Home      Discussion      Topics      Dictionary      Almanac
Signup       Login
Social Democratic Party (Romania)

Social Democratic Party (Romania)

Discussion
Ask a question about 'Social Democratic Party (Romania)'
Start a new discussion about 'Social Democratic Party (Romania)'
Answer questions from other users
Full Discussion Forum
 
Encyclopedia
The Social Democratic Party is the major social-democratic
Social democracy
Social democracy is a political ideology of the center-left on the political spectrum. Social democracy is officially a form of evolutionary reformist socialism. It supports class collaboration as the course to achieve socialism...

 political party in Romania
Romania
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe, on the Lower Danube, within and outside the Carpathian arch, bordering on the Black Sea...

. It was formed in 1992, after the post-communist National Salvation Front (Romania)
National Salvation Front
The National Salvation Front was the governing body of Romania in the first weeks after the Romanian Revolution of 1989, subsequently turned into a political party...

 broke apart. It adopted its present name after a merger with a minor social-democratic party in 2001. Since its formation, it has always been one of the two dominant parties of the country. The Social Democratic Party governed Romania from 1992 to 1996, and from 2000 to 2004. With Ion Iliescu
Ion Iliescu
Ion Iliescu served as President of Romania from 1990 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004. From 1996 to 2000 and from 2004 until his retirement in 2008, Iliescu was a Senator for the Social Democratic Party , whose honorary president he remains....

, it also produced a President of the Republic, in office from the end of communism to 1996, and from 2000 to 2004.

After the 2008 Romanian legislative elections
Romanian legislative election, 2008
Legislative elections were held in Romania on November 30, 2008. The Democratic Liberal Party won most seats in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate, although the alliance headed by the Social Democratic Party won a fractionally higher vote share.-Electoral System:President Traian Băsescu...

 the PSD entered into a coalition with the Democratic Liberal Party
Democratic Liberal Party (Romania)
The Democratic Liberal Party is a populist, centre-right party in Romania. It was formed on 15 December 2007, when the Democratic Party merged with the Liberal Democratic Party. From 2004 to 2007, the Democratic Party was part of the governing Justice and Truth Alliance...

 (PD-L) and formed a government led by PD-L president Emil Boc
Emil Boc
Emil Boc is the Prime Minister of Romania, having served since December 2008. In June 2004, he was elected Mayor of Cluj-Napoca, the largest city in Transylvania. Boc is also the president of the Democratic Liberal Party, who designated him as Prime Minister in 2008. On October 13, 2009, his...

. Due to considerable disagreements with Boc, the Social Democrats left the coalition government in 2009, and are now again leading the opposition.

The current president of the PSD is Victor Ponta
Victor Ponta
Victor-Viorel Ponta is a Romanian jurist and politician. A member of the Social Democratic Party and its leader since 2010, he has been a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies for Gorj County since 2004...

, elected on 20 February 2010.

History


On 7 April 1992, the struggle for power inside the National Salvation Front  between the more hard-line group led by Ion Iliescu
Ion Iliescu
Ion Iliescu served as President of Romania from 1990 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004. From 1996 to 2000 and from 2004 until his retirement in 2008, Iliescu was a Senator for the Social Democratic Party , whose honorary president he remains....

 and the more reformist group led by Petre Roman
Petre Roman
Petre Roman is a Romanian politician and a former Prime Minister of Romania. He served from 1989 to 1991, when his government was overthrown by the intervention of the miners led by Miron Cozma. Roman is a member of the Club of Madrid, grouping 66 democratic former heads of state and government...

 resulted in the Iliescu group withdrawing from FSN and the founding of the Democratic National Salvation Front
Democratic National Salvation Front
The Democratic National Salvation Front was a political party formed in Romania by Ion Iliescu and his supporters upon the breaking of the ruling National Salvation Front on April 7, 1992. The smaller wing led by Petre Roman continued using the brand FSN...

 , which would later become the present-day PSD.

FDSN won the 1992 elections and went on to govern Romania until 1996. On 10 July 1993 it took the name of Party of Social Democracy in Romania upon merger with the Socialist Democratic Party of Romania (PDSR), the Republican Party and the Cooperative Party.

From 1994 to 1996 the PDSR ruled in coalition with three extremist parties
Extremism
Extremism is any ideology or political act far outside the perceived political center of a society; or otherwise claimed to violate common moral standards...

 - the right-wing
Right-wing politics
In politics, Right, right-wing and rightist generally refer to support for a hierarchical society justified on the basis of an appeal to natural law or tradition. To varying degrees, the Right rejects the egalitarian objectives of left-wing politics, claiming that the imposition of equality is...

 Romanian National Unity Party
Romanian National Unity Party
The Romanian National Unity Party was a political party in Romania between 1990 and 2006.PUNR was the first nationalist party in post-Communist Romania, created in 1990....

 (PUNR) and Greater Romania Party
Greater Romania Party
The Greater Romania Party is a Romanian radical right-wing, ultra-nationalist political party, led by Corneliu Vadim Tudor. The party is sometimes referred to in English as the Great Romania Party....

 (PRM), and the left-wing
Left-wing politics
In politics, Left, left-wing and leftist generally refer to support for social change to create a more egalitarian society...

 Socialist Party of Labour
Socialist Party of Labour
The Socialist Party of Labour was a socialist-nationalist political party in Romania. The party has also been labelled as neo-communist. It was founded on 16 November, 1990. The chairman of the party was Ilie Verdeţ, former premier under Nicolae Ceauşescu...

. PUNR had ministers in the cabinet chaired by Nicolae Văcăroiu
Nicolae Vacaroiu
Nicolae Văcăroiu is a Romanian politician, member of the Social Democratic Party, who served as Prime Minister between 1992 and 1996. Before the 1989 Revolution he worked at the Committee for State Planning, together with Theodor Stolojan....

 from March 1994 to September 1996. PRM was not present at the Cabinet, but was given some posts in the State administration. The PDSR lost the 1996 election
Romanian legislative election, 1996
Legislative elections were held in Romania on 3 November 1996, together with the Presidential election. The elections were won by the Romanian Democratic Convention, an alliance of liberal, Christian Democratic and green parties. This marked the first time that the Party of Social Democracy was out...

, which was won by the multi-party coalition Romanian Democratic Convention
Romanian Democratic Convention
The Romanian Democratic Convention was an electoral alliance of several political parties of Romania, active from early 1992 until 2000....

 (CDR).

In November 2000 the PDSR was back in power, this time in a coalition named the Social Democratic Pole of Romania
Social Democratic Pole of Romania
The Social Democratic Pole of Romania was the governing coalition of Romania from 2000 to 2004. It consisted of the Social Democratic Party of Romania, and of two smaller parties, the Romanian Social Democratic Party, and the Humanist Party of Romania...

 along with the Romanian Social Democratic Party
Romanian Social Democratic Party (defunct)
The Romanian Social Democratic Party was a social-democratic political party in Romania. It published the magazine România Muncitoare, and later Socialismul, Lumea Nouă, and Libertatea.-Early party:...

 (PSDR) and the Romanian Humanist Party
Conservative Party (Romania)
The Conservative Party of Romania is a political party formed in 1991, after the fall of Communism, under the name of the Romanian Humanist Party . From 2005 until December 3, 2006, the party was a junior member of the ruling coalition...

 (PUR). PSDR merged with PDSR on 16 January 2001, and the resulting party took its present name, PSD.

In November 2004, Adrian Năstase
Adrian Nastase
Adrian Năstase is a Romanian politician who was the Prime Minister of Romania from December 2000 to December 2004.He competed as the Social Democratic Party candidate in the 2004 presidential election, but was defeated by centre-right Justice and Truth Alliance candidate Traian Băsescu.He was...

, the PSD candidate, won the first round of the presidential elections but did not have a majority and had to go to a second round of voting, which he lost to Traian Băsescu
Traian Basescu
Traian Băsescu is the current President of Romania. After serving as the mayor of Bucharest from June 2000 until December 2004, he was elected president in the Romanian Presidential Elections of 2004 and inaugurated on December 20, 2004...

 of the Justice and Truth
Justice and Truth
The Justice and Truth Alliance was a political alliance comprising two political parties in Romania: the centre-right liberal National Liberal Party and the initially social-democrat Democratic Party , which later switched to center-right ideology.As the political formation with the largest...

 alliance, who is therefore the current president. In the legislative elections of 2004
Romanian legislative election, 2004
The Romanian legislative election of 2004 was held on 28 November 2004. 137 seats in the Senate of Romania and 314 seats in the Chamber of Deputies were up for election.The 2004 legislative election was held simultaneously with the presidential election...

, the PSD gained the largest share of the vote but because it did not have a majority, all the other major parties formed the Justice and Truth Alliance, which managed to gain a parliamentary majority and is currently in government, consigning the PSD to opposition.

Considered a young reformer, Geoană was elected president of the party in April 2005 by delegates at a PSD Party Congress held in Bucharest. His victory represented a surprise defeat for former President Ion Iliescu, who was expected to defeat Geoană handily. Geoană's win was attributed by the media to last minute backroom dealing by party leaders opposed to Iliescu as well as to public gaffes made by Iliescu at the Party Congress, including using allegedly old communist terms
Communist Romania
Communist Romania was the period in Romanian history when that country was a Soviet-aligned communist state in the Eastern Bloc, with the dominant role of Romanian Communist Party enshrined in its successive constitutions...

 when referring to his party colleagues.

On 17 April 2008, the Social Democratic Party and the Conservative Party
Conservative Party (Romania)
The Conservative Party of Romania is a political party formed in 1991, after the fall of Communism, under the name of the Romanian Humanist Party . From 2005 until December 3, 2006, the party was a junior member of the ruling coalition...

 announced they would form a political alliance for the 2008 local elections
Romanian local election, 2008
Local elections were held in Romania on June 1, 2008, with a runoff for mayors on June 15, 2008.On June 1 where elected:* all the villages, communes, cities, and municipal cluncils , and the Sectors Local Councils of Bucharest...

.

In February 2010, the Congress elected Victor Ponta
Victor Ponta
Victor-Viorel Ponta is a Romanian jurist and politician. A member of the Social Democratic Party and its leader since 2010, he has been a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies for Gorj County since 2004...

 as president.

On 6 February 2011, the PSD formed the Social Liberal Union
Social-Liberal Union
The Social-Liberal Union is a Romanian political alliance formed on 5 February 2011 between three opposition parties, the Social Democratic Party, and the Center-Right Alliance made of the National Liberal Party and the Conservative Party....

 political alliance with the Conservative Party and National Liberal Party
National Liberal Party (Romania)
The National Liberal Party , abbreviated to PNL, is a centre-right liberal party in Romania. It is the third-largest party in the Romanian Parliament, with 53 seats in the Chamber of Deputies and 22 in the Senate: behind the centre-right Democratic Liberal Party and the centre-left Social...

.

On 22 November 2011, after refusing to step down as the President of the Senate of Romania
Senate of Romania
The Senate of Romania is the upper house in the bicameral Parliament of Romania. It has 137 seats , to which members are elected by direct popular vote, using Mixed member proportional representation in 42 electoral districts , to serve four-year terms.-Former location:After the Romanian...

 following the request of the PSD leadership, Mircea Geoană
Mircea Geoana
Dan Mircea Geoană is a Romanian politician, who served as president of the upper chamber of the Romanian Parliament, the Senate from December 20, 2008 until he was revoked by the senators on November 23, 2011. From 21 April 2005 until 21 February 2010 he was the head of the Partidul Social...

, former leader of the party, was ousted as member, losing the confidence of his fellow coleagues in the Executive National Council of PSD where his dismissal was voted 50 to 5 while 3 absteined. In the following days he will have to step down as President of the Upper House of the Romanian Parliament
Parliament of Romania
The Parliament of Romania is made up of two chambers:*The Chamber of Deputies*The SenatePrior to the modifications of the Constitution in 2003, the two houses had identical attributes. A text of a law had to be approved by both houses...

 as he no longer has the support of a party group in the Senate.

Leadership of FSN, FDSN, PDSR and PSD


Presidents:
  • Ion Iliescu
    Ion Iliescu
    Ion Iliescu served as President of Romania from 1990 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004. From 1996 to 2000 and from 2004 until his retirement in 2008, Iliescu was a Senator for the Social Democratic Party , whose honorary president he remains....

     1990-1992; (FSN)
  • Oliviu Gherman 1992-1996; (FDSN/PDSR)
  • Ion Iliescu
    Ion Iliescu
    Ion Iliescu served as President of Romania from 1990 until 1996, and from 2000 until 2004. From 1996 to 2000 and from 2004 until his retirement in 2008, Iliescu was a Senator for the Social Democratic Party , whose honorary president he remains....

     1997-2000; (PDSR)
  • Adrian Năstase
    Adrian Nastase
    Adrian Năstase is a Romanian politician who was the Prime Minister of Romania from December 2000 to December 2004.He competed as the Social Democratic Party candidate in the 2004 presidential election, but was defeated by centre-right Justice and Truth Alliance candidate Traian Băsescu.He was...

     2000-2005 (acting to 2001); (PDSR/PSD)
  • Mircea Geoană
    Mircea Geoana
    Dan Mircea Geoană is a Romanian politician, who served as president of the upper chamber of the Romanian Parliament, the Senate from December 20, 2008 until he was revoked by the senators on November 23, 2011. From 21 April 2005 until 21 February 2010 he was the head of the Partidul Social...

     2005-2010; (PSD)
  • Victor Ponta
    Victor Ponta
    Victor-Viorel Ponta is a Romanian jurist and politician. A member of the Social Democratic Party and its leader since 2010, he has been a member of the Romanian Chamber of Deputies for Gorj County since 2004...

     2010–present; (PSD)


Executive presidents
  • Adrian Năstase
    Adrian Nastase
    Adrian Năstase is a Romanian politician who was the Prime Minister of Romania from December 2000 to December 2004.He competed as the Social Democratic Party candidate in the 2004 presidential election, but was defeated by centre-right Justice and Truth Alliance candidate Traian Băsescu.He was...

     1993-1997;
  • Octav Cozmâncă
    Octav Cozmâncă
    Octav Cozmâncă is a Romanian politician. A former member of the Social Democratic Party , he was a member of the Romanian Senate for Botoşani County from 1996 to 2008...

     2003-2005;
  • Adrian Năstase
    Adrian Nastase
    Adrian Năstase is a Romanian politician who was the Prime Minister of Romania from December 2000 to December 2004.He competed as the Social Democratic Party candidate in the 2004 presidential election, but was defeated by centre-right Justice and Truth Alliance candidate Traian Băsescu.He was...

     2005-2006.
  • Dan Mircea Popescu 2005-2006, when the office was dissolved (nominated Ad interim
    Ad interim
    The Latin phrase ad interim literally means "in the time between" denotes the meaning of "in the meantime", "for an intervening time" or "temporarily" in the English language...

     after the resignation of Adrian Năstase
    Adrian Nastase
    Adrian Năstase is a Romanian politician who was the Prime Minister of Romania from December 2000 to December 2004.He competed as the Social Democratic Party candidate in the 2004 presidential election, but was defeated by centre-right Justice and Truth Alliance candidate Traian Băsescu.He was...

     from the office)

Criticism and allegations


Political opponent have criticised PSD for harbouring former Romanian Communist Party
Romanian Communist Party
The Romanian Communist Party was a communist political party in Romania. Successor to the Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Party of Romania, it gave ideological endorsement to communist revolution and the disestablishment of Greater Romania. The PCR was a minor and illegal grouping for much of the...

 officials, and for allegedly attempting to control the Romanian mass media
Mass media
Mass media refers collectively to all media technologies which are intended to reach a large audience via mass communication. Broadcast media transmit their information electronically and comprise of television, film and radio, movies, CDs, DVDs and some other gadgets like cameras or video consoles...

. A number of its senior members have also been accused of corruption, including interfering in the judiciary and using their political positions for personal enrichment.

Closely guarded text transcripts of PSD meetings surfaced on an anonymous Web site just before the 2004 Romanian presidential election
Romanian presidential election, 2004
A presidential election was held in Romania on November 28, 2004. 12 candidates competed for the office. As no candidate won more than 50% of the votes, a run-off was held on December 12, 2004, between the two leading candidates: prime minister Adrian Năstase of the ruling Social Democratic Party...

. Năstase and his ministers are shown talking about political involvement in corruption trials of the government's members, or involvement in suppressing "disobedient" media. Năstase stated that the transcripts were fake, but several party members, including former PSD president and former Foreign Minister Mircea Geoană
Mircea Geoana
Dan Mircea Geoană is a Romanian politician, who served as president of the upper chamber of the Romanian Parliament, the Senate from December 20, 2008 until he was revoked by the senators on November 23, 2011. From 21 April 2005 until 21 February 2010 he was the head of the Partidul Social...

, have said they are indeed genuine. Geoană later retracted his statement.

Adrian Năstase temporarily "self-suspended" himself from the position on January 16, 2006 pending investigation of a scandal provoked by his wealth declaration, where he was accused of corruption
Political corruption
Political corruption is the use of legislated powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain. Misuse of government power for other purposes, such as repression of political opponents and general police brutality, is not considered political corruption. Neither are illegal acts by...

.

External links