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Single-party state

Single-party state

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A single-party state, one-party system or single-party system is a type of party system
Party system
A party system is a concept in comparative political science concerning the system of government by political parties in a democratic country. The idea is that political parties have basic similarities: they control the government, have a stable base of mass popular support, and create internal...

 government
Government
Government refers to the legislators, administrators, and arbitrators in the administrative bureaucracy who control a state at a given time, and to the system of government by which they are organized...

 in which a single political party
Political party
A political party is a political organization that typically seeks to influence government policy, usually by nominating their own candidates and trying to seat them in political office. Parties participate in electoral campaigns, educational outreach or protest actions...

 forms the government and no other parties are permitted to run candidates for election
Election
An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy operates since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the...

. Sometimes the term de facto single-party state is used to describe a dominant-party system
Dominant-party system
A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organizations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future." A wide range of parties have been...

 where laws or practices prevent the opposition from legally getting power.

Concept


Some single party states only outlaw opposition parties
Opposition (politics)
In politics, the opposition comprises one or more political parties or other organized groups that are opposed to the government , party or group in political control of a city, region, state or country...

, while allowing subordinate allied parties to exist as part of a permanent coalition
Coalition
A coalition is a pact or treaty among individuals or groups, during which they cooperate in joint action, each in their own self-interest, joining forces together for a common cause. This alliance may be temporary or a matter of convenience. A coalition thus differs from a more formal covenant...

 such as a popular front
Popular front
A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, often made up of leftists and centrists. Being very broad, they can sometimes include centrist and liberal forces as well as socialist and communist groups...

. Within their own countries, dominant parties ruling over single-party states are often referred to simply as the Party. For example, in reference to the Soviet Union
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

, the Party meant the Communist Party of the Soviet Union
Communist Party of the Soviet Union
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the only legal, ruling political party in the Soviet Union and one of the largest communist organizations in the world...

; in reference to the former People's Republic of Poland
People's Republic of Poland
The People's Republic of Poland was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1990. Although the Soviet Union took control of the country immediately after the liberation from Nazi Germany in 1944, the name of the state was not changed until eight years later...

 it referred to the Polish United Workers' Party
Polish United Workers' Party
The Polish United Workers' Party was the Communist party which governed the People's Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. Ideologically it was based on the theories of Marxism-Leninism.- The Party's Program and Goals :...

.

Some one-party states may allow non-party members to run for legislative seats, as was the case with Taiwan's
Republic of China
The Republic of China , commonly known as Taiwan , is a unitary sovereign state located in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China currently governs the island of Taiwan , which forms over 99% of its current territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu and other minor...

 Tangwai
Tangwai
The Tangwai movement was a political movement in the Republic of China in the mid-1970s and early 1980s. Although the Kuomintang had allowed contested elections for a small number of seats in Legislative Yuan, opposition parties were still forbidden...

 movement in the 1970s and 1980s. Other single-party states may allow limited participation by approved minor parties, such as the People's Republic of China under the United Front
United Front (PRC)
The United Front in the People's Republic of China is a nominally popular front led by the Communist Party of China. It is managed by the United Front Work Department of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and besides the communist party it consists of eight minor parties and the...

, or the National Front
National Front (East Germany)
The National Front of the German Democratic Republic was an alliance of political parties and mass organisations in East Germany...

 in former East Germany.

Most single-party states have been ruled either by parties following Leninism
Leninism
In Marxist philosophy, Leninism is the body of political theory for the democratic organisation of a revolutionary vanguard party, and the achievement of a direct-democracy dictatorship of the proletariat, as political prelude to the establishment of socialism...

, or by parties following some type of nationalist
Nationalism
Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...

 or fascist
Fascism
Fascism is a radical authoritarian nationalist political ideology. Fascists seek to rejuvenate their nation based on commitment to the national community as an organic entity, in which individuals are bound together in national identity by suprapersonal connections of ancestry, culture, and blood...

 ideology, or parties that came to power in the wake of independence from colonial rule. One-party systems often arise from decolonization because one party has had an overwhelmingly dominant role in liberation or in independence struggles. Not all authoritarian
Authoritarianism
Authoritarianism is a form of social organization characterized by submission to authority. It is usually opposed to individualism and democracy...

 states and dictatorship
Dictatorship
A dictatorship is defined as an autocratic form of government in which the government is ruled by an individual, the dictator. It has three possible meanings:...

s operate based on single-party rule. Some, especially absolute monarchies
Absolute monarchy
Absolute monarchy is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government, his or her power not being limited by a constitution or by the law. An absolute monarch thus wields unrestricted political power over the...

 and certain military dictatorship
Military dictatorship
A military dictatorship is a form of government where in the political power resides with the military. It is similar but not identical to a stratocracy, a state ruled directly by the military....

s, have made all political parties illegal.

Where the ruling party
Ruling party
The ruling party or governing party in a parliamentary system is the political party or coalition of the majority in parliament. Within a parliamentary system, the majority in the legislature also controls the executive branch of government, thus leaving no possibility of dueling parties...

 subscribes to a form of Marxism-Leninism
Marxism-Leninism
Marxism–Leninism is a communist ideology, officially based upon the theories of Marxism and Vladimir Lenin, that promotes the development and creation of a international communist society through the leadership of a vanguard party over a revolutionary socialist state that represents a dictatorship...

, the one-party state system is usually called a communist state
Communist state
A communist state is a state with a form of government characterized by single-party rule or dominant-party rule of a communist party and a professed allegiance to a Leninist or Marxist-Leninist communist ideology as the guiding principle of the state...

, though such states do not use that term to describe themselves, adopting instead the title of people's republic
People's Republic
People's Republic is a title that has often been used by Marxist-Leninist governments to describe their state. The motivation for using this term lies in the claim that Marxist-Leninists govern in accordance with the interests of the vast majority of the people, and, as such, a Marxist-Leninist...

, socialist republic or democratic republic
Democratic republic
A democratic republic is a country which is both a republic and a democracy. However, in practice countries which describe themselves as democratic republics do not always hold free or fair elections. An example of this was the German Democratic Republic, a communist state commonly known as East...

. One peculiar example is Cuba
Cuba
The Republic of Cuba is an island nation in the Caribbean. The nation of Cuba consists of the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud, and several archipelagos. Havana is the largest city in Cuba and the country's capital. Santiago de Cuba is the second largest city...

, where the role of the Communist Party
Communist Party of Cuba
The Communist Party of Cuba is the governing political party in Cuba. It is a communist party of the Marxist-Leninist model. The Cuban constitution ascribes the role of the Party to be the "leading force of society and of the state"...

 is enshrined in the constitution, and no party is permitted to campaign or run candidates for election
Election
An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy operates since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the...

, including the Communist party. Candidates are elected on an individual referendum
Referendum
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of...

 basis without formal party involvement, though elected assemblies predominantly consist of members of the dominant party alongside non-affiliated candidates.

Examples


The True Whig Party of Liberia
Liberia
Liberia , officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Sierra Leone on the west, Guinea on the north and Côte d'Ivoire on the east. Liberia's coastline is composed of mostly mangrove forests while the more sparsely populated inland consists of forests that open...

 is considered the founder of the first single-party state in the world, as despite opposition parties never being outlawed, it completely dominated Liberian politics from 1878 until 1980. The party was conceived by the original Black American settlers and their descendants who referred to themselves as Americo-Liberians. Initially, its ideology was heavily influenced by that of the Whig Party
Whig Party (United States)
The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. Considered integral to the Second Party System and operating from the early 1830s to the mid-1850s, the party was formed in opposition to the policies of President Andrew Jackson and his Democratic...

 in the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

. Over time it morphed into a powerful Masonic Order that ruled every aspect of Liberian
Liberia
Liberia , officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Sierra Leone on the west, Guinea on the north and Côte d'Ivoire on the east. Liberia's coastline is composed of mostly mangrove forests while the more sparsely populated inland consists of forests that open...

 society for well over a century until it was overthrown in 1980. While the True Whig Party still exists today, its influence has substantially declined.

Current single-party states


The following list includes the countries that are legally constituted as single-party states as of 2010 and the name of the single party in power: (Communist Party of China
Communist Party of China
The Communist Party of China , also known as the Chinese Communist Party , is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China...

 leads the United Front); Hong Kong
Hong Kong
Hong Kong is one of two Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China , the other being Macau. A city-state situated on China's south coast and enclosed by the Pearl River Delta and South China Sea, it is renowned for its expansive skyline and deep natural harbour...

 and Macau
Macau
Macau , also spelled Macao , is, along with Hong Kong, one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China...

 are excluded. (1949) (Communist Party of Cuba
Communist Party of Cuba
The Communist Party of Cuba is the governing political party in Cuba. It is a communist party of the Marxist-Leninist model. The Cuban constitution ascribes the role of the Party to be the "leading force of society and of the state"...

) (1959) (People's Front for Democracy and Justice
People's Front for Democracy and Justice
The People's Front for Democracy and Justice is the current ruling political movement in Eritrea. It is nominally and often considered African socialist and holds itself open to nationalists of any political affiliation. It is the successor to the Eritrean People's Liberation Front...

) (1993) (Workers' Party of Korea
Workers' Party of Korea
The Workers' Party of Korea is the ruling Communist party of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea , commonly known as North Korea. It is also called the Korean Workers' Party...

 leads the Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland
Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland
The Democratic Front for the Reunification of the Fatherland, formed on 22 July 1946, is a North Korean united front led by the Workers' Party of Korea. It was initially called the North Korean Fatherland United Democratic Front...

) (1948) (Lao People's Revolutionary Party
Lao People's Revolutionary Party
The Lao People's Revolutionary Party is a communist political party that has governed Laos since 1975. The policy-making organs are the politburo and the central committee. A party congress, which elects members to the politburo and central committee, is held every five years...

 leads the Lao Front for National Construction
Lao Front for National Construction
The Lao Front for National Construction is a Laotian popular front founded in 1979 and led by the Lao People's Revolutionary Party. Its task is to organize Laotian mass organizations and other socio-political organizations. In 1988 its tasks were expanded to include certain ethnic minority affairs...

) (1975) (partially recognized state, Polisario Front
Polisario Front
The POLISARIO, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro is a Sahrawi rebel national liberation movement working for the independence of Western Sahara from Morocco...

) (1976) (Ba'ath Arab Socialist Party leads the National Progressive Front) (1963) (Democratic Party of Turkmenistan
Democratic Party of Turkmenistan
The Democratic Party of Turkmenistan is the only political party in Turkmenistan. The DPT was led by former Soviet provincial Party leader Saparmurat Niyazov from the dissolution of the Soviet Union in the early 1990s until his death in 2006...

) (1991) (Communist Party of Vietnam
Communist Party of Vietnam
The Communist Party of Vietnam , formally established in 1930, is the governing party of the nation of Vietnam. It is today the only legal political party in that country. Describing itself as Marxist-Leninist, the CPV is the directing component of a broader group of organizations known as the...

 leads the Vietnamese Fatherland Front
Vietnamese Fatherland Front
The Vietnamese Fatherland Front founded February 1977 , is an umbrella group of pro-government "mass movements" in Vietnam, and has close links to the Communist Party of Vietnam and the Vietnamese...

) (1976)

Former single-party states

  • Most states in Sub-Saharan Africa
    Sub-Saharan Africa
    Sub-Saharan Africa as a geographical term refers to the area of the African continent which lies south of the Sahara. A political definition of Sub-Saharan Africa, instead, covers all African countries which are fully or partially located south of the Sahara...

     after independence, although all except Eritrea
    Eritrea
    Eritrea , officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa. Eritrea derives it's name from the Greek word Erethria, meaning 'red land'. The capital is Asmara. It is bordered by Sudan in the west, Ethiopia in the south, and Djibouti in the southeast...

     have eventually converted to a de jure multi-party system
    Multi-party system
    A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition, e.g.The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition in the United Kingdom formed in 2010. The effective number of parties in a multi-party system is normally...

    ;
    •  Angola (MPLA) 1975-1991
    •  Benin (People's Revolutionary Party of Benin
      People's Revolutionary Party of Benin
      The People's Revolutionary Party of Benin was a political party in the People's Republic of Benin. It was founded in 1975 by General Mathieu Kérékou. With the new constitution of November 30, 1975, PRPB became the sole legal party in the country...

      ) 1975-1990
    •  Burundi (Union for National Progress
      Union for National Progress
      The Union for National Progress is a nationalist political party in Burundi, receiving most of its support from members of the Tutsi ethnic group. It is celebrated for its role in gaining Burundian independence. UPRONA's most famous prime minister and Burundi National Hero is Prince Louis Rwagasore...

      ) 1966-1992
    •  Cameroon (Cameroon National Union
      Cameroon National Union
      The Cameroon National Union was Cameroon's sole legal political party until 1990...

      ) 1966-1985, (Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
      Cameroon People's Democratic Movement
      The Cameroon People's Democratic Movement is the ruling political party in Cameroon.-History:Previously known as the Cameroon National Union, which had dominated Cameroon politics since independence in 1960, it was renamed in 1985...

      ) 1985-1990
    •  Cape Verde (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde
      African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde
      The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde or PAIGC is a political party that governed Guinea-Bissau from the independence of the then Portuguese Guinea in 1974, until the late 1990s, and from 2004 to 2005. Currently it is the party with the largest number of seats in the...

      ) 1975-1981, (African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde
      African Party for the Independence of Cape Verde
      The African Party of Independence of Cape Verde is a former socialist party and presently a social-democratic political party in Cape Verde. Its members are nicknamed “os tambarinas” in Portuguese , and they identify themselves with the color yellow.-Forerunner:In 1956, its forerunner, the African...

      ) 1981-1990
    •  Central African Republic (Movement for the Social Evolution of Black Africa) 1962-1980, (Central African Democratic Union
      Central African Democratic Union
      Central African Democratic Union , was a political party in the Central African Republic. UDC was installed by David Dacko in 1980 at a congress in March that year. Dacko claimed that UDC was the continuation of MESAN.-References:* O'Toole, Thomas. The Central African Republic: The Continent's...

      ) 1980-1981, (Central African Democratic Rally
      Central African Democratic Rally
      The Central African Democratic Rally is a political party in the Central African Republic. In the first round of the 2005 presidential election, held on 13 March, the party's candidate, André Kolingba, took 16.36% of the vote and third place. In the 2005 parliamentary election, the RDC won 8 out...

      ) 1987-1991
    •  Chad (Chadian Progressive Party
      Chadian Progressive Party
      The Chadian Progressive Party was the first African political party created in Chad, active from 1947 to 1973...

      ) 1962-1973, (National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution
      National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution
      The National Movement for the Cultural and Social Revolution was a political party in Chad. It was the successor to the Chadian Progressive Party and existed from 1973 to 1975 as the country's sole legal party, under the strict control of the President Ngarta Tombalbaye...

      ) 1973-1975, (National Union for Independence and Revolution
      National Union for Independence and Revolution
      The National Union for Independence and Revolution was the ruling party in Chad between 1984 and 1990. It was founded in June 1984 by President Hissène Habré as a successor of his Armed Forces of the North, the insurgent group through which Habré had conquered power in 1982...

      ) 1984-1990
    •  Comoros (Comorian Union for Progress
      Comorian Union for Progress
      The Comorian Union for Progress is a defunct political party in the Comoros.In 1978, French mercenary Bob Denard staged a coup d'etat against the socialist government of Ali Soilih, bringing Ahmed Abdallah back to power. In February 1982, Abdallah banned all existing political parties and created...

      ) 1982-1990
    •  Republic of the Congo (Congolese Party of Labour
      Congolese Party of Labour
      The Congolese Party of Labour , founded in 1969 by Marien Ngouabi, is the ruling political party of the Republic of the Congo...

      ) 1969-1990
    •  Côte d'Ivoire (Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire – African Democratic Rally
      Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire – African Democratic Rally
      The Democratic Party of Côte d'Ivoire — African Democratic Rally is a political party in Côte d'Ivoire. From independence in 1960 to 1990 it was the only legal party, and was led by President Félix Houphouët-Boigny. In 1990 the first multi-party elections took place, but the party remained in...

      ) 1960-1990
    •  Djibouti (People's Rally for Progress
      People's Rally for Progress
      The People's Rally for Progress , is a political party in Djibouti. It has dominated politics in the country since 1979, initially under the rule of President Hassan Gouled Aptidon...

      ) 1977-1992
    •  Equatorial Guinea (Worker's National United Party) 1970-1979, (Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea
      Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea
      The Democratic Party of Equatorial Guinea is the ruling political party in Equatorial Guinea. It was established by President Teodoro Obiang Nguema Mbasogo as the country's sole legal political organization on 11 October 1987...

      ) 1987-1991
    •  Ethiopia (Workers' Party of Ethiopia
      Workers' Party of Ethiopia
      The Workers' Party of Ethiopia is a Communist party in Ethiopia that was, from 1984 to 1990, the only legal political party in the country.-The Commission to Organize the Party of the Workers of Ethiopia:...

      ) 1984-1991
    •  Gabon (Gabonese Democratic Party
      Gabonese Democratic Party
      The Gabonese Democratic Party , is the ruling and dominant political party of Gabon. Its motto is Dialogue, Tolerance, Peace.It has held power since independence, first under Léon M'ba , then under Omar Bongo...

      ) 1968-1990
    •  Ghana (Convention People's Party
      Convention People's Party
      The Convention People's Party is a socialist political party in Ghana, based on the ideas of former President Kwame Nkrumah.The CPP was formed in 1949 by Kwame Nkrumah to campaign for the independence of the Gold Coast. It ruled Ghana from 1957 to 1966...

      ) 1964-1966
    •  Guinea (Democratic Party of Guinea – African Democratic Rally) 1958-1984
    •  Guinea-Bissau (African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde
      African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde
      The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde or PAIGC is a political party that governed Guinea-Bissau from the independence of the then Portuguese Guinea in 1974, until the late 1990s, and from 2004 to 2005. Currently it is the party with the largest number of seats in the...

      ) 1974-1991
    •  Kenya (Kenya African National Union
      Kenya African National Union
      The Kenya African National Union, better known as KANU is a political party which ruled Kenya for nearly 40 years after its independence from British colonial rule in 1963, until its electoral loss at the end of 2002...

      ) 1982-1991
    •  Liberia (True Whig Party) 1878-1980
    •  Madagascar (National Front for the Defense of the Revolution
      Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar
      The Association for the Rebirth of Madagascar or Pillar and Structure for the Salvation of Madagascar is a political party in Madagascar.*National secretary: Pierrot Rajaonarivelo...

      ) 1976-1989
    •  Malawi (Malawi Congress Party
      Malawi Congress Party
      The Malawi Congress Party is a political party in Malawi.It was the successor to the Nyasaland African Congress , which was banned in 1959.The MCP was founded by Hastings Banda and other NAC leaders in 1960....

      ) 1964-1993
    •  Mali (Sudanese Union – African Democratic Rally) 1960-1968, (Democratic Union of the Malian People
      Democratic Union of the Malian People
      Democratic Union of the Malian People UDPN was a political party in Mali. It was founded by the CMLN military junta regime in order to provide it with political legitimacy...

      ) 1976-1991
    •  Mauritania (Mauritanian People's Party) 1961-1978
    •  Mozambique (FRELIMO) 1975-1990
    •  Niger (Nigerien Progressive Party – African Democratic Rally) 1960-1974, (National Movement for the Development of Society
      National Movement for the Development of Society
      The National Movement for the Society of Development - MNSD / MNSD-Nassara is a political party in Niger. Founded under the military government of the 1974-1990 period, it was the ruling party of Niger from 1989 to 1993 and again from 1999 until a coup on February 18, 2010, by a military junta...

      ) 1989-1991
    •  Rwanda (Parmehutu
      Parmehutu
      Parmehutu , also known as MDR-Parmehutu is a now-defunct political party of Rwanda and Burundi.It was founded by Grégoire Kayibanda as a political party of moderate Hutu...

      ) 1965-1973, (National Republican Movement for Democracy and Development) 1975-1991
    •  São Tomé and Príncipe (Movement for the Liberation of São Tomé and Príncipe/Social Democratic Party) 1975-1990
    •  Senegal (Socialist Party of Senegal
      Socialist Party of Senegal
      The Socialist Party of Senegal is a political party in Senegal. It was the ruling party in Senegal from independence in 1960 until 2000. Ousmane Tanor Dieng has been the First Secretary of the party since 1996...

      ) 1966-1974
    •  Seychelles (Seychelles People's Progressive Front) 1977-1991
    •  Sierra Leone (All People's Congress
      All People's Congress
      The All People's Congress is one of the two major political parties in Sierra Leone, the other is the Sierra Leone People's Party . The party was founded in 1960 by Pa Mucktarru Kallay, Allieu Badarr Koroma,Alhaji Sheik Gibril Sesay C A Kamara-Taylor, S A T Koroma and Abu Bakarr S Bangura...

      ) 1978-1991
    •  Somalia (Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party
      Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party
      The Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party was the governing political party in Somalia from 1976 to 1991.- History :XHKS was created by the military regime of Siad Barre under Soviet guidance. A founding congress was held in June 1976. The congress elected a Central Committee, with Barre as the...

      ) 1976-1991
    •  Sudan (Sudanese Socialist Union
      Sudanese Socialist Union
      The Sudanese Socialist Union was a political party in Sudan. The SSU was the country's sole legal party from 1971 until 1985, when the regime of President Gaafar Nimeiry was overthrown in a military coup....

      ) 1971-1985
    •  Tanzania (Chama cha Mapinduzi
      Chama Cha Mapinduzi
      The Chama cha Mapinduzi is the ruling political party of Tanzania.- History :The party was created February 5, 1977, under the leadership of Julius Nyerere as the merger of the Tanganyika African National Union , the then ruling party in Tanganyika, and the Afro-Shirazi Party , the then ruling...

      ) 1977-1992

} (Tanganyika African National Union
Tanganyika African National Union
The Tanganyika African National Union was the principal political party in the struggle for sovereignty in the East African state of Tanganyika . The party was formed from the Tanganyika African Association by Julius Nyerere in July 1954 when he was teaching at St. Francis' College...

) 1961-1977
} (Afro-Shirazi Party
Afro-Shirazi Party
The Afro-Shirazi Party was the union between the mostly Shiraz Party and the mostly African Afro Party in the island of Zanzibar. The formation of ASP led to the ouster of the Arabs from power with the Zanzibar Revolution in 1964. The party joined with the Tanganyika African National Union to...

) 1964-1977
    •  Togo (Party of Togolese Unity
      Party of Togolese Unity
      Party of Togolese Unity , initially known as the Committee of Togolese Unity , was a political party in Togo. CUT was formed on 13 March 1941 and led by Sylvanus Olympio. CUT gradually became more radical, and from 1947 onwards it demanded self-determination...

      ) 1962-1963, (Rally of the Togolese People
      Rally of the Togolese People
      The Rally of the Togolese People is the ruling political party in Togo. The President of Togo, Faure Gnassingbé, is also the National President of the RPT....

      ) 1969-1991
    •  Uganda (Uganda People's Congress
      Uganda People's Congress
      The Uganda People's Congress is a political party in Uganda.Uganda People's Congress was founded in 1960 by Milton Obote, who led the country to Independence and later served two presidential terms under the party's banner...

      ) 1969-1971
    •  Republic of Upper Volta (Voltaic Democratic Union – African Democratic Rally) 1960-1966
    •  Zambia (United National Independence Party
      United National Independence Party
      The United National Independence Party is a political party in Zambia. It governed that country from 1964 to 1991 under the presidency of Kenneth Kaunda....

      ) 1972-1990
    •  Zaire (Popular Movement of the Revolution
      Popular Movement of the Revolution
      The Popular Movement of the Revolution was a Zairian political party established on May 20, 1967 by then-President Joseph-Désiré Mobutu .-Ideology:...

      ) June 1969-1990

  • Some Middle East
    Middle East
    The Middle East is a region that encompasses Western Asia and Northern Africa. It is often used as a synonym for Near East, in opposition to Far East...

    ern and North Africa
    North Africa
    North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, linked by the Sahara to Sub-Saharan Africa. Geopolitically, the United Nations definition of Northern Africa includes eight countries or territories; Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, South Sudan, Sudan, Tunisia, and...

    n states;
    •  Algeria (National Liberation Front
      National Liberation Front (Algeria)
      The National Liberation Front is a socialist political party in Algeria. It was set up on November 1, 1954 as a merger of other smaller groups, to obtain independence for Algeria from France.- Anticolonial struggle :...

      ) 1962-1989
    •  Egypt (National Union) 1953-1962, (Arab Socialist Union
      Arab Socialist Union (Egypt)
      The Arab Socialist Union was an Egyptian political party based on the principles of Nasserist Arab socialism.-Emergence:The Arab Socialist Union was founded in Egypt in December 1962 by Gamal Abdel Nasser as the country's sole political party. The ASU grew out of the Free Officers Movement of the...

      ) 1962-1976
    •   Iran (Rastakhiz Party) 1975-1978
    •  Iraq (Ba'ath Party led the National Progressive Front
      National Progressive Front (Iraq)
      The National Progressive Front was an Iraqi Popular Front announced on July 16, 1973 and constituted in 1974, ostensibly formed within the framework of a "joint action programme" to establish a coalition between the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, the Iraqi Communist Party, the Kurdistan...

      ) 1968-2003
    •  Libya (Arab Socialist Union
      Arab Socialist Union (Libya)
      The Arab Socialist Union was a political party in Libya.Many aspects of Muammar al-Gaddafi's Libyan revolution were based on that of Gamal Abdel Nasser. Like Nasser, Qaddafi seized power with a Free Officers Movement, which, in 1971 became the Arab Socialist Union...

      ) 1971-1977
    •  South Yemen (Yemeni Socialist Party
      Yemeni Socialist Party
      The Yemeni Socialist Party is a political party in Yemen.It was the ruling party in South Yemen, the only Marxist Arab state, before unification in 1990...

      ) 1978-1990
    •  Syria (Arab Liberation Movement) 1952-1954
    •  Tunisia (Neo Destour
      Neo Destour
      The New Constitutional Liberal Party , most commonly known as Neo Destour, was a Tunisian political party that was founded by a group of nationalist politicians during the French protectorate.-History:...

      ) 1957-1964, (Socialist Destourian Party
      Socialist Destourian Party
      The Socialist Destourian Party was the ruling political party of Tunisia from 1964 to 1988. Bahi Ladgham was the first Prime Minister from the party and Hédi Baccouche was the last. It was founded on October 22, 1964 and disbanded on February 27, 1988. Habib Bourgiba was the first president of the...

      ) 1964-1988, (Constitutional Democratic Rally
      Constitutional Democratic Rally
      The Constitutional Democratic Rally , also referred to by its French acronym RCD, formerly called Neo Destour then Socialist Destourian Party, was the governing party in Tunisia. The party was suspended by the minister of interior on February 6th awaiting a decision on its dissolution by judicial...

      ) 1988-1989
    •  Turkey (Republican People’s Party
      Republican People's Party (Turkey)
      The Republican People's Party is a centre-left Kemalist political party in Turkey. It is the oldest political party of Turkey and is currently Main Opposition in the Grand National Assembly. The Republican People's Party describes itself as "a modern social-democratic party, which is faithful to...

      ) 1923-1946

  • One state in South Asia;
    •  Bangladesh (Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League
      BAKSAL
      The Bangladesh Krishak Sramik Awami League was a political amalgmation of the Awami League with the Krishak Sramik Party that supported President Sheikh Mujibur Rahman in governing Bangladesh...

      ) 1975-1979

  • One state in Southeast Asia;
    •  Myanmar (now known as Myanmar) (Burma Socialist Programme Party
      Burma Socialist Programme Party
      Burma Socialist Programme Party was formed by the Ne Win's military regime that seized power in 1962 and was the sole political party allowed to exist legally in Burma during the period of military rule from 1964 until its demise in the aftermath of the popular uprising of 1988.-History:The BSPP...

      ) 1964-1988

  • The former Soviet Union
    Soviet Union
    The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

    , Warsaw Pact
    Warsaw Pact
    The Warsaw Treaty Organization of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance , or more commonly referred to as the Warsaw Pact, was a mutual defense treaty subscribed to by eight communist states in Eastern Europe...

    , and other Communist state
    Communist state
    A communist state is a state with a form of government characterized by single-party rule or dominant-party rule of a communist party and a professed allegiance to a Leninist or Marxist-Leninist communist ideology as the guiding principle of the state...

    s;
    •  Afghanistan (People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
      People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan
      The People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan was a communist party established on the 1 January 1965. While a minority, the party helped former president of Afghanistan, Mohammed Daoud Khan, to overthrow his cousin, Mohammed Zahir Shah, and established Daoud's Republic of Afghanistan...

      ) 1978-1992
    •   Albania (Party of Labour of Albania) 1944-1991
    •   Bulgaria (Bulgarian Communist Party
      Bulgarian Communist Party
      The Bulgarian Communist Party was the communist and Marxist-Leninist ruling party of the People's Republic of Bulgaria from 1946 until 1990 when the country ceased to be a communist state...

      ) 1946-1990
    •  Cambodia (Communist Party of Kampuchea
      Communist Party of Kampuchea
      The Communist Party of Kampuchea, also known as Khmer Communist Party , was a communist party in Cambodia. Its followers were generally known as Khmer Rouge .-Foundation of the party; first divisions:...

      ) 1976-1979, (Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party
      Cambodian People's Party
      The Cambodian People's Party is the current ruling party of Cambodia.This party was formerly known as Kampuchean People's Revolutionary Party...

      ) 1979-1991
    •   Czechoslovakia
      Czechoslovak Socialist Republic
      The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic was the official name of Czechoslovakia from 1960 until end of 1989 , a Soviet satellite state of the Eastern Bloc....

       (Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
      Communist Party of Czechoslovakia
      The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, in Czech and in Slovak: Komunistická strana Československa was a Communist and Marxist-Leninist political party in Czechoslovakia that existed between 1921 and 1992....

       led the National Front
      National Front (Czechoslovakia)
      The National Front was the coalition of parties which headed the re-established Czechoslovakian government from 1945 to 1948. During the Communist era in Czechoslovakia it was the vehicle for control of all political and social activity by the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia...

      ) 1948-1989
    •  German Democratic Republic (Socialist Unity Party of Germany
      Socialist Unity Party of Germany
      The Socialist Unity Party of Germany was the governing party of the German Democratic Republic from its formation on 7 October 1949 until the elections of March 1990. The SED was a communist political party with a Marxist-Leninist ideology...

       led the National Front
      National Front (East Germany)
      The National Front of the German Democratic Republic was an alliance of political parties and mass organisations in East Germany...

      ) 1949-1989
    •  Grenada (New Jewel Movement
      New Jewel Movement
      The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement, was a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party in the Caribbean island nation of Grenada...

      ) 1979-1983
    •   Hungary
      People's Republic of Hungary
      The People's Republic of Hungary or Hungarian People's Republic was the official state name of Hungary from 1949 to 1989 during its Communist period under the guidance of the Soviet Union. The state remained in existence until 1989 when opposition forces consolidated in forcing the regime to...

       (Hungarian Working People's Party) 1948-1956, (Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party
      Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party
      The Hungarian Socialist Workers' Party was the ruling Marxist–Leninist party of Hungary between 1956 and 1989. It was organised from elements of the Hungarian Working People's Party during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution...

      ) 1956-1989
    •  Mongolia (Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party) 1921-1990
    •   Poland
      People's Republic of Poland
      The People's Republic of Poland was the official name of Poland from 1952 to 1990. Although the Soviet Union took control of the country immediately after the liberation from Nazi Germany in 1944, the name of the state was not changed until eight years later...

       (Polish United Workers' Party
      Polish United Workers' Party
      The Polish United Workers' Party was the Communist party which governed the People's Republic of Poland from 1948 to 1989. Ideologically it was based on the theories of Marxism-Leninism.- The Party's Program and Goals :...

       led the Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth
      Patriotic Movement for National Rebirth
      Patriotyczny Ruch Odrodzenia Narodowego was a Polish communist organization. It was created in the aftermath of the martial law in Poland...

      ) 1948-1989
    •   Romania (Romanian Communist Party
      Romanian Communist Party
      The Romanian Communist Party was a communist political party in Romania. Successor to the Bolshevik wing of the Socialist Party of Romania, it gave ideological endorsement to communist revolution and the disestablishment of Greater Romania. The PCR was a minor and illegal grouping for much of the...

      ) 1947-1989
    •  Soviet Union (Communist Party of the Soviet Union
      Communist Party of the Soviet Union
      The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the only legal, ruling political party in the Soviet Union and one of the largest communist organizations in the world...

      ) 1922-1991
    •  Kingdom of Yugoslavia (League of Communists of Yugoslavia
      League of Communists of Yugoslavia
      League of Communists of Yugoslavia , before 1952 the Communist Party of Yugoslavia League of Communists of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian: Savez komunista Jugoslavije/Савез комуниста Југославије, Slovene: Zveza komunistov Jugoslavije, Macedonian: Сојуз на комунистите на Југославија, Sojuz na...

      ) 1945-1990

  • Several nationalist
    Nationalism
    Nationalism is a political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a political entity defined in national terms, i.e. a nation. In the 'modernist' image of the nation, it is nationalism that creates national identity. There are various definitions for what...

     states;
    •   Federal State of Austria
      Federal State of Austria
      The Federal State of Austria refers to Austria from 1934 to 1938, according to its self-conception a non-party, in fact a single-party state led by the fascist Fatherland's Front...

       (Fatherland's Front) 1934-1938
    •  Republic of China (Kuomintang
      Kuomintang
      The Kuomintang of China , sometimes romanized as Guomindang via the Pinyin transcription system or GMD for short, and translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party is a founding and ruling political party of the Republic of China . Its guiding ideology is the Three Principles of the People, espoused...

      ) 1928-1987
    • (Ustaše
      Ustaše
      The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement was a Croatian fascist anti-Yugoslav separatist movement. The ideology of the movement was a blend of fascism, Nazism, and Croatian nationalism. The Ustaše supported the creation of a Greater Croatia that would span to the River Drina and to the border...

      ) 1941-1945
    •  Dominican Republic (Dominican Party
      Dominican Party
      The Dominican Party was the de-facto only political party in the Dominican Republic during the autocratic rule of Rafael Trujillo, who controlled the country from 1930 to 1961...

      ) 1930-1961
    • (National Socialist German Workers' Party) 1933-1945
    • (Arrow Cross Party
      Arrow Cross Party
      The Arrow Cross Party was a national socialist party led by Ferenc Szálasi, which led in Hungary a government known as the Government of National Unity from October 15, 1944 to 28 March 1945...

      ) 1944-1945
    •  Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic) (National Fascist Party
      National Fascist Party
      The National Fascist Party was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism...

      ) 1926-1943 and  Italian Social Republic (Republican Fascist Party
      Republican Fascist Party
      The Republican Fascist Party was a political party led by Benito Mussolini during the German occupation of Central and Northern Italy. It was founded as the successor of former National Fascist Party as an anti-monarchist party...

      ) 1943-1945
    •  Empire of Japan (Imperial Rule Assistance Association
      Taisei Yokusankai
      The was Japan's para-fascist organization created by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe on October 12, 1940 to promote the goals of his Shintaisei movement...

      ) 1940-1945
    •  Manchukuo (Concordia Association
      Concordia Association
      The was a political party in Manchukuo. Established to promote the ideals of Pan-Asianism and the creation of a multi-ethnic nation-state and to create a structure which would gradually replace military rule over Manchukuo with a civilian control, the party was unable to fulfill its early...

      ) 1932-1945
    •  Norway (National Gathering) 1942-1945
    •  Paraguay (Colorado Party
      Colorado Party (Paraguay)
      The National Republican Association – Colorado Party is a political party in Paraguay, founded in 1887 by Bernardino Caballero. It is usually known as the Colorado Party...

      ) 1947-1962
    •  Philippines (KALIBAPI
      KALIBAPI
      The Kapisanan ng Paglilingkod sa Bagong Pilipinas , or KALIBAPI, was a Filipino political party that served as the sole party of state during the Japanese occupation...

      ) 1943-1945
    •  Portugal (National Union
      National Union (Portugal)
      The National Union was the only legal political party in Portugal for most of the period of the Estado Novo, a right-wing dictatorship dominated by António de Oliveira Salazar....

      ) 1933-1974
    •  Kingdom of Romania (National Renaissance Front
      National Renaissance Front
      The National Renaissance Front was a fascist Romanian political party created by King Carol II in 1938 as the single monopoly party of government following his decision to ban all other political parties and suspend the 1923 Constitution, and the passing of the 1938 Constitution of Romania...

      ) 1938-1940, (Iron Guard
      Iron Guard
      The Iron Guard is the name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II. The Iron Guard was ultra-nationalist, fascist, anti-communist, and promoted the Orthodox Christian faith...

      ) 1940-1941
    •  San Marino (Sammarinese Fascist Party
      Sammarinese Fascist Party
      The Sammarinese Fascist Party or Partito Fascista Sammarinese was a fascist political party that ruled San Marino from 1923 to 1943....

      ) 1926-1943, (Republican Fascio of San Marino
      Sammarinese Fascist Party
      The Sammarinese Fascist Party or Partito Fascista Sammarinese was a fascist political party that ruled San Marino from 1923 to 1943....

      ) 1944
    •   Slovak Republic (Slovak People's Party
      Slovak People's Party
      The Slovak People's Party was a Slovak right-wing party and was described as a fascist and...

      ) 1939-1945
    •  Spain (Spanish Patriotic Union
      Spanish Patriotic Union
      The Spanish Patriotic Union, UPE was the political party created from above by Spanish dictator Miguel Primo de Rivera, conceived as a support to his conservative dictatorship and integrating political catholicism, technocrats, and the business-owning classes.After the establishment of the Second...

      ) 1923-1930, (National Movement
      Movimiento Nacional
      The Movimiento Nacional was the name given to the nationalist inspired mechanism during Francoist rule in Spain, which purported to be the only channel of participation to Spanish public life...

      ) 1939-1975

See also

  • List of democracy and elections-related topics
  • Multi-Party System
    Multi-party system
    A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties have the capacity to gain control of government separately or in coalition, e.g.The Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition in the United Kingdom formed in 2010. The effective number of parties in a multi-party system is normally...

  • Two-Party System
    Two-party system
    A two-party system is a system where two major political parties dominate voting in nearly all elections at every level of government and, as a result, all or nearly all elected offices are members of one of the two major parties...

  • Dominant Party System
    Dominant-party system
    A dominant-party system, or one-party dominant system, is a system where there is "a category of parties/political organizations that have successively won election victories and whose future defeat cannot be envisaged or is unlikely for the foreseeable future." A wide range of parties have been...


External links