional in the achievement of development targets (e.g. the MDGs). In this view social protection is about putting in place risk management mechanisms that will compensate for incomplete or missing insurance (and other) markets, until a time that private insurance can play a more prominent role in that society. 'Activist' arguments view the persistence of extreme poverty, inequality and vulnerability, as symptoms of social injustice and structural inequality
Structural inequality
Structural inequality is defined as a condition that arises out of attributing an unequal status to a category of people in relation to one or more other categories, a relationship that is perpetuated and reinforced by a confluence of unequal relations in roles, functions, decisions rights, and...

 and see social protection as a right of citizenship. Targeted welfare is a necessary step between humanitarianism and the ideal of a 'guaranteed social minimum' where entitlement extends beyond cash or food transfers and is based on citizenship, not philanthropy.

National systems

  • National Insurance
    National Insurance
    National Insurance in the United Kingdom was initially a contributory system of insurance against illness and unemployment, and later also provided retirement pensions and other benefits...

     (UK)
  • Social Security in France
    Social Security in France
    Social Security in France is divided into four branches:*illness;*old age;*family;*recovery.From an institutional point of view, French social security is made up of diverse organismes collectively referred to as La Sécu, an abbreviation of Sécurité Sociale.- History of social protection:From the...

  • South African Social Security Agency
    South African Social Security Agency
    The South African Social Security Agency is a national agency of the South African Government created in April 2005. SASSA was created to administer the application, approval and payment of social grants in South Africa...

  • Social Security (United States)
    Social Security (United States)
    In the United States, Social Security refers to the federal Old-Age, Survivors, and Disability Insurance program.The original Social Security Act and the current version of the Act, as amended encompass several social welfare and social insurance programs...

  • Social Security (Sweden)
    Social Security (Sweden)
    Social security in Sweden consists of various social insurances handled by Försäkringskassan and welfare given out on a need basis by local municipalities.- Child allowance and parental benefit :...

  • Social Security (Australia)
    Social Security (Australia)
    Social Security, in Australia, refers to a system of social welfare payments provided by Commonwealth Government of Australia. These payments are administered by a Government body named Centrelink...

  • Central Provident Fund
    Central Provident Fund
    In Singapore, the Central Provident Fund is a compulsory comprehensive savings plan for working Singaporeans and permanent residents primarily to fund their retirement, healthcare and housing needs. It is administered by the Central Provident Fund Board, a statutory board under the Ministry of...

     (Singapore)
  • National Social Security System (Sistem Jaminan Sosial Nasional)(Indonesia)

Social programs in sub-Saharan Africa



Social protection in sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa
Sub-Saharan Africa as a geographical term refers to the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara. A political definition of Sub-Saharan Africa, instead, covers all African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara...

 tends not to be very developed and yet the growth of some of the region's economies and concerted attempts to tackle poverty mean that this situation may change in the future.

See also

  • Cash transfers
    Cash transfers
    Cash transfers are direct transfer payments of money to eligible people. Cash transfers are usually provided by the state and federal government.-Targeting:...

  • Contingencies fund
    Contingencies fund
    A contingencies fund or contingency fund is a fund for emergencies or unexpected outflows, mainly economic crises.- History :In the early part of the nineteenth Century the Civil Contingencies Fund was created in the United Kingdom. It is held by the Treasury, and its use is regulated by the...

  • Generational accounting
    Generational accounting
    Generational accounting is a relatively new method of national accounting for measuring redistribution of lifetime tax burdens across generations from social insurance, including social security and social health insurance...

  • Health care system
    Health care system
    A health care system is the organization of people, institutions, and resources to deliver health care services to meet the health needs of target populations....

  • Intergenerationality
    Intergenerationality
    Intergenerationality is interaction between members of different generations. Sociologists study many intergenerational issues, including equity, conflict, and mobility:...

  • International Social Security Association
    International Social Security Association
    The International Social Security Association is an international organization bringing together national social security administrations and agencies. Founded in 1927, the ISSA has around 340 member organizations in 150 countries. It has its headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, in the...

  • Publicly-funded health care
    Publicly-funded health care
    Publicly funded health care is a form of health care financing designed to meet the cost of all or most health care needs from a publicly managed fund. Usually this is under some form of democratic accountability, the right of access to which are set down in rules applying to the whole population...

  • National health insurance
    National health insurance
    National health insurance is health insurance that insures a national population for the costs of health care and usually is instituted as a program of healthcare reform. It is enforced by law. It may be administered by the public sector, the private sector, or a combination of both...

  • Social policy
    Social policy
    Social policy primarily refers to guidelines, principles, legislation and activities that affect the living conditions conducive to human welfare. Thus, social policy is that part of public policy that has to do with social issues...

  • Social safety net
    Social safety net
    Social safety nets, or "socioeconomic safety nets", are non-contributory transfer programs seeking to prevent the poor or those vulnerable to shocks and poverty from falling below a certain poverty level. Safety net programs can be provided by the public sector or by the private sector...

  • Right to adequate standard of living
  • Social welfare provision
  • The Four Pillars
    The Four Pillars
    The Four Pillars is a research programme set up in 1987 by the Geneva Association, also known as the International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics. The aim of the Four Pillars research programme is to study the key importance in the new service economy of Social Security,...

  • Welfare Rights
    Welfare Rights
    Welfare Rights is an activity aimed at ensuring that people are aware of and receiving their maximum entitlement to state welfare benefits. It has been established in the UK since 1969 and has also been developed in other countries including Ireland, Australia and the USA...

  • Welfare state
    Welfare state
    A welfare state is a "concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the economic and social well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those...

  • Definition of levels of government
    General government (in economics)
    The general government sector includes all institutional units whose output is intended for individual and collective consumption and mainly financed by compulsory payments made by units belonging to other sectors, and/or all institutional units principally engaged in the redistribution of...


Further reading

  • Modigliani, Franco. Rethinking pension reform / Franco Modigliani, Arun Muralidhar. Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press
    Cambridge University Press is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge. Granted letters patent by Henry VIII in 1534, it is the world's oldest publishing house, and the second largest university press in the world...

    , 2004.
  • Muralidhar, Arun S. Innovations in pension fund management / Arun S. Muralidhar. Stanford, Calif.; [Great Britain] : Stanford Economics + Finance, c2001.
  • "The Three Pillars of Wisdom? A Reader on Globalization, World Bank Pension Models and Welfare Society" (Arno Tausch, Editor). Nova Science
    Nova Publishers
    Nova Publishers is an academic publisher based in Hauppauge, New York of books and journals for an academic audience. The company focuses on science, political science, European and Asian studies, and security studies. It was founded in 1985 in New York by Frank Columbus, former Vice-President of...

     Hauppauge, New York, 2003
  • Amazon.com, "When the Public Works: Generating Employment and Social Protection in Ethiopia" Peter Middlebrook
    Peter Middlebrook
    Dr. Peter J. Middlebrook is the Managing Director of Geopolicity Inc., and an English political economist/Political Scientist and Emerging Markets expert specializing in fragile states, international relations and the development of Transition economies...

    , Lambert Academic Publishing. 2009. ISBN 978-3838306728
  • 'Reforming European Pension Systems' (Arun Muralidhar and Serge Allegreza (eds.)), Amsterdam, NL and West Lafayette, Indiana, USA: Dutch University Press, Rozenberg Publishers and Purdue University Press
    Purdue University Press
    Purdue University Press, founded in 1960, is a university press that is part of Purdue University. Dedicated to the dissemination of scholarly and professional information, Purdue University Press provides quality resources in several key subject areas including business, technology, health,...


External links