Sibghatullah Mojaddedi

Sibghatullah Mojaddedi

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Encyclopedia
Sibghatullah Mojaddedi(born 1925 or 1926), served as the first President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan
President of Afghanistan
Afghanistan has only been a republic between 1973 and 1992 and from 2001 onwards. Before 1973, it was a monarchy that was governed by a variety of kings, emirs or shahs...

 after the fall of the communist
Communism
Communism is a social, political and economic ideology that aims at the establishment of a classless, moneyless, revolutionary and stateless socialist society structured upon common ownership of the means of production...

 regime in 1992. He is also the leader of the Afghan National Liberation Front. Professor Mojaddedi transferred power to President Burhanuddin Rabbani
Burhanuddin Rabbani
Professor Burhanuddin Rabbani was President of the Islamic State of Afghanistan from 1992 to 1996. After the Taliban government was toppled during Operation Enduring Freedom, Rabbani returned to Kabul and served as a temporary President from November to December 20, 2001, when Hamid Karzai was...

 after serving a two-month term, based on a prior agreement that was reached by the Mujahideen
Mujahideen
Mujahideen are Muslims who struggle in the path of God. The word is from the same Arabic triliteral as jihad .Mujahideen is also transliterated from Arabic as mujahedin, mujahedeen, mudžahedin, mudžahidin, mujahidīn, mujaheddīn and more.-Origin of the concept:The beginnings of Jihad are traced...

 forces in Pakistan
Pakistan
Pakistan , officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is a sovereign state in South Asia. It has a coastline along the Arabian Sea and the Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by Afghanistan and Iran in the west, India in the east and China in the far northeast. In the north, Tajikistan...

, as he was unable establish any type of reconciliation among the Mujahideen factions. In December 2003, he served as the chairman of the Loya Jirga
Loya jirga
A loya jirga is a type of jirga regarded as "grand assembly," a phrase in the Pashto language meaning "grand council." A loya jirga is a mass meeting usually prepared for major events such as choosing a new king, adopting a constitution, or discussing important national political or emergency...

 that approved Afghanistan's new constitution. Recently he was elected as the leader of the legislature's 102-seat upper house, the Meshrano Jirga, for a 5 year term, and is also chairman of "National Commission for Peace in Afghanistan".

Personal


Sibghatullah Mojaddedi is an ethnic Pashtun
Pashtun people
Pashtuns or Pathans , also known as ethnic Afghans , are an Eastern Iranic ethnic group with populations primarily between the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and the Indus River in Pakistan...

. The Mojaddedi is an eminent religious family from Kabul.

Politics


Sibghatullah Mojaddedi is a moderate Muslim leader. He is a member of the Jebh-e-Nejat-e Melli (National Liberation Front).

In 1989, the Afghan Interim Government appointed him as the president of the country. In 1992, he was the chair of a the Islamic Jihad Council that was set up to establish a post-Soviet Afghan government. This position lasted three months, although some sources say he stayed for only two months.. In May 1992, Burhanuddin Rabbani established a new leadership council. This council undermined Mojaddedi's leadership, resulting in his resignation and handing over power to a new council. During this time in 1992, when Mojaddedi was President of Afghanistan
President of Afghanistan
Afghanistan has only been a republic between 1973 and 1992 and from 2001 onwards. Before 1973, it was a monarchy that was governed by a variety of kings, emirs or shahs...

, the Ariana
Ariana Afghan Airlines
Ariana Afghan Airlines Co. Ltd. is the oldest and the national airline of Afghanistan, and is currently the largest Afghan airline, headquartered in Kabul...

 plane carrying him to Kabul was hit by an RPG
Rocket propelled grenade
A rocket-propelled grenade is a shoulder-fired, anti-tank weapon system which fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead. These warheads are affixed to a rocket motor and stabilized in flight with fins. Some types of RPG are reloadable while others are single-use. RPGs, with the exception of...

 as it was landing at Kabul Airport
Kabul International Airport
-Facilities:The airport has two terminal buildings, the modern for international flights and the Soviet built one for domestic flights. Several hangars along the runway are for military aircraft...

. The plane landed safely, with no fatalities.

Two suicide bombers carried out an attack in Kabul on March 12, 2006 against Sibghatullah Mojaddedi. At the time of the attack, he was a member of the upper house of parliament and head of a reconciliation committee aimed at engaging former Taliban members. He was attacked as he was being driven on the road in Kabul. Attackers blew up a vehicle filled with explosives next to his car. Four pedestrians were killed and Mojaddedi was slightly injured, with burns to his face and hands.

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