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Social Democratic Party (Portugal)

Social Democratic Party (Portugal)

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The Social Democratic Party , is a centre-right liberal conservative
Liberal conservatism
Liberal conservatism also known as progressive conservatism is a variant of political conservatism which incorporates liberal elements. As "conservatism" and "liberalism" have had different meanings over time and across countries, the term "liberal conservatism" has been used in quite different...

 political party in Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

. It is commonly known by its initials, PSD; on ballot papers, its initials
Acronym and initialism
Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial components in a phrase or a word. These components may be individual letters or parts of words . There is no universal agreement on the precise definition of the various terms , nor on written usage...

 appear as PPD/PSD, with the first three letters coming from the party's original name, Democratic People's Party (Partido Popular Democrático). The party won the June 2011 election
Portuguese legislative election, 2011
A general election was held in Portugal on 5 June 2011 to elect all 230 members of the Assembly of the Republic. Pedro Passos Coelho led the center-right Social Democratic Party to victory over the Socialist Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister José Sócrates...

, with 108 out of 230 seats in the Assembly of the Republic
Assembly of the Republic
The Assembly of the Republic is the Portuguese parliament. It is located in a historical building in Lisbon, referred to as Palácio de São Bento, the site of an old Benedictine monastery...

.

The party was founded in 1974, two weeks after the Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
The Carnation Revolution , also referred to as the 25 de Abril , was a military coup started on 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance...

. In 1979, it allied with centre-right parties to form the Democratic Alliance
Democratic Alliance (Portugal)
The Democratic Alliance was a coalition in Portugal between the Social Democratic Party , the Democratic Social Center and the People's Monarchist Party , including also a group of...

, and won that year's election
Portuguese legislative election, 1979
The Portuguese legislative election of 1979 took place on December 2. The last election, three and a half years before, in April 1976, was won by the Socialist Party under the lead of Mário Soares, who became the Prime-Minister of the 1st Constitutional government after the revolution...

. After the 1983 election
Portuguese legislative election, 1983
The Portuguese legislative election of 1983 took place on April 25. The last election, in October 1980 had been won by a right-wing coalition, the Democratic Alliance and Francisco Sá Carneiro had retained office as Prime Minister with an increased majority...

, the party formed a grand coalition
Grand coalition
A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government...

 with the rival Socialist Party
Socialist Party (Portugal)
The Socialist Party , abbreviated to PS, is a social-democratic political party in Portugal. It was founded on 19 April 1973 in the German city of Bad Münstereifel, by militants from Portuguese Socialist Action ....

, before winning election under new leader Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC , is the President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006....

 in 1985
Portuguese legislative election, 1985
The Portuguese legislative election of 1985 took place on October 6. In June of the same year, the former Prime-Minister, Mário Soares, had resigned from the job due to the lack of parliamentary support, the government was composed by a coalition of the two major parties, the center-right Social...

. Cavaco Silva served as Prime Minister
Prime Minister of Portugal
Prime Minister is the current title of the chief of the Portuguese Government. As chief executive, the Prime Minister coordinates the action of ministers, representing the Government from the other organs of state, accountable to Parliament and keeps the President informed...

 for ten years, instituting major economic liberalisation and winning two landslide victories
Landslide victory
In politics, a landslide victory is the victory of a candidate or political party by an overwhelming margin in an election...

. After he stepped down, the PSD lost the 1995 election
Portuguese legislative election, 1995
The Portuguese legislative election of 1995 took place on October 1. The Socialist Party defeated the Social Democratic Party under the lead of António Guterres, elected some months before, but missed the absolute majority by 4 MPs. The Social Democratic party under the lead of Fernando Nogueira...

. The party was returned to power under José Manuel Durão Barroso
José Manuel Durão Barroso
José Manuel Durão Barroso is a Portuguese politician. He is President of the European Commission, since 23 November 2004. He served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 April 2002 to 17 July 2004.-Academic career:...

 in 2002
Portuguese legislative election, 2002
The Portuguese legislative election of 2002 took place on March 17. These elections were called after the resignation of the former Prime-Minister, António Guterres after a defeat of the Socialist Party in the local election of 2001...

, but was defeated in the 2005 election
Portuguese legislative election, 2005
The Portuguese legislative election of 2005 took place on February 20. These elections were called after the decision of President Jorge Sampaio on November 30, 2004 to dissolve the Parliament as an answer to the political instability caused by the government led by Pedro Santana Lopes in...

. The current leader, Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho , is Prime Minister of Portugal. Passos Coelho started very early in politics, becoming the national leader of the youth branch of the Social Democratic Party...

, was elected on 26 March 2010.

Despite the party's name, the PSD belongs to the centre-right, to the right of the Socialist Party and the left of the People's Party. Its first political position, after its foundation as the People's Democratic Party, was centre-left and social democratic
Social democracy
Social democracy is a political ideology of the center-left on the political spectrum. Social democracy is officially a form of evolutionary reformist socialism. It supports class collaboration as the course to achieve socialism...

, but it moved to the right during the 1980s. The PSD is a member of the European People's Party
European People's Party
The European People's Party is a pro-European centre-right European political party. The EPP was founded in 1976 by Christian democratic parties, but later it increased its membership to include conservative parties and parties of other centre-right perspectives.The EPP is the most influential of...

 (EPP) and the Centrist Democrat International
Centrist Democrat International
The Centrist Democrat International was until 2001 the Christian Democrat International and before that the Christian Democrat and People's Parties International...

, having belonged to the ELDR
European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party
The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party is a European political party mainly active in the European Union, composed of 56 national-level liberal and liberal-democratic parties from across Europe...

 and the Liberal International
Liberal International
Liberal International is a political international federation for liberal parties. Its headquarters is located at 1 Whitehall Place, London, SW1A 2HD within the National Liberal Club. It was founded in Oxford in 1947, and has become the pre-eminent network for liberal parties and for the...

 until 1996.

The party publishes the weekly Povo Livre
Povo Livre
Povo Livre is a Portuguese weekly newspaper, the official organ of the Social Democratic Party.-External links:**...

(Free People) newspaper.

History



Foundation


The Social Democratic Party was born on 6 May 1974, when Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL founded the Portuguese Social Democratic Party in 1974 and was elected Prime Minister of Portugal in January 1980, but only held office for eleven months, dying in a plane crash with his partner, Snu Abecassis, on December 4, 1980...

, Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Francisco José Pereira Pinto Balsemão, GCC , is a former Prime Minister of Portugal, who served from 1981 to 1983.-Background:He is the son of Henrique Patrício de Balsemão and wife Maria Adelaide van Zeller de Castro Pereira , granddaughter in male line of an adulterine son of King Pedro...

 and Joaquim Magalhães Mota
Joaquim Magalhães Mota
Joaquim Jorge de Magalhães Saraiva da Mota , was a Portuguese lawyer and politician.-Background:...

 publicly announced the formation of what was then called the PPD, the Democratic People's Party . On 15 May, the party's first headquarters were inaugurated in Largo do Rato, Lisbon. This was followed, on 24 June, by the formation of the first Political Committee, consisting of Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL founded the Portuguese Social Democratic Party in 1974 and was elected Prime Minister of Portugal in January 1980, but only held office for eleven months, dying in a plane crash with his partner, Snu Abecassis, on December 4, 1980...

, Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Francisco José Pereira Pinto Balsemão, GCC , is a former Prime Minister of Portugal, who served from 1981 to 1983.-Background:He is the son of Henrique Patrício de Balsemão and wife Maria Adelaide van Zeller de Castro Pereira , granddaughter in male line of an adulterine son of King Pedro...

, Joaquim Magalhães Mota
Joaquim Magalhães Mota
Joaquim Jorge de Magalhães Saraiva da Mota , was a Portuguese lawyer and politician.-Background:...

, Barbosa de Melo, Mota Pinto, Montalvão Machado, Miguel Veiga, Ferreira Júnior, António Carlos Lima, António Salazar Silva, Jorge Correia da Cunha, Jorge Figueiredo Dias and Jorge Sá Borges.

The Povo Livre publication was founded, its first issue being published on 13 July 1974, led by its first two directors, Manuel Alegria and Rui Machete. The PPD's first major meeting was held in the "Pavilhão dos Desportos", Lisbon, on 25 October, and a month later the party's first official congress took place.

On 17 January 1975, 6300 signatures were sent to the Supreme Court so that the party could be approved as a legitimate political entity, which happened a mere eight days later.

Alberto João Jardim
Alberto João Jardim
Alberto João Cardoso Gonçalves Jardim, GCIH |Santa Luzia]], Funchal, Madeira Island) is a Portuguese politician who has been the President of the Regional Government of Madeira, Portugal, since 1978. He is currently among the most controversial politicians of Portugal.-Early years:Jardim was born...

 was the co-founder of the Madeira
Madeira
Madeira is a Portuguese archipelago that lies between and , just under 400 km north of Tenerife, Canary Islands, in the north Atlantic Ocean and an outermost region of the European Union...

n branch of the PSD, and governed the autonomous archipelago for decades, running as a member of the party.

In government


The Social Democratic Party participated in a number of coalition governments in Portugal between 1974 and 1979, following the Carnation Revolution
Carnation Revolution
The Carnation Revolution , also referred to as the 25 de Abril , was a military coup started on 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance...

. This is seen as a transitional period in Portuguese politics, in which political institutions were built and took time to stabilize. In 1979, the PSD formed an electoral alliance, known as the Democratic Alliance
Democratic Alliance (Portugal)
The Democratic Alliance was a coalition in Portugal between the Social Democratic Party , the Democratic Social Center and the People's Monarchist Party , including also a group of...

 (AD), with the Democratic Social Centre (now called the People's Party, CDS-PP) and a couple of smaller right-wing parties. The AD won the parliamentary elections towards the end of 1979, and the PSD leader, Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL founded the Portuguese Social Democratic Party in 1974 and was elected Prime Minister of Portugal in January 1980, but only held office for eleven months, dying in a plane crash with his partner, Snu Abecassis, on December 4, 1980...

, became Prime Minister. The AD increased its parliamentary majority in new elections called for 1980, but was devastated by the death of Sá Caneiro in an air crash on 4 December 1980. Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Francisco José Pereira Pinto Balsemão, GCC , is a former Prime Minister of Portugal, who served from 1981 to 1983.-Background:He is the son of Henrique Patrício de Balsemão and wife Maria Adelaide van Zeller de Castro Pereira , granddaughter in male line of an adulterine son of King Pedro...

 took over the leadership of both the Social Democratic Party and the Democratic Alliance, as well as the Prime Ministership, but lacking Sá Carneiro's charisma, he was unable to rally popular support.

The Democratic Alliance was dissolved in 1983, and in parliamentary elections that year, the PSD lost to the Socialist Party
Socialist Party (Portugal)
The Socialist Party , abbreviated to PS, is a social-democratic political party in Portugal. It was founded on 19 April 1973 in the German city of Bad Münstereifel, by militants from Portuguese Socialist Action ....

 (PS). Falling short of a majority, however, the Socialists formed a grand coalition
Grand coalition
A grand coalition is an arrangement in a multi-party parliamentary system in which the two largest political parties of opposing political ideologies unite in a coalition government...

, known as the Central Block
Central Block
Central Bloc is the name given in Portugal to the grand coalition the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party which ruled from 1983 to 1985, and to any potential coalition between those two parties....

, with the PSD. Many right-wingers in the PSD, including Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC , is the President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006....

, opposed participation in the PS-led government, and so, when Cavaco Silva was elected leader of the party on 2 June 1985, the coalition was doomed.

The PSD won a plurality (but not a majority) in the general election of 1985
Portuguese legislative election, 1985
The Portuguese legislative election of 1985 took place on October 6. In June of the same year, the former Prime-Minister, Mário Soares, had resigned from the job due to the lack of parliamentary support, the government was composed by a coalition of the two major parties, the center-right Social...

, and Cavaco Silva became Prime Minister. Economic liberalization
Economic liberalization
Economic liberalization is a very broad term that usually refers to fewer government regulations and restrictions in the economy in exchange for greater participation of private entities; the doctrine is associated with classical liberalism...

 and tax cuts ushered in several years of economic growth, and early elections held in 1987
Portuguese legislative election, 1987
The Portuguese legislative election of 1987 took place on July 19. In the last election, in 1985, the Social Democratic Party had achieved a relative majority, thing that made its government very weak, managing to survive in coalition with the Democratic Social Center and the Democratic Renovator...

 resulted in a landslide victory for the PSD, who captured 50.2% percent of the popular vote and 148 of the 250 parliamentary seats – the first time that any political party had mustered an absolute majority. They won the 1991 election
Portuguese legislative election, 1991
The Portuguese legislative election of 1991 took place on October 6. The Social Democratic Party, under the lead of Cavaco Silva, won a historic third term and won with an absolute majority for the second consecutive turn, achieving a higher share than in the previous election, losing, however, 13...

 almost as easily, but continuing high levels of unemployment eroded the popularity of the Cavaco Silva government. Cavaco Silva stepped down as leader in 1995 and the PSD lost the 1995 election
Portuguese legislative election, 1995
The Portuguese legislative election of 1995 took place on October 1. The Socialist Party defeated the Social Democratic Party under the lead of António Guterres, elected some months before, but missed the absolute majority by 4 MPs. The Social Democratic party under the lead of Fernando Nogueira...

.

Post-Cavaco Silva


The party lost the 1999
Portuguese legislative election, 1999
The Portuguese legislative election of 1999 took place on October 10. The Socialist Party was aiming a second term under the lead of António Guterres, in the end the Socialist Party won the election, but missed what would be an historical absolute majority for the party by only one MP.The Social...

 elections. They made a comeback in 2002
Portuguese legislative election, 2002
The Portuguese legislative election of 2002 took place on March 17. These elections were called after the resignation of the former Prime-Minister, António Guterres after a defeat of the Socialist Party in the local election of 2001...

, however: despite falling short of a majority, the PSD won enough seats to form a coalition with the CDS-PP, and the PSD leader, José Manuel Durão Barroso
José Manuel Durão Barroso
José Manuel Durão Barroso is a Portuguese politician. He is President of the European Commission, since 23 November 2004. He served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 April 2002 to 17 July 2004.-Academic career:...

, became Prime Minister. Durão Barroso later resigned his post to become President of the European Commission
European Commission
The European Commission is the executive body of the European Union. The body is responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the Union's treaties and the general day-to-day running of the Union....

, leaving the way for Pedro Santana Lopes
Pedro Santana Lopes
Pedro Miguel de Santana Lopes , a Portuguese lawyer and politician, was Prime Minister of Portugal from 2004 to 2005. He is a former and current Member of the Portuguese Parliament.-Background:...

, a man with whom he was frequently at odds, to become leader of the party and Prime Minister.

In the parliamentary election
Portuguese legislative election, 2005
The Portuguese legislative election of 2005 took place on February 20. These elections were called after the decision of President Jorge Sampaio on November 30, 2004 to dissolve the Parliament as an answer to the political instability caused by the government led by Pedro Santana Lopes in...

 held on 20 February 2005, Santana Lopes led the PSD to its worst defeat since 1983. With a negative swing of more than 12% percent, the party won only 75 seats, a loss of 30. The rival Socialist Party had won an absolute majority, and remained in government after the 2009 parliamentary election
Portuguese legislative election, 2009
Legislative elections in Portugal were held on 27 September 2009 to renew all 230 members of the Assembly of the Republic. The Socialist Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister José Sócrates, won the largest number of seats, but didn't repeat the overall majority they gained in 2005.The Socialist...

, albeit without an absolute majority, leaving the PSD in opposition.

The PSD-supported candidate Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC , is the President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006....

 won the Portuguese presidential elections in 2006 and again in 2011.

In the European Parliament election
European Parliament election, 2009 (Portugal)
The European Parliament election of 2009 in Portugal was the election of the delegation from Portugal to the European Parliament in 2009.The lists are headed by*Socialist Party : Vital Moreira...

 held on 7 June 2009, the PSD defeated the governing socialists, capturing 31.7% of the popular vote and electing eight MEPs, while the Socialist Party only won 26.5% of the popular vote and elected seven MEPs.

Although this was expected to be a "redrawing of the electoral map", the PSD was still defeated later that year
Portuguese legislative election, 2009
Legislative elections in Portugal were held on 27 September 2009 to renew all 230 members of the Assembly of the Republic. The Socialist Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister José Sócrates, won the largest number of seats, but didn't repeat the overall majority they gained in 2005.The Socialist...

, though the PS lost its majority.

Growing popular disenchantment with the government's handling of the economic crisis coupled with the government's inability to secure the support of other parties to implement the necessary reforms to address the crisis forced the Socialist Party Prime Mininster José Sócrates
José Sócrates
José Sócrates Carvalho Pinto de Sousa, GCIH , commonly known by José Sócrates , is a Portuguese politician who was the Prime Minister of Portugal from 12 March 2005 to 21 June 2011....

 to resign, leading to fresh elections
Portuguese legislative election, 2011
A general election was held in Portugal on 5 June 2011 to elect all 230 members of the Assembly of the Republic. Pedro Passos Coelho led the center-right Social Democratic Party to victory over the Socialist Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister José Sócrates...

 on 5 June 2011. The PSD won the elections by a wide margin over the Socialists capturing 38,6 % of the votes while the socialists captured only 28 %, though they fell short of an absolute majority. The PSD formed a coalition with the CDS-PP and formed a majority government that is the biggest majority in Parliament since 1991.

Factions




The PSD is frequently referred to as a party that is not ideology-based but rather a "power party" ("partido do poder"). It frequently adopts a functional big tent
Big tent
In politics, a big tent party or catch-all party is a political party seeking to attract people with diverse viewpoints. The party does not require adherence to some ideology as a criterion for membership...

 party strategy to win elections. Due to this strategy, which most trace to Cavaco Silva's leadership, the party is made up of many factions, mostly centre-right (including liberal democrats
Liberal democracy
Liberal democracy, also known as constitutional democracy, is a common form of representative democracy. According to the principles of liberal democracy, elections should be free and fair, and the political process should be competitive...

, Christian democrats and neoconservatives
Neoconservatism
Neoconservatism in the United States is a branch of American conservatism. Since 2001, neoconservatism has been associated with democracy promotion, that is with assisting movements for democracy, in some cases by economic sanctions or military action....

) as well as quasi-social-democrats and former Communists:
  • Portuguese social democrats: the main faction when the party was created, throughout the party's history rightist politicians joined them to have a greater chance of gaining power and influencing the country's politics (see Liberals, Conservatives, Right-wing populists and Neoliberals). They don't follow traditional social democracy but "Portuguese social democracy" as defined by Sá Carneiro's actions and writings, which includes a degree of centrist and leftist populism. They followed a kind of anti-class struggle party/cross-class party strategy. All the other members of the party claim to follow this line. Among its representatives were most of the leaders between Francisco Sá Carneiro and Cavaco Silva, Alberto João Jardim
    Alberto João Jardim
    Alberto João Cardoso Gonçalves Jardim, GCIH |Santa Luzia]], Funchal, Madeira Island) is a Portuguese politician who has been the President of the Regional Government of Madeira, Portugal, since 1978. He is currently among the most controversial politicians of Portugal.-Early years:Jardim was born...

     (also a founding member and an anti-neoliberal) and to an extent Luís Filipe Menezes
    Luís Filipe Menezes
    Luís Filipe de Menezes Lopes is a Portuguese politician.-Background:He is a son of José António Lopes , an Industrialist , and wife Luís Filipe de Menezes Lopes (born Ovar, 2 November 1953) is a Portuguese politician.-Background:He is a son of José António Lopes (Porto, Alvar, 10 September 1925...

     (who called the PSD the "moderate left party", identified himself with a centre-left matrix and a united left strategy and defended a more open party on issues like abortion.) Mendes Bota is another left-wing populist. The Portuguese social-democrats are centered around the Grupo da Boavista (Boavista
    Boavista
    Circuito da Boavista was a street circuit in Oporto , Portugal used twice for the Formula One Portuguese Grand Prix.The course began at the harbor-front "Esplanada do Rio de Janeiro", continued on "Avenida da Boavista" , and then twisted its way through small neighborhoods back to the start-finish...

     Group).
  • European-style social-democrats
    Social democracy
    Social democracy is a political ideology of the center-left on the political spectrum. Social democracy is officially a form of evolutionary reformist socialism. It supports class collaboration as the course to achieve socialism...

    : follow traditional social democracy
    Social democracy
    Social democracy is a political ideology of the center-left on the political spectrum. Social democracy is officially a form of evolutionary reformist socialism. It supports class collaboration as the course to achieve socialism...

    . They share with the Portuguese social democrats their presence at the creation of the party and "a non-Marxist progressivist line". Many of them (former party leader António Sousa Franco, party co-founder Magalhães Mota, writer and feminist Natália Correia
    Natália Correia
    Natália de Oliveira Correia, GOSE, GOL was an intellectual, poet and social activist, as well as author of the official lyrics of the Hino dos Açores, the regional anthem of Autonomous Region of the Azores...

    ) supported the Opções Inadiáveis (Pressing Options) manifesto, and then left to create the Independent Social Democrat Association (Associação Social Democrata Independente, ASDI) and the Social Democrat Movement (Movimento Social Democrata, MSD), forming electoral coalitions (later fusioning to) the Socialist Party
    Socialist Party (Portugal)
    The Socialist Party , abbreviated to PS, is a social-democratic political party in Portugal. It was founded on 19 April 1973 in the German city of Bad Münstereifel, by militants from Portuguese Socialist Action ....

     during the 1970s–1980s. Some took part in the Democratic Renovator Party. A later example of a European-style Social democrat leaving the party for the Socialists is activist and politician Helena Roseta. The ones still in the party adapted to its current right-wing outlook or Portuguese social democracy. They today include former communists-turned centre-leftists, like Zita Seabra
    Zita Seabra
    Zita Maria de Seabra Roseiro is a Portuguese politician.She joined the Portuguese Communist Party in 1966, before she was even eighteen years old and was controller of the UEC before and after the carnation revolution...

    . Durão Barroso might have moved from Thatcherism
    Thatcherism
    Thatcherism describes the conviction politics, economic and social policy, and political style of the British Conservative politician Margaret Thatcher, who was leader of her party from 1975 to 1990...

     to social democracy. Ironically, both Social Democrat factions were represented in the 2008 party elections by Manuela Ferreira Leite
    Manuela Ferreira Leite
    Maria Manuela Dias Ferreira Leite , commonly known as Manuela Ferreira Leite , is a Portuguese economist and politician.-Background:...

    , economically neoliberal and socially conservative
    Social conservatism
    Social Conservatism is primarily a political, and usually morally influenced, ideology that focuses on the preservation of what are seen as traditional values. Social conservatism is a form of authoritarianism often associated with the position that the federal government should have a greater role...

     (often compared to Thatcher
    Margaret Thatcher
    Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990...

    ).
  • Agrarianism
    Agrarianism
    Agrarianism has two common meanings. The first meaning refers to a social philosophy or political philosophy which values rural society as superior to urban society, the independent farmer as superior to the paid worker, and sees farming as a way of life that can shape the ideal social values...

    : the other main faction at creation. The PSD was always more successful in the Northern and rural areas of the country. When Sousa Franco and his SPD
    Social Democratic Party of Germany
    The Social Democratic Party of Germany is a social-democratic political party in Germany...

    -inspired social democrats started their break with the rest of the party he referred to a division between "a rural wing, led by Sá Carneiro, and an urban wing, more moderate and truly social democratic, close to the positions of Helmut Schmidt
    Helmut Schmidt
    Helmut Heinrich Waldemar Schmidt is a German Social Democratic politician who served as Chancellor of West Germany from 1974 to 1982. Prior to becoming chancellor, he had served as Minister of Defence and Minister of Finance. He had also served briefly as Minister of Economics and as acting...

    " Due to the electoral influence of ruralism on the PSD's politics they may be seen inside of or influencing most factions.
  • Liberals (Classical
    Classical liberalism
    Classical liberalism is the philosophy committed to the ideal of limited government, constitutionalism, rule of law, due process, and liberty of individuals including freedom of religion, speech, press, assembly, and free markets....

     and Social
    Social liberalism
    Social liberalism is the belief that liberalism should include social justice. It differs from classical liberalism in that it believes the legitimate role of the state includes addressing economic and social issues such as unemployment, health care, and education while simultaneously expanding...

    ): due to the Salazarist
    António de Oliveira Salazar
    António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE served as the Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968. He also served as acting President of the Republic briefly in 1951. He founded and led the Estado Novo , the authoritarian, right-wing government that presided over and controlled Portugal...

     connotation of the term “right-wing” (and all terms connected: “liberal”, “conservative”, etc.) after the Carnation Revolution
    Carnation Revolution
    The Carnation Revolution , also referred to as the 25 de Abril , was a military coup started on 25 April 1974, in Lisbon, Portugal, coupled with an unanticipated and extensive campaign of civil resistance...

    , the little atractiveness of economic liberalism in European politics, no specific Liberal or Conservative parties were formed in post-1974 Portugal, except the experiences of the Catholic Action
    Catholic Action
    Catholic Action was the name of many groups of lay Catholics who were attempting to encourage a Catholic influence on society.They were especially active in the nineteenth century in historically Catholic countries that fell under anti-clerical regimes such as Spain, Italy, Bavaria, France, and...

    -monarchist Liberal Party in 1974 and the centrist liberal Democratic Renovator Party, so they started working inside the PSD. This strategy of joining “socialism and liberalism under the same hat” was especially successful during Cavaco Silva’s leadership, when the party gave up its candidacy to the Socialist International
    Socialist International
    The Socialist International is a worldwide organization of democratic socialist, social democratic and labour political parties. It was formed in 1951.- History :...

     and became member of the Liberal International
    Liberal International
    Liberal International is a political international federation for liberal parties. Its headquarters is located at 1 Whitehall Place, London, SW1A 2HD within the National Liberal Club. It was founded in Oxford in 1947, and has become the pre-eminent network for liberal parties and for the...

     and the European
    Politics of the European Union
    The Politics of the European Union are different from other organisations and states due to the unique nature of the European Union . The EU is similar to a confederation, where many policy areas are federalised into common institutions capable of making law; however the EU does not, unlike most...

     Liberal party
    European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party
    The European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party is a European political party mainly active in the European Union, composed of 56 national-level liberal and liberal-democratic parties from across Europe...

     and Liberal and Democratic Reformist Group
    Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe
    The Group of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe is the current liberal/centrist political group of the European Parliament...

    , leaving the international and the European party and group in 1996 to join the Christian Democrat International (today Centrist Democrat International), the European People's Party
    European People's Party
    The European People's Party is a pro-European centre-right European political party. The EPP was founded in 1976 by Christian democratic parties, but later it increased its membership to include conservative parties and parties of other centre-right perspectives.The EPP is the most influential of...

     and the European People's Party-European Democrats. Since then the Liberal-Social democrat rift (or even the Liberal-Conservative-Populist-Social democrat rift) has plagued the party’s cohesion and actions. Durão Barroso (a former revolutionary Maoist who switched sides in the 1980s) is sometimes referred to as the most pure liberal of the party. In terms of social liberals, some try to link both social democracy and social liberalism to the PSD, to refer to the early PSD as liberal or partly social liberal party, and social liberalism is sometimes identified with the social market economy tradition the party traditionally supported. Even members of the Social Liberal Movement
    Social Liberal Movement
    The Social Liberal Movement is a social conservative party in Switzerland. Founded in 2011, the SLB has one member of the National Council.The party was founded by Samuel Schmid on 23 April 2011...

     admit the traditional and current presence of social liberals (and other liberals) on the PSD.
  • Christian democrats
    Christian Democracy
    Christian democracy is a political ideology that seeks to apply Christian principles to public policy. It emerged in nineteenth-century Europe under the influence of conservatism and Catholic social teaching...

     and Social Christians: some claim the PSD as the party from Christian democracy and Social Christianity from the beginning, or having these currents as part of its legacy. Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa is one of the main preachers of Social Christianity inside the PSD. As is Paulo Rangel.
  • Right-wing Populists
    Right-wing populism
    Right-wing populism is a political ideology that rejects existing political consensus and combines laissez-faire liberalism and anti-elitism. It is considered "right-wing" because of its rejection of social equality and government programs to achieve it, its opposition to social integration, and...

    : Distinct from Radical right-wing populists, the populist centre and centre-left social democrats (like João Jardim and Sá Carneiro), the populist overlapers (like Cavaco Silva), and the euro-skeptic populists of the Democratic and Social Centre–People’s Party (CDS-PP). They are social-economic liberal conservative/conservative liberal and moderate, culturally religious conservatives and internationalist national conservatives. Their main representative is Pedro Santana Lopes. Though the main right-wing populists were present at the founding of the party (like Santana Lopes), they were clearly right-wing, recruited when their abilities were noticed in educated circles and universities, with minor agreements with Sá Carneiro's philosophy. Frequently, as the PSD is a bipartisanship party, right-wing populists from the CDS-PP join the party. Luís Filipe Meneses is frequently described as a populist but he tried to lead the party back to a “left” line, and doesn’t identify or act like the liberal conservative/conservative liberal populists.
  • Conservatives: with the post-revolutionary opposition to the right (see above in liberal) no specific Conservative party was founded in Portugal; conservatives acted inside the CDS-PP and the PSD. Frequently linked with the Neoliberals, pure conservatives are rare in the party, as the usual partisan or politician of the party is economically moderate but socially conservative. One of the rare exceptions of a pure conservative in this party was former party member and MP Vasco Pulido Valente, who is highly elitist and a cultural purist
    Purist
    A purist is one who desires that an item remains true to its essence and free from adulterating or diluting influences. The term may be used in almost any field, and can be applied either to the self or to others. Use of the term may be either pejorative or complimentary, depending on the context...

     (unlike most of the party's partisans, who have various degrees of populism or meritocratism
    Meritocracy
    Meritocracy, in the first, most administrative sense, is a system of government or other administration wherein appointments and responsibilities are objectively assigned to individuals based upon their "merits", namely intelligence, credentials, and education, determined through evaluations or...

    ), highly conservative and traditionalist
    Traditionalist Conservatism
    Traditionalist conservatism, also known as "traditional conservatism," "traditionalism," "Burkean conservatism", "classical conservatism" and , "Toryism", describes a political philosophy emphasizing the need for the principles of natural law and transcendent moral order, tradition, hierarchy and...

    .
  • Neoconservatives: mostly former communists and leftists who supported the policies of the Bush Administration and defend similar views in Portuguese politics. The main example is José Pacheco Pereira
    José Pacheco Pereira
    José Álvaro Machado Pacheco Pereira, GCL is a Portuguese political analyst, historian and politician, a member of PSD .- Biography :He was born in Porto and graduated in Philosophy from the University of Porto...

     (though his support of the Bush doctrine
    Bush Doctrine
    The Bush Doctrine is a phrase used to describe various related foreign policy principles of former United States president George W. Bush. The phrase was first used by Charles Krauthammer in June 2001 to describe the Bush Administration's unilateral withdrawals from the ABM treaty and the Kyoto...

     on the Invasion of Iraq is sometimes challenged. They are frequently referred to as "Cavaco-ists" due to their support of cavacoism's legacy and candidates representative of it, like Cavaco Silva himself and Ferreira Leite, defending the position that they should take a hard stance on the Left and its social liberalism).
  • Neoliberals: Neoliberal tendencies were introduced in Portuguese economy
    Economy of Portugal
    The Economy of Portugal is a high income mixed economy. The Global Competitiveness Report 2008-2009 edition placed Portugal in the 43rd position out of 134 countries and territories....

     by Cavaco Silva, removing socialism from the constitution and finishing the de-collectivization of the economy started with Sá Carneiro. Cavaco (a self-described Neo-Keynesian) never employed a totally Reaganite
    Reaganomics
    Reaganomics refers to the economic policies promoted by the U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the 1980s, also known as supply-side economics and called trickle-down economics, particularly by critics...

     or Thatcherite strategy, maintaining a social democrat matrix and many (right and left-wing) populist and neo-Keynesian policies. Alberto João Jardim described the inconsistent neoliberalism of the PSD: “those Chicago Boys
    Chicago Boys
    The Chicago Boys were a group of young Chilean economists most of whom trained at the University of Chicago under Milton Friedman and Arnold Harberger, or at its affiliate in the economics department at the Catholic University of Chile...

     have some funny ideas, but when election time arrives the old Keynesianism is still what counts”. Cavaco Silva and Durão Barroso are both sometimes referred to as the closest to neo-liberal leaders of the party. The main pure representative of the streak is Manuela Ferreira Leite, but even she called herself a «social democrat» and explained «I'm not certainly liberal, I'm also not populist» and lead the social democratic factions during internal party rifts, though she accepts the nickname "Portuguese iron lady
    Iron Lady
    Iron Lady is a nickname that has frequently been used to describe female heads of government around the world. The term describes a "strong willed" woman...

    " and comparisons to Thatcher if «[it] means (...) an enormous intransigence on values and in principles, of not abdicating from these values and from these principles and of continuing my way independently of the popularity of my actions and the effects on my image». The main group (officially non-partisan) associated with the neoliberal faction of the PSD is the Projecto Farol (Lighthouse Project).
  • Overlappers: the average PSD voter and partisan since Cavaco Silva’s leadership. Cavaco himself, though a self-described Neo-Keynesian, an early member of the party since its centre-left days and a man with social liberal and centrist populist economic policy tendencies, he is personally a conservative (opposing same-sex marriage
    Same-sex marriage
    Same-sex marriage is marriage between two persons of the same biological sex or social gender. Supporters of legal recognition for same-sex marriage typically refer to such recognition as marriage equality....

     and abortion) and a practicing Catholic. As such Cavacoism should be considered a "hybrid" or a political syncretism
    Syncretic politics
    Syncretic politics or spectral-syncretic refers to a form of politics outside of the conventional left-right political spectrum, this term is especially used by some scholars to describe the political nature of fascism...

    . A similar case is Vasco Graça Moura
    Vasco Graça Moura
    Vasco Navarro da Graça Moura, OSE is a Portuguese lawyer, writer, translator and politician, son of Francisco José da Graça Moura and wife Maria Teresa Amado da Cunha Seixas Navarro de Castro, of Northern Portugal bourgeoisie.He was a Member of the European Parliament for the Social Democratic...

    , who claims to be an economic social democrat but opposes gay people serving in the military and is a self-described "centre-left reactionary
    Reactionary
    The term reactionary refers to viewpoints that seek to return to a previous state in a society. The term is meant to describe one end of a political spectrum whose opposite pole is "radical". While it has not been generally considered a term of praise it has been adopted as a self-description by...

    ". The overlappers are mainly represented in the forums gathered by the District of Oporto section of the party, which during the 2009 European elections tried to gather the ideas of all factions.
  • Centrists: not to be confused with overlapers. Still indecisive between (traditional or Portuguese) social democracy, social liberalism or any other kind of centrism.
  • Transversalists: are pragmatic and not strict on ideological issues. Although open to privatization and civil society alternatives to the social state, they are philosophically and in speech closer to the centre-left origins of the party and proud of them. The main representative of this faction is Pedro Passos Coelho
    Pedro Passos Coelho
    Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho , is Prime Minister of Portugal. Passos Coelho started very early in politics, becoming the national leader of the youth branch of the Social Democratic Party...

    , who claims to be neither left nor right but that "the real issues are between old and new", though his opponents identified him as a liberal (in the conservative-liberal or neo-liberal European senses) since the 2008 party election, though he recalled the many meanings of liberal and recalled the Left liberalism of the United States Democratic Party
    Democratic Party (United States)
    The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. The party's socially liberal and progressive platform is largely considered center-left in the U.S. political spectrum. The party has the lengthiest record of continuous...

    , being even called "PSD's Obama" by supporters. The main centrist group inside the party is the think tank Construir Ideias (Building Ideas), which Passos Coelho founded and leads. They mix (like the closely allied centrists) calls to privatization with others to more social justice, government regulation and arbitration and strategic governmental involvement in the economy. This faction is in constant rift with the more right-wing ones (who have been leading the party for a long time) and also with the overlappers whose hybridness they refuse, over the future of the party and its future ideological and philosophical alignments.

Election results

Year Party Leader Votes % of votes Seats in the Assembly of the Republic Position in government
1976
Portuguese legislative election, 1976
The Portuguese legislative election of 1976 took place on April 25, exactly one year after the previous election, and two years after the Carnation Revolution...

Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL founded the Portuguese Social Democratic Party in 1974 and was elected Prime Minister of Portugal in January 1980, but only held office for eleven months, dying in a plane crash with his partner, Snu Abecassis, on December 4, 1980...

1,335,381
24.35%
73
Main opposition party
1979
Portuguese legislative election, 1979
The Portuguese legislative election of 1979 took place on December 2. The last election, three and a half years before, in April 1976, was won by the Socialist Party under the lead of Mário Soares, who became the Prime-Minister of the 1st Constitutional government after the revolution...

Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL founded the Portuguese Social Democratic Party in 1974 and was elected Prime Minister of Portugal in January 1980, but only held office for eleven months, dying in a plane crash with his partner, Snu Abecassis, on December 4, 1980...

N/A
N/A
80
Democratic Alliance
Democratic Alliance (Portugal)
The Democratic Alliance was a coalition in Portugal between the Social Democratic Party , the Democratic Social Center and the People's Monarchist Party , including also a group of...

 coalition
1980
Portuguese legislative election, 1980
The Portuguese legislative election of 1980 took place on October 5.In January 1980, the Democratic Alliance, which had won the previous election, on December 2 of 1979, entered office with Francisco Sá Carneiro leading the government...

Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL founded the Portuguese Social Democratic Party in 1974 and was elected Prime Minister of Portugal in January 1980, but only held office for eleven months, dying in a plane crash with his partner, Snu Abecassis, on December 4, 1980...

N/A
N/A
82
Democratic Alliance
Democratic Alliance (Portugal)
The Democratic Alliance was a coalition in Portugal between the Social Democratic Party , the Democratic Social Center and the People's Monarchist Party , including also a group of...

 coalition
1983
Portuguese legislative election, 1983
The Portuguese legislative election of 1983 took place on April 25. The last election, in October 1980 had been won by a right-wing coalition, the Democratic Alliance and Francisco Sá Carneiro had retained office as Prime Minister with an increased majority...

Carlos Mota Pinto
Carlos Mota Pinto
Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto, GCC, GCIP, was a Portuguese professor and politician.-Career:He graduated as a Licentiate in Law and Doctorate in Judicial Sciences from the Faculty of Law of the University of Coimbra. He was also a Professor at the Portuguese Catholic University and several foreign...

1,554,804
27.24%
75
Coalition with the Socialist Party
Socialist Party (Portugal)
The Socialist Party , abbreviated to PS, is a social-democratic political party in Portugal. It was founded on 19 April 1973 in the German city of Bad Münstereifel, by militants from Portuguese Socialist Action ....

1985
Portuguese legislative election, 1985
The Portuguese legislative election of 1985 took place on October 6. In June of the same year, the former Prime-Minister, Mário Soares, had resigned from the job due to the lack of parliamentary support, the government was composed by a coalition of the two major parties, the center-right Social...

Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC , is the President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006....

1,732,288
29.87%
88
Government
1987
Portuguese legislative election, 1987
The Portuguese legislative election of 1987 took place on July 19. In the last election, in 1985, the Social Democratic Party had achieved a relative majority, thing that made its government very weak, managing to survive in coalition with the Democratic Social Center and the Democratic Renovator...

Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC , is the President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006....

2,850,784
50.22%
148
Government
1991
Portuguese legislative election, 1991
The Portuguese legislative election of 1991 took place on October 6. The Social Democratic Party, under the lead of Cavaco Silva, won a historic third term and won with an absolute majority for the second consecutive turn, achieving a higher share than in the previous election, losing, however, 13...

Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC , is the President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006....

2,902,351
50.60%
135
Government
1995
Portuguese legislative election, 1995
The Portuguese legislative election of 1995 took place on October 1. The Socialist Party defeated the Social Democratic Party under the lead of António Guterres, elected some months before, but missed the absolute majority by 4 MPs. The Social Democratic party under the lead of Fernando Nogueira...

Fernando Nogueira
Fernando Nogueira
Joaquim Fernando Nogueira is a Portuguese politician.-Career:He was during Aníbal Cavaco Silva governments, Minister of the Parliamentary Affairs , Justice , National Defense , and Presidency . He was usually seen as the number 2 of the Social-Democratic Party...

2,014,589
34.12%
88
Main opposition party
1999
Portuguese legislative election, 1999
The Portuguese legislative election of 1999 took place on October 10. The Socialist Party was aiming a second term under the lead of António Guterres, in the end the Socialist Party won the election, but missed what would be an historical absolute majority for the party by only one MP.The Social...

Durão Barroso
1,750,158
32.32%
81
Main opposition party
2002
Portuguese legislative election, 2002
The Portuguese legislative election of 2002 took place on March 17. These elections were called after the resignation of the former Prime-Minister, António Guterres after a defeat of the Socialist Party in the local election of 2001...

Durão Barroso
2,200,765
40.21%
105
Coalition with the CDS–PP
2005
Portuguese legislative election, 2005
The Portuguese legislative election of 2005 took place on February 20. These elections were called after the decision of President Jorge Sampaio on November 30, 2004 to dissolve the Parliament as an answer to the political instability caused by the government led by Pedro Santana Lopes in...

Pedro Santana Lopes
Pedro Santana Lopes
Pedro Miguel de Santana Lopes , a Portuguese lawyer and politician, was Prime Minister of Portugal from 2004 to 2005. He is a former and current Member of the Portuguese Parliament.-Background:...

1,653,425
28.77%
75
Main opposition party
2009
Portuguese legislative election, 2009
Legislative elections in Portugal were held on 27 September 2009 to renew all 230 members of the Assembly of the Republic. The Socialist Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister José Sócrates, won the largest number of seats, but didn't repeat the overall majority they gained in 2005.The Socialist...

Manuela Ferreira Leite
Manuela Ferreira Leite
Maria Manuela Dias Ferreira Leite , commonly known as Manuela Ferreira Leite , is a Portuguese economist and politician.-Background:...

1,653,665
29.11%
81
Main opposition party
2011
Portuguese legislative election, 2011
A general election was held in Portugal on 5 June 2011 to elect all 230 members of the Assembly of the Republic. Pedro Passos Coelho led the center-right Social Democratic Party to victory over the Socialist Party, led by incumbent Prime Minister José Sócrates...

Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho , is Prime Minister of Portugal. Passos Coelho started very early in politics, becoming the national leader of the youth branch of the Social Democratic Party...

2,159,181
38.66%
108
Coalition with the CDS–PP
In the Democratic Alliance
Democratic Alliance (Portugal)
The Democratic Alliance was a coalition in Portugal between the Social Democratic Party , the Democratic Social Center and the People's Monarchist Party , including also a group of...

, with the Democratic and Social Centre and the People's Monarchist Party.

List of leaders


Leader From To
1st Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Sá Carneiro
Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL founded the Portuguese Social Democratic Party in 1974 and was elected Prime Minister of Portugal in January 1980, but only held office for eleven months, dying in a plane crash with his partner, Snu Abecassis, on December 4, 1980...

 (first time)
6 May 1974 1978
2nd António de Sousa Franco 1978 1978
3rd José Menéres Pimentel 1978 1978
4th 1978
5th Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Francisco Pinto Balsemão
Francisco José Pereira Pinto Balsemão, GCC , is a former Prime Minister of Portugal, who served from 1981 to 1983.-Background:He is the son of Henrique Patrício de Balsemão and wife Maria Adelaide van Zeller de Castro Pereira , granddaughter in male line of an adulterine son of King Pedro...

1981 1983
6th Nuno Rodrigues dos Santos 1983 1984
7th Carlos Mota Pinto
Carlos Mota Pinto
Carlos Alberto da Mota Pinto, GCC, GCIP, was a Portuguese professor and politician.-Career:He graduated as a Licentiate in Law and Doctorate in Judicial Sciences from the Faculty of Law of the University of Coimbra. He was also a Professor at the Portuguese Catholic University and several foreign...

1984 1985
8th Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal Cavaco Silva
Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC , is the President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006....

1985 1995
9th Fernando Nogueira
Fernando Nogueira
Joaquim Fernando Nogueira is a Portuguese politician.-Career:He was during Aníbal Cavaco Silva governments, Minister of the Parliamentary Affairs , Justice , National Defense , and Presidency . He was usually seen as the number 2 of the Social-Democratic Party...

1995 1996
10th Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa
Marcelo Nuno Duarte Rebelo de Sousa, ComSE, GCIH is a Portuguese politician and former Minister and Member of Parliament, law professor, former journalist, political analyst and pundit.-Background:...

1996 1999
11th José Manuel Durão Barroso
José Manuel Durão Barroso
José Manuel Durão Barroso is a Portuguese politician. He is President of the European Commission, since 23 November 2004. He served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 April 2002 to 17 July 2004.-Academic career:...

1999 2004
12th Pedro Santana Lopes
Pedro Santana Lopes
Pedro Miguel de Santana Lopes , a Portuguese lawyer and politician, was Prime Minister of Portugal from 2004 to 2005. He is a former and current Member of the Portuguese Parliament.-Background:...

2004 2005
13th Luís Marques Mendes
Luís Marques Mendes
Luís Manuel Gonçalves Marques Mendes is a Portuguese lawyer and politician, and a former Leader of the Social Democratic Party.-Career:...

2005 2007
14th Luís Filipe Menezes
Luís Filipe Menezes
Luís Filipe de Menezes Lopes is a Portuguese politician.-Background:He is a son of José António Lopes , an Industrialist , and wife Luís Filipe de Menezes Lopes (born Ovar, 2 November 1953) is a Portuguese politician.-Background:He is a son of José António Lopes (Porto, Alvar, 10 September 1925...

2007 2008
15th Manuela Ferreira Leite
Manuela Ferreira Leite
Maria Manuela Dias Ferreira Leite , commonly known as Manuela Ferreira Leite , is a Portuguese economist and politician.-Background:...

2008 26 March 2010
16th Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Passos Coelho
Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho , is Prime Minister of Portugal. Passos Coelho started very early in politics, becoming the national leader of the youth branch of the Social Democratic Party...

26 March 2010 Present day

Prime ministers

  • Francisco Sá Carneiro
    Francisco Sá Carneiro
    Francisco Manuel Lumbrales de Sá Carneiro, GCTE, GCC, GCL founded the Portuguese Social Democratic Party in 1974 and was elected Prime Minister of Portugal in January 1980, but only held office for eleven months, dying in a plane crash with his partner, Snu Abecassis, on December 4, 1980...

     : 1979 – 1980
  • Francisco Pinto Balsemão
    Francisco Pinto Balsemão
    Francisco José Pereira Pinto Balsemão, GCC , is a former Prime Minister of Portugal, who served from 1981 to 1983.-Background:He is the son of Henrique Patrício de Balsemão and wife Maria Adelaide van Zeller de Castro Pereira , granddaughter in male line of an adulterine son of King Pedro...

     : 1981 – 1983
  • Aníbal Cavaco Silva
    Aníbal Cavaco Silva
    Aníbal António Cavaco Silva, GCC , is the President of Portugal. He won the Portuguese presidential election on 22 January 2006 and was re-elected on 23 January 2011, for a second five-year term. Cavaco Silva was sworn in on 9 March 2006....

     : 1985 – 1995
  • José Manuel Durão Barroso
    José Manuel Durão Barroso
    José Manuel Durão Barroso is a Portuguese politician. He is President of the European Commission, since 23 November 2004. He served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 6 April 2002 to 17 July 2004.-Academic career:...

     : 2002 – 2004
  • Pedro Santana Lopes
    Pedro Santana Lopes
    Pedro Miguel de Santana Lopes , a Portuguese lawyer and politician, was Prime Minister of Portugal from 2004 to 2005. He is a former and current Member of the Portuguese Parliament.-Background:...

     : 2004 – 2005
  • Pedro Passos Coelho
    Pedro Passos Coelho
    Pedro Manuel Mamede Passos Coelho , is Prime Minister of Portugal. Passos Coelho started very early in politics, becoming the national leader of the youth branch of the Social Democratic Party...

    : 2011 –

External links