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See Shiksa
Shiksa
Shiksa or shikse, is a Yiddish and Polish word that has moved into English usage, mostly in North American Jewish culture, as a term for a non-Jewish woman, initially and sometimes still pejorative but now often used satirically...

 for the Yiddish slang word.

Shiksha (Devanagari: शिक्षा IAST
IAST
The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is a transliteration scheme that allows a lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by the Sanskrit language.-Popularity:...

: ) is one of the six Vedanga
Vedanga
The Vedanga are six auxiliary disciplines traditionally associated with the study and understanding of the Vedas.#Shiksha : phonetics, phonology and morphophonology #Kalpa : ritual#Vyakarana : grammar...

s, treating the traditional Hindu
Hindu
Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

 science of phonetics
Phonetics
Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs : their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory...

 and phonology
Phonology
Phonology is, broadly speaking, the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the sounds of language. That is, it is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use...

 of Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

.

Its aim is the teaching of the correct pronunciation of the Vedic hymns
Vedas
The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism....

 and mantra
Mantra
A mantra is a sound, syllable, word, or group of words that is considered capable of "creating transformation"...

s. The oldest phonetic textbooks are the Pratishakyas (, a vrddhi
Vrddhi
' is a Sanskrit word meaning "growth" . In Panini's grammar, it is also a technical term for a group of long vowels. In Indo-European linguistics, it has become a term for the lengthened grade of the ablaut vowel gradation peculiar to the Indo-European languages...

 abstract from Sanskrit
Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

 ), describing pronunciation, intonation of Sanskrit, as well as the Sanskrit rules of sandhi
Sandhi
Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries . Examples include the fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of sounds due to neighboring sounds or due to the grammatical function of adjacent words...

 (word combination), specific to individual schools or Shakha
Shakha
A shakha , is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school. An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a ...

s of the Vedas.

Pratishakhyas


The Pratishakhyas, which evolved from the more ancient Vedic Texts padapathas between c. 3100-800 BCE, deal with the manner in which the Vedas are to be enunciated. There are separate Pratishakhyas for each Veda. They are a complement to the books called Shiksha written by various authorities.

Five Pratishakhyas are preserved:
  • Rigveda
    Rigveda
    The Rigveda is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns...

    -Pratishakya (Shakala shakha), attributed to Shaunaka
    Shaunaka
    Shaunaka is the name applied to teachers, and to a Shakha of the Atharvaveda. It is especially the name of a celebrated Sanskrit grammarian, author of the , the , the and five Anukramaṇīs to the Rigveda. He is claimed as the teacher of Katyayana and especially of Ashvalayana, and is said to have...

  • Shukla Yajurveda-Pratishakhya
  • Taittiriya
    Taittiriya
    Taittirīya is a shaka of the Black Yajurveda*Taittiriya Samhita , see Black Yajurveda*Taittiriya Upanishad...

     (Black Yajurveda) Pratishakhya, ed. Whitney 1871 http://www.sanskritweb.net/yajurveda/tp-comb.pdf
  • Atharvaveda
    Atharvaveda
    The Atharvaveda is a sacred text of Hinduism and one of the four Vedas, often called the "fourth Veda"....

    -Pratishakhya (Shaunakiya shakha)
  • Shaunakiya Chaturaadhyaayika (Shaunakiya shakha)


The Shiksha Texts and the Pratishakhyas led to a great clarity in understanding the surface structure of language. For clarity of pronunciation, they propose breaking up the large Vedic compounds into stem
Word stem
In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word. The term is used with slightly different meanings.In one usage, a stem is a form to which affixes can be attached. Thus, in this usage, the English word friendships contains the stem friend, to which the derivational suffix -ship is attached to form a new...

s, prefixes, and suffixes. Certain styles of recitation () such as the involved switching syllables, repeating the last word of a line at the beginning of the next, and other permutations. In the process, a considerable amount of morphology
Morphology (linguistics)
In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysis and description, in a language, of the structure of morphemes and other linguistic units, such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context...

 is discussed, particularly regarding the combination of sequential sounds, which leads to the modalities of sandhi
Sandhi
Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries . Examples include the fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of sounds due to neighboring sounds or due to the grammatical function of adjacent words...

. An even more important discovery recorded in the Pratishakhya texts, particularly the Samaveda Pratishakhya, which is claimed to be the earliest), is an organization of the stop consonant
Stop consonant
In phonetics, a plosive, also known as an occlusive or an oral stop, is a stop consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be done with the tongue , lips , and &...

 sounds into a 5x5 varga or square:
ca cha ja jha ña
ta tha da dha na
pa pha ba bha ma

in which difference between sounds is preserved whether you recite it horizontally or vertically. This was extended and completed with fricatives and sibilants, semi-vowels,
and vowel
Vowel
In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! or oh! , pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! , where there is a constriction or closure at some...

s, and was eventually codified into the Brahmi alphabet, which is one of the most systematic sound to writing mapping. A scholar has commented: Mendelejev's Periodic system of elements, the varga system was the result of centuries of analysis. In the course of that development, the basic concepts of phonology were discovered and defined.

However, it will be too childish to say that the Varga system is the only important contribution of the Shiksha Texts and the Pratishakshyas. These are much elaborate systems which deal with the generation and classification of sound. According to the old tradition, sound is generated when four conditions are satisfied: viz; a ground or base, an electromagnetic force, a gravitational force implying the existence of other nearby bodies or particles and space for the bodies to expand. The middle two parameters generate vibration in the bodies. Depending upon the magnitude of these parameters, there are 304 types of sounds, out of which 12 types are within human audible range. The lowest of these is called sphota and the highest is called mahaghanarava.

The Vedic language, which is a highly developed and scientific language, is supposed to have been brought by extra-terrestrial beings who inhabited Earth in its earlier period. They interacted with the population that grew indegeneously. Kashyap Samhita gives details of the evolutionary forms for the past 39 million years. According to it, the present human form developed only about 5100 years ago. The earliest forms resemble those of Dinosaurs. The indigenous language was without grammar; hence without clarity. Sanskrit, which literally means reformed, was a later creation due to fusion between the Vedic language and the local language. Classical Tamil or sentamil as distinct from modern Tamil (which is of later origin), is a sister language of Sanskrit. Since it was still difficult for common use, two other grammatical language groups developed in India - Prakrit and koduntamil, which is the precursor of modern Tamil. Other Indian languages developed from these.

The Brahmi script is named after the Vedic script. Shukla Yajurveda Pratishakhya (8-25) calls the letters of the alphabet as Brahma Rashi meaning Universal letter unit. From this, the name Brahmi originated for the script.

Other Shiksha texts


In addition, several Shiksha texts exist, most of them in metrical verse form but a few in sutra form. Some of these surviving texts are: English translation of Paniniya Siksa.pdf
  • Amoghanandini Shiksha
  • Apisali Shiksha (in sutra form)
  • Aranya Shiksha
  • Atreya Shiksha
  • Avasananirnyaya Shiksha
  • Bharadvaja Shiksha
  • Chandra Shiksha of Chandragomin (sutra form)
  • Charayaniya Shiksha
  • Galadrka Shiksha
  • Kalanirnya Shiksha
  • Katyayani Shiksha
  • Shiksha
  • Kaundinya Shiksha
  • Keshavi Shiksha
  • Kramakarika Shiksha
  • Kramasandhaana Shiksha
  • Laghumoghanandini Shiksha
  • Lakshmikanta Shiksha
  • Lomashi Shiksha
  • Madhyandina Shiksha
  • Mandavya Shiksha
  • Mallasharmakrta Shiksha
  • Manasvaara Shiksha
  • Manduki Shiksha
  • Naradiya Shiksha
  • Paniniya Shiksha (versified)
  • Paniniya Shiksha (in sutra form)
  • Paniniya Shiksha (with accents)
  • Parashari Shiksha
  • Padyaatmika Keshavi Shiksha
  • Pari Shiksha
  • Pratishakhyapradipa Shiksha
  • Sarvasammata Shiksha
  • Shaishiriya Shiksha
  • Shamaana Shiksha
  • Shambhu Shiksha
  • Shodashashloki Shiksha
  • Shikshasamgraha
  • Siddhanta Shiksha
  • Svaraankusha Shiksha
  • Svarashtaka Shiksha
  • Svaravyanjana Shiksha
  • Vasishtha Shiksha
  • Varnaratnapradipa Shiksha
  • Vyaali Shiksha
  • Vyasa Shiksha
  • Yajnavalkya Shiksha


Although many of these Shiksha texts an attached to specific Vedic schools, others are late texts.

Syllabicity


Traditionally syllables (not letters) in Sanskrit are called "Akshara
Akshara
Akshara may mean:*"letter" in Hindi*"everlasting" or "imperishable"*in Sanskrit grammar, "syllable", see Shiksha*a consonant grapheme, with an inherent vowel, of a script of the Brahmic family....

", meaning "imperishable (entity)", as it were "atoms" of speech. These aksharas are basically classified mainly into two types,
  • Svara (pratyahara
    Shiva Sutra
    The Shiva Sutras or Māheshvara Sutras are fourteen verses that organize the phonemes of the Sanskrit language as referred to in the of , the foundational text of Sanskrit grammar...

     aC) : Vowel
    Vowel
    In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! or oh! , pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! , where there is a constriction or closure at some...

  • Vyanjana (pratyahara haL) : Consonant
    Consonant
    In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the tongue; , pronounced in the throat; and ,...



are also known as i.e. they are main sounds in speech, without which speech is not possible. We find same notation used for referring the Tamil vowels calling them as Uyir ezhutthu. Pāṇini referred to svara by ac pratyahāra. After him, they are referred as .

Vyañjana means embellishment, i.e., consonants are treated as embellishment for the vowels to make a language sonorant
Sonorant
In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; fricatives and plosives are not sonorants. Vowels are sonorants, as are consonants like and . Other consonants, like or , restrict the airflow enough to cause turbulence, and...

. They are also known as Prāni akshara i.e., they are like a body in which life (svara) will be present. We find same notation used for referring the Tamil consonants calling them as Mey ezhutthu. Pāṇini referred to vyañjana by Hal Pratyahāra. After him, they are referred as Hal akshara.

Again vyañjana are divided into three types,
  • Vyañjana
    • Sparśa : Stop
      Stop consonant
      In phonetics, a plosive, also known as an occlusive or an oral stop, is a stop consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be done with the tongue , lips , and &...

    • Antastha : Approximant
    • : Sibilant

include syllables from Ka to Ma they are 25 in number. Antastha akṣaras include syllables ya, ra, la and va. include śa, sha, sa and ha.

It was told that a vowel can be pronounced in 18 ways (3x2x3) in Sanskrit language based on timing
Timing (linguistics)
Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language. Isochrony is one of the three aspects of prosody, the others being intonation and stress.Three alternative ways in which a language can divide time are postulated:...

, manner
Manner of articulation
In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants, even though the movement of the articulars will also greatly alter the resonant properties of the...

, and accent
Accent
-Speech and language:* Accent , pronunciation characteristic of a certain locality* Accent , of a word* Stress , tone levels and emphasis used in many languages for words or grammar* A diacritical mark is also known as an accent....

 of pronunciation.

Morae


Each vowel can be classified into three types based on the time of pronunciation (morae). The unit of time is mātra (approx. 0.4 second). They are,
  • Hrasva : Short vowel, Eka-mātra
  • Dīrgha : Long vowel, Dvi-mātra
  • : Prolonged vowel, Tri-mātra (
    See Shiksa
    Shiksa
    Shiksa or shikse, is a Yiddish and Polish word that has moved into English usage, mostly in North American Jewish culture, as a term for a non-Jewish woman, initially and sometimes still pejorative but now often used satirically...

     for the Yiddish slang word.


    {{Hindu scriptures}}
    Shiksha (Devanagari: शिक्षा IAST
    IAST
    The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is a transliteration scheme that allows a lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by the Sanskrit language.-Popularity:...

    : {{IAST|śikṣā}}) is one of the six Vedanga
    Vedanga
    The Vedanga are six auxiliary disciplines traditionally associated with the study and understanding of the Vedas.#Shiksha : phonetics, phonology and morphophonology #Kalpa : ritual#Vyakarana : grammar...

    s, treating the traditional Hindu
    Hindu
    Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

     science of phonetics
    Phonetics
    Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs : their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory...

     and phonology
    Phonology
    Phonology is, broadly speaking, the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the sounds of language. That is, it is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use...

     of Sanskrit
    Sanskrit
    Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

    .

    Its aim is the teaching of the correct pronunciation of the Vedic hymns
    Vedas
    The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism....

     and mantra
    Mantra
    A mantra is a sound, syllable, word, or group of words that is considered capable of "creating transformation"...

    s. The oldest phonetic textbooks are the Pratishakyas ({{IAST|prātiśākhya}}, a vrddhi
    Vrddhi
    ' is a Sanskrit word meaning "growth" . In Panini's grammar, it is also a technical term for a group of long vowels. In Indo-European linguistics, it has become a term for the lengthened grade of the ablaut vowel gradation peculiar to the Indo-European languages...

     abstract from Sanskrit
    Sanskrit
    Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

     {{IAST|prati-śākhā}}), describing pronunciation, intonation of Sanskrit, as well as the Sanskrit rules of sandhi
    Sandhi
    Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries . Examples include the fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of sounds due to neighboring sounds or due to the grammatical function of adjacent words...

     (word combination), specific to individual schools or Shakha
    Shakha
    A shakha , is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school. An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a ...

    s of the Vedas.

    Pratishakhyas


    The Pratishakhyas, which evolved from the more ancient Vedic Texts padapathas ({{IAST|padapāṭha}}) between c. 3100-800 BCE, deal with the manner in which the Vedas are to be enunciated. There are separate Pratishakhyas for each Veda. They are a complement to the books called Shiksha written by various authorities.

    Five Pratishakhyas are preserved:
    • Rigveda
      Rigveda
      The Rigveda is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns...

      -Pratishakya (Shakala shakha), attributed to Shaunaka
      Shaunaka
      Shaunaka is the name applied to teachers, and to a Shakha of the Atharvaveda. It is especially the name of a celebrated Sanskrit grammarian, author of the , the , the and five Anukramaṇīs to the Rigveda. He is claimed as the teacher of Katyayana and especially of Ashvalayana, and is said to have...

    • Shukla Yajurveda-Pratishakhya
    • Taittiriya
      Taittiriya
      Taittirīya is a shaka of the Black Yajurveda*Taittiriya Samhita , see Black Yajurveda*Taittiriya Upanishad...

       (Black Yajurveda) Pratishakhya, ed. Whitney 1871 http://www.sanskritweb.net/yajurveda/tp-comb.pdf
    • Atharvaveda
      Atharvaveda
      The Atharvaveda is a sacred text of Hinduism and one of the four Vedas, often called the "fourth Veda"....

      -Pratishakhya (Shaunakiya shakha)
    • Shaunakiya Chaturaadhyaayika (Shaunakiya shakha)


    The Shiksha Texts and the Pratishakhyas led to a great clarity in understanding the surface structure of language. For clarity of pronunciation, they propose breaking up the large Vedic compounds into stem
    Word stem
    In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word. The term is used with slightly different meanings.In one usage, a stem is a form to which affixes can be attached. Thus, in this usage, the English word friendships contains the stem friend, to which the derivational suffix -ship is attached to form a new...

    s, prefixes, and suffixes. Certain styles of recitation ({{IAST|pāṭha}}) such as the {{IAST|jaṭāpāṭha}} involved switching syllables, repeating the last word of a line at the beginning of the next, and other permutations. In the process, a considerable amount of morphology
    Morphology (linguistics)
    In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysis and description, in a language, of the structure of morphemes and other linguistic units, such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context...

     is discussed, particularly regarding the combination of sequential sounds, which leads to the modalities of sandhi
    Sandhi
    Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries . Examples include the fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of sounds due to neighboring sounds or due to the grammatical function of adjacent words...

    . An even more important discovery recorded in the Pratishakhya texts, particularly the Samaveda Pratishakhya, which is claimed to be the earliest), is an organization of the stop consonant
    Stop consonant
    In phonetics, a plosive, also known as an occlusive or an oral stop, is a stop consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be done with the tongue , lips , and &...

     sounds into a 5x5 varga or square:
    {{IAST|ka kha ga gha ṅa}}
    ca cha ja jha ña
    {{IAST|ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa}}
    ta tha da dha na
    pa pha ba bha ma

    in which difference between sounds is preserved whether you recite it horizontally or vertically. This was extended and completed with fricatives and sibilants, semi-vowels,
    and vowel
    Vowel
    In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! or oh! , pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! , where there is a constriction or closure at some...

    s, and was eventually codified into the Brahmi alphabet, which is one of the most systematic sound to writing mapping. A scholar has commented: Mendelejev's Periodic system of elements, the varga system was the result of centuries of analysis. In the course of that development, the basic concepts of phonology were discovered and defined.

    However, it will be too childish to say that the Varga system is the only important contribution of the Shiksha Texts and the Pratishakshyas. These are much elaborate systems which deal with the generation and classification of sound. According to the old tradition, sound is generated when four conditions are satisfied: viz; a ground or base, an electromagnetic force, a gravitational force implying the existence of other nearby bodies or particles and space for the bodies to expand. The middle two parameters generate vibration in the bodies. Depending upon the magnitude of these parameters, there are 304 types of sounds, out of which 12 types are within human audible range. The lowest of these is called sphota and the highest is called mahaghanarava.

    The Vedic language, which is a highly developed and scientific language, is supposed to have been brought by extra-terrestrial beings who inhabited Earth in its earlier period. They interacted with the population that grew indegeneously. Kashyap Samhita gives details of the evolutionary forms for the past 39 million years. According to it, the present human form developed only about 5100 years ago. The earliest forms resemble those of Dinosaurs. The indigenous language was without grammar; hence without clarity. Sanskrit, which literally means reformed, was a later creation due to fusion between the Vedic language and the local language. Classical Tamil or sentamil as distinct from modern Tamil (which is of later origin), is a sister language of Sanskrit. Since it was still difficult for common use, two other grammatical language groups developed in India - Prakrit and koduntamil, which is the precursor of modern Tamil. Other Indian languages developed from these.

    The Brahmi script is named after the Vedic script. Shukla Yajurveda Pratishakhya (8-25) calls the letters of the alphabet as Brahma Rashi meaning Universal letter unit. From this, the name Brahmi originated for the script.

    Other Shiksha texts


    In addition, several Shiksha texts exist, most of them in metrical verse form but a few in sutra form. Some of these surviving texts are: English translation of Paniniya Siksa.pdf
    • Amoghanandini Shiksha
    • Apisali Shiksha (in sutra form)
    • Aranya Shiksha
    • Atreya Shiksha
    • Avasananirnyaya Shiksha
    • Bharadvaja Shiksha
    • Chandra Shiksha of Chandragomin (sutra form)
    • Charayaniya Shiksha
    • Galadrka Shiksha
    • Kalanirnya Shiksha
    • Katyayani Shiksha
    • Shiksha
    • Kaundinya Shiksha
    • Keshavi Shiksha
    • Kramakarika Shiksha
    • Kramasandhaana Shiksha
    • Laghumoghanandini Shiksha
    • Lakshmikanta Shiksha
    • Lomashi Shiksha
    • Madhyandina Shiksha
    • Mandavya Shiksha
    • Mallasharmakrta Shiksha
    • Manasvaara Shiksha
    • Manduki Shiksha
    • Naradiya Shiksha
    • Paniniya Shiksha (versified)
    • Paniniya Shiksha (in sutra form)
    • Paniniya Shiksha (with accents)
    • Parashari Shiksha
    • Padyaatmika Keshavi Shiksha
    • Pari Shiksha
    • Pratishakhyapradipa Shiksha
    • Sarvasammata Shiksha
    • Shaishiriya Shiksha
    • Shamaana Shiksha
    • Shambhu Shiksha
    • Shodashashloki Shiksha
    • Shikshasamgraha
    • Siddhanta Shiksha
    • Svaraankusha Shiksha
    • Svarashtaka Shiksha
    • Svaravyanjana Shiksha
    • Vasishtha Shiksha
    • Varnaratnapradipa Shiksha
    • Vyaali Shiksha
    • Vyasa Shiksha
    • Yajnavalkya Shiksha


    Although many of these Shiksha texts an attached to specific Vedic schools, others are late texts.

    Syllabicity


    Traditionally syllables (not letters) in Sanskrit are called "Akshara
    Akshara
    Akshara may mean:*"letter" in Hindi*"everlasting" or "imperishable"*in Sanskrit grammar, "syllable", see Shiksha*a consonant grapheme, with an inherent vowel, of a script of the Brahmic family....

    ", meaning "imperishable (entity)", as it were "atoms" of speech. These aksharas are basically classified mainly into two types,
    • Svara (pratyahara
      Shiva Sutra
      The Shiva Sutras or Māheshvara Sutras are fourteen verses that organize the phonemes of the Sanskrit language as referred to in the of , the foundational text of Sanskrit grammar...

       aC) : Vowel
      Vowel
      In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! or oh! , pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! , where there is a constriction or closure at some...

    • Vyanjana (pratyahara haL) : Consonant
      Consonant
      In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the tongue; , pronounced in the throat; and ,...



    {{IAST|Svara akṣaras}} are also known as {{IAST|prāṇa akṣara}} i.e. they are main sounds in speech, without which speech is not possible. We find same notation used for referring the Tamil vowels calling them as Uyir ezhutthu. Pāṇini referred to svara by ac pratyahāra. After him, they are referred as {{IAST|ac Akṣara}}.

    Vyañjana means embellishment, i.e., consonants are treated as embellishment for the vowels to make a language sonorant
    Sonorant
    In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; fricatives and plosives are not sonorants. Vowels are sonorants, as are consonants like and . Other consonants, like or , restrict the airflow enough to cause turbulence, and...

    . They are also known as Prāni akshara i.e., they are like a body in which life (svara) will be present. We find same notation used for referring the Tamil consonants calling them as Mey ezhutthu. Pāṇini referred to vyañjana by Hal Pratyahāra. After him, they are referred as Hal akshara.

    Again vyañjana {{IAST|akṣaras}} are divided into three types,
    • Vyañjana
      • Sparśa : Stop
        Stop consonant
        In phonetics, a plosive, also known as an occlusive or an oral stop, is a stop consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be done with the tongue , lips , and &...

      • Antastha : Approximant
      • {{IAST|Ūṣman}}: Sibilant

    {{IAST|Sparśa akṣaras}} include syllables from Ka to Ma they are 25 in number. Antastha akṣaras include syllables ya, ra, la and va. {{IAST|Ūshman akṣaras}} include śa, sha, sa and ha.

    It was told that a vowel can be pronounced in 18 ways (3x2x3) in Sanskrit language based on timing
    Timing (linguistics)
    Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language. Isochrony is one of the three aspects of prosody, the others being intonation and stress.Three alternative ways in which a language can divide time are postulated:...

    , manner
    Manner of articulation
    In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants, even though the movement of the articulars will also greatly alter the resonant properties of the...

    , and accent
    Accent
    -Speech and language:* Accent , pronunciation characteristic of a certain locality* Accent , of a word* Stress , tone levels and emphasis used in many languages for words or grammar* A diacritical mark is also known as an accent....

     of pronunciation.

    Morae


    Each vowel can be classified into three types based on the time of pronunciation (morae). The unit of time is mātra (approx. 0.4 second). They are,
    • Hrasva : Short vowel, Eka-mātra
    • Dīrgha : Long vowel, Dvi-mātra
    • {{IAST|Pluta}} : Prolonged vowel, Tri-mātra (
      See Shiksa
      Shiksa
      Shiksa or shikse, is a Yiddish and Polish word that has moved into English usage, mostly in North American Jewish culture, as a term for a non-Jewish woman, initially and sometimes still pejorative but now often used satirically...

       for the Yiddish slang word.


      {{Hindu scriptures}}
      Shiksha (Devanagari: शिक्षा IAST
      IAST
      The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration is a transliteration scheme that allows a lossless romanization of Indic scripts as employed by the Sanskrit language.-Popularity:...

      : {{IAST|śikṣā}}) is one of the six Vedanga
      Vedanga
      The Vedanga are six auxiliary disciplines traditionally associated with the study and understanding of the Vedas.#Shiksha : phonetics, phonology and morphophonology #Kalpa : ritual#Vyakarana : grammar...

      s, treating the traditional Hindu
      Hindu
      Hindu refers to an identity associated with the philosophical, religious and cultural systems that are indigenous to the Indian subcontinent. As used in the Constitution of India, the word "Hindu" is also attributed to all persons professing any Indian religion...

       science of phonetics
      Phonetics
      Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that comprises the study of the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign. It is concerned with the physical properties of speech sounds or signs : their physiological production, acoustic properties, auditory...

       and phonology
      Phonology
      Phonology is, broadly speaking, the subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the sounds of language. That is, it is the systematic use of sound to encode meaning in any spoken human language, or the field of linguistics studying this use...

       of Sanskrit
      Sanskrit
      Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

      .

      Its aim is the teaching of the correct pronunciation of the Vedic hymns
      Vedas
      The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism....

       and mantra
      Mantra
      A mantra is a sound, syllable, word, or group of words that is considered capable of "creating transformation"...

      s. The oldest phonetic textbooks are the Pratishakyas ({{IAST|prātiśākhya}}, a vrddhi
      Vrddhi
      ' is a Sanskrit word meaning "growth" . In Panini's grammar, it is also a technical term for a group of long vowels. In Indo-European linguistics, it has become a term for the lengthened grade of the ablaut vowel gradation peculiar to the Indo-European languages...

       abstract from Sanskrit
      Sanskrit
      Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...

       {{IAST|prati-śākhā}}), describing pronunciation, intonation of Sanskrit, as well as the Sanskrit rules of sandhi
      Sandhi
      Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries . Examples include the fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of sounds due to neighboring sounds or due to the grammatical function of adjacent words...

       (word combination), specific to individual schools or Shakha
      Shakha
      A shakha , is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts, or else the traditional texts followed by such a school. An individual follower of a particular school or recension is called a ...

      s of the Vedas.

      Pratishakhyas


      The Pratishakhyas, which evolved from the more ancient Vedic Texts padapathas ({{IAST|padapāṭha}}) between c. 3100-800 BCE, deal with the manner in which the Vedas are to be enunciated. There are separate Pratishakhyas for each Veda. They are a complement to the books called Shiksha written by various authorities.

      Five Pratishakhyas are preserved:
      • Rigveda
        Rigveda
        The Rigveda is an ancient Indian sacred collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns...

        -Pratishakya (Shakala shakha), attributed to Shaunaka
        Shaunaka
        Shaunaka is the name applied to teachers, and to a Shakha of the Atharvaveda. It is especially the name of a celebrated Sanskrit grammarian, author of the , the , the and five Anukramaṇīs to the Rigveda. He is claimed as the teacher of Katyayana and especially of Ashvalayana, and is said to have...

      • Shukla Yajurveda-Pratishakhya
      • Taittiriya
        Taittiriya
        Taittirīya is a shaka of the Black Yajurveda*Taittiriya Samhita , see Black Yajurveda*Taittiriya Upanishad...

         (Black Yajurveda) Pratishakhya, ed. Whitney 1871 http://www.sanskritweb.net/yajurveda/tp-comb.pdf
      • Atharvaveda
        Atharvaveda
        The Atharvaveda is a sacred text of Hinduism and one of the four Vedas, often called the "fourth Veda"....

        -Pratishakhya (Shaunakiya shakha)
      • Shaunakiya Chaturaadhyaayika (Shaunakiya shakha)


      The Shiksha Texts and the Pratishakhyas led to a great clarity in understanding the surface structure of language. For clarity of pronunciation, they propose breaking up the large Vedic compounds into stem
      Word stem
      In linguistics, a stem is a part of a word. The term is used with slightly different meanings.In one usage, a stem is a form to which affixes can be attached. Thus, in this usage, the English word friendships contains the stem friend, to which the derivational suffix -ship is attached to form a new...

      s, prefixes, and suffixes. Certain styles of recitation ({{IAST|pāṭha}}) such as the {{IAST|jaṭāpāṭha}} involved switching syllables, repeating the last word of a line at the beginning of the next, and other permutations. In the process, a considerable amount of morphology
      Morphology (linguistics)
      In linguistics, morphology is the identification, analysis and description, in a language, of the structure of morphemes and other linguistic units, such as words, affixes, parts of speech, intonation/stress, or implied context...

       is discussed, particularly regarding the combination of sequential sounds, which leads to the modalities of sandhi
      Sandhi
      Sandhi is a cover term for a wide variety of phonological processes that occur at morpheme or word boundaries . Examples include the fusion of sounds across word boundaries and the alteration of sounds due to neighboring sounds or due to the grammatical function of adjacent words...

      . An even more important discovery recorded in the Pratishakhya texts, particularly the Samaveda Pratishakhya, which is claimed to be the earliest), is an organization of the stop consonant
      Stop consonant
      In phonetics, a plosive, also known as an occlusive or an oral stop, is a stop consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be done with the tongue , lips , and &...

       sounds into a 5x5 varga or square:
      {{IAST|ka kha ga gha ṅa}}
      ca cha ja jha ña
      {{IAST|ṭa ṭha ḍa ḍha ṇa}}
      ta tha da dha na
      pa pha ba bha ma

      in which difference between sounds is preserved whether you recite it horizontally or vertically. This was extended and completed with fricatives and sibilants, semi-vowels,
      and vowel
      Vowel
      In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! or oh! , pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! , where there is a constriction or closure at some...

      s, and was eventually codified into the Brahmi alphabet, which is one of the most systematic sound to writing mapping. A scholar has commented: Mendelejev's Periodic system of elements, the varga system was the result of centuries of analysis. In the course of that development, the basic concepts of phonology were discovered and defined.

      However, it will be too childish to say that the Varga system is the only important contribution of the Shiksha Texts and the Pratishakshyas. These are much elaborate systems which deal with the generation and classification of sound. According to the old tradition, sound is generated when four conditions are satisfied: viz; a ground or base, an electromagnetic force, a gravitational force implying the existence of other nearby bodies or particles and space for the bodies to expand. The middle two parameters generate vibration in the bodies. Depending upon the magnitude of these parameters, there are 304 types of sounds, out of which 12 types are within human audible range. The lowest of these is called sphota and the highest is called mahaghanarava.

      The Vedic language, which is a highly developed and scientific language, is supposed to have been brought by extra-terrestrial beings who inhabited Earth in its earlier period. They interacted with the population that grew indegeneously. Kashyap Samhita gives details of the evolutionary forms for the past 39 million years. According to it, the present human form developed only about 5100 years ago. The earliest forms resemble those of Dinosaurs. The indigenous language was without grammar; hence without clarity. Sanskrit, which literally means reformed, was a later creation due to fusion between the Vedic language and the local language. Classical Tamil or sentamil as distinct from modern Tamil (which is of later origin), is a sister language of Sanskrit. Since it was still difficult for common use, two other grammatical language groups developed in India - Prakrit and koduntamil, which is the precursor of modern Tamil. Other Indian languages developed from these.

      The Brahmi script is named after the Vedic script. Shukla Yajurveda Pratishakhya (8-25) calls the letters of the alphabet as Brahma Rashi meaning Universal letter unit. From this, the name Brahmi originated for the script.

      Other Shiksha texts


      In addition, several Shiksha texts exist, most of them in metrical verse form but a few in sutra form. Some of these surviving texts are: English translation of Paniniya Siksa.pdf
      • Amoghanandini Shiksha
      • Apisali Shiksha (in sutra form)
      • Aranya Shiksha
      • Atreya Shiksha
      • Avasananirnyaya Shiksha
      • Bharadvaja Shiksha
      • Chandra Shiksha of Chandragomin (sutra form)
      • Charayaniya Shiksha
      • Galadrka Shiksha
      • Kalanirnya Shiksha
      • Katyayani Shiksha
      • Shiksha
      • Kaundinya Shiksha
      • Keshavi Shiksha
      • Kramakarika Shiksha
      • Kramasandhaana Shiksha
      • Laghumoghanandini Shiksha
      • Lakshmikanta Shiksha
      • Lomashi Shiksha
      • Madhyandina Shiksha
      • Mandavya Shiksha
      • Mallasharmakrta Shiksha
      • Manasvaara Shiksha
      • Manduki Shiksha
      • Naradiya Shiksha
      • Paniniya Shiksha (versified)
      • Paniniya Shiksha (in sutra form)
      • Paniniya Shiksha (with accents)
      • Parashari Shiksha
      • Padyaatmika Keshavi Shiksha
      • Pari Shiksha
      • Pratishakhyapradipa Shiksha
      • Sarvasammata Shiksha
      • Shaishiriya Shiksha
      • Shamaana Shiksha
      • Shambhu Shiksha
      • Shodashashloki Shiksha
      • Shikshasamgraha
      • Siddhanta Shiksha
      • Svaraankusha Shiksha
      • Svarashtaka Shiksha
      • Svaravyanjana Shiksha
      • Vasishtha Shiksha
      • Varnaratnapradipa Shiksha
      • Vyaali Shiksha
      • Vyasa Shiksha
      • Yajnavalkya Shiksha


      Although many of these Shiksha texts an attached to specific Vedic schools, others are late texts.

      Syllabicity


      Traditionally syllables (not letters) in Sanskrit are called "Akshara
      Akshara
      Akshara may mean:*"letter" in Hindi*"everlasting" or "imperishable"*in Sanskrit grammar, "syllable", see Shiksha*a consonant grapheme, with an inherent vowel, of a script of the Brahmic family....

      ", meaning "imperishable (entity)", as it were "atoms" of speech. These aksharas are basically classified mainly into two types,
      • Svara (pratyahara
        Shiva Sutra
        The Shiva Sutras or Māheshvara Sutras are fourteen verses that organize the phonemes of the Sanskrit language as referred to in the of , the foundational text of Sanskrit grammar...

         aC) : Vowel
        Vowel
        In phonetics, a vowel is a sound in spoken language, such as English ah! or oh! , pronounced with an open vocal tract so that there is no build-up of air pressure at any point above the glottis. This contrasts with consonants, such as English sh! , where there is a constriction or closure at some...

      • Vyanjana (pratyahara haL) : Consonant
        Consonant
        In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract. Examples are , pronounced with the lips; , pronounced with the front of the tongue; , pronounced with the back of the tongue; , pronounced in the throat; and ,...



      {{IAST|Svara akṣaras}} are also known as {{IAST|prāṇa akṣara}} i.e. they are main sounds in speech, without which speech is not possible. We find same notation used for referring the Tamil vowels calling them as Uyir ezhutthu. Pāṇini referred to svara by ac pratyahāra. After him, they are referred as {{IAST|ac Akṣara}}.

      Vyañjana means embellishment, i.e., consonants are treated as embellishment for the vowels to make a language sonorant
      Sonorant
      In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; fricatives and plosives are not sonorants. Vowels are sonorants, as are consonants like and . Other consonants, like or , restrict the airflow enough to cause turbulence, and...

      . They are also known as Prāni akshara i.e., they are like a body in which life (svara) will be present. We find same notation used for referring the Tamil consonants calling them as Mey ezhutthu. Pāṇini referred to vyañjana by Hal Pratyahāra. After him, they are referred as Hal akshara.

      Again vyañjana {{IAST|akṣaras}} are divided into three types,
      • Vyañjana
        • Sparśa : Stop
          Stop consonant
          In phonetics, a plosive, also known as an occlusive or an oral stop, is a stop consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases. The occlusion may be done with the tongue , lips , and &...

        • Antastha : Approximant
        • {{IAST|Ūṣman}}: Sibilant

      {{IAST|Sparśa akṣaras}} include syllables from Ka to Ma they are 25 in number. Antastha akṣaras include syllables ya, ra, la and va. {{IAST|Ūshman akṣaras}} include śa, sha, sa and ha.

      It was told that a vowel can be pronounced in 18 ways (3x2x3) in Sanskrit language based on timing
      Timing (linguistics)
      Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language. Isochrony is one of the three aspects of prosody, the others being intonation and stress.Three alternative ways in which a language can divide time are postulated:...

      , manner
      Manner of articulation
      In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech organs are involved in making a sound. Often the concept is only used for the production of consonants, even though the movement of the articulars will also greatly alter the resonant properties of the...

      , and accent
      Accent
      -Speech and language:* Accent , pronunciation characteristic of a certain locality* Accent , of a word* Stress , tone levels and emphasis used in many languages for words or grammar* A diacritical mark is also known as an accent....

       of pronunciation.

      Morae


      Each vowel can be classified into three types based on the time of pronunciation (morae). The unit of time is mātra (approx. 0.4 second). They are,
      • Hrasva : Short vowel, Eka-mātra
      • Dīrgha : Long vowel, Dvi-mātra
      • {{IAST|Pluta}} : Prolonged vowel, Tri-mātra ({{IAST
        Pluti
        Pluti is the term for overlong vowels in Sanskrit. Pluti vowels are usually noted with a numeral "3" , , also ....

        )

      Each vowel can be pronounced in three ways according to timespan of articulation.
      ×

      Nasality


      Each vowel can be classified into two types based on the manner of pronunciation. They are
      Mukha : Oral
      Nāsika : Nasal
      Nasal vowel
      A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through nose as well as the mouth. By contrast, oral vowels are ordinary vowels without this nasalisation...

       (all vowels are considered phonemically oral)

      Pitch accent


      {{main|Vedic accent}}
      Each vowel can be classified into three types based on accent of articulation. This was lost in Classical Sanskrit, but used in reciting Vedic
      Vedas
      The Vedas are a large body of texts originating in ancient India. Composed in Vedic Sanskrit, the texts constitute the oldest layer of Sanskrit literature and the oldest scriptures of Hinduism....

       & Upanishad
      Upanishad
      The Upanishads are philosophical texts considered to be an early source of Hindu religion. More than 200 are known, of which the first dozen or so, the oldest and most important, are variously referred to as the principal, main or old Upanishads...

      ic hymn
      Hymn
      A hymn is a type of song, usually religious, specifically written for the purpose of praise, adoration or prayer, and typically addressed to a deity or deities, or to a prominent figure or personification...

      s and mantra
      Mantra
      A mantra is a sound, syllable, word, or group of words that is considered capable of "creating transformation"...

      s.
      Udātta : high pitch
      Anudātta : low pitch
      Svarita : falling pitch

      Each vowel can be pronounced in three ways according to the accent of pronunciation.

      Traditional articulatory phonetics


      According to Indian linguistic tradition, articulation is analysed by different parameters and features.

      Places of articulation


      Generally, in articulatory phonetics
      Articulatory phonetics
      The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics. In studying articulation, phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of different physiological structures....

      , the place of articulation
      Place of articulation
      In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator , and a passive location...

       (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).

      According to Indian linguistic tradition, the places of articulation (passive) are classified as five. They are:-
      {{IAST|Kaṇṭhya}} : Velar
      Velar consonant
      Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum)....

      Tālavya : Palatal
      Palatal consonant
      Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate...

      Mūrdhanya : Retroflex
      Retroflex consonant
      A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in Indology...

      Dantya : Dental
      Ōshtya : Labial
      Labial consonant
      Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. This precludes linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue reaches for the posterior side of the upper lip and which are considered coronals...



      Apart from that, other places are combinations of the above five places. They are:-
      Dantōsthya : Labio-dental (Eg: v)
      Kantatālavya : Eg: Diphthong
      Diphthong
      A diphthong , also known as a gliding vowel, refers to two adjacent vowel sounds occurring within the same syllable. Technically, a diphthong is a vowel with two different targets: That is, the tongue moves during the pronunciation of the vowel...

       e
      Kantōsthya : labial-velar (Eg: Diphthong o)


      The places of articulation (active) are classified as three, they are
      Jihvāmūla : tongue root
      Radical consonant
      Radical consonants are those consonants articulated with the root of the tongue in the throat. This includes the pharyngeal, epiglottal, and epiglotto-pharyngeal places of articulation, though technically epiglottal consonants take place in the larynx....

      , for velar
      Jihvāmadhya : tongue body, for palatal
      Jihvāgra : tip of tongue
      Apical consonant
      An apical consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the apex of the tongue . This contrasts with laminal consonants, which are produced by creating an obstruction with the blade of the tongue .This is not a very common distinction, and typically applied only to fricatives...

      , for cerebral
      Retroflex consonant
      A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in Indology...

       and dental
      {{IAST|Adhōṣṭa}} : lower lip
      Lower lip
      The lower lip covers the anterior body of the mandible.It is lowered by the Depressor labii inferioris muscle....

      , for labial
      Labial consonant
      Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. This precludes linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue reaches for the posterior side of the upper lip and which are considered coronals...


      Efforts of Articulation


      Effort of articulation ({{IAST|Uccāraṇa Prayatna}}) is of two types for consonants,
      Bāhya Prayatna : External effort
      {{IAST|Spṛṣṭa}} : Plosive
      {{IAST|Īshat Spṛṣṭa}} : Approximant
      {{IAST|Īshat Saṃvṛta}} : Fricative
      Abhyantara Prayatna : Internal effort
      Alpaprāna : Unaspirated
      Mahāprāna : Aspirated
      Aspiration (phonetics)
      In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents. To feel or see the difference between aspirated and unaspirated sounds, one can put a hand or a lit candle in front of one's mouth, and say pin ...

      Śvāsa : Unvoiced
      Nāda : Voiced
      VOICED
      Virtual Organization for Innovative Conceptual Engineering Design is a virtual organization that promotes innovation in engineering design. This project is the collaborative work of researchers at five universities across the United States, and is funded by the National Science Foundation...


      Articulation of consonants


      Articulation of consonants will be a logical combination of components in the two prayatnas. The below table gives a view upon articulation of consonants.
      Samskrita Vyanjana Ucchārana Pattika
      Prayatna Niyamāvalī Kanthya
      Velar consonant
      Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum)....


      (jihvāmūla)
      Tālavya
      Palatal consonant
      Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate...


      (jihvāmadhya)
      Mūrdhanya
      Retroflex consonant
      A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate. They are sometimes referred to as cerebral consonants, especially in Indology...


      (jihvāgra)
      Dantya
      (jihvāgra)
      {{IAST
      Labiodental consonant
      In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lip and the upper teeth.-Labiodental consonant in IPA:The labiodental consonants identified by the International Phonetic Alphabet are:...

      Ōshtya
      Labial consonant
      Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator. This precludes linguolabials, in which the tip of the tongue reaches for the posterior side of the upper lip and which are considered coronals...


      (adhōsta)
      Sparśa, Śvāsa, Alpaprāna ka ca {{IAST|ṭa}} ta pa
      Sparśam, Śvāsa, Mahāprāna kha cha {{IAST|ṭha}} tha pha
      Sparśa, Nāda
      VOICED
      Virtual Organization for Innovative Conceptual Engineering Design is a virtual organization that promotes innovation in engineering design. This project is the collaborative work of researchers at five universities across the United States, and is funded by the National Science Foundation...

      , Alpaprāna
      ga ja {{IAST|ḍa}} da ba
      Sparśa, Nāda
      VOICED
      Virtual Organization for Innovative Conceptual Engineering Design is a virtual organization that promotes innovation in engineering design. This project is the collaborative work of researchers at five universities across the United States, and is funded by the National Science Foundation...

      , Mahāprāna
      gha jha {{IAST|ḍha}} dha bha
      Sparśa, Nāda
      VOICED
      Virtual Organization for Innovative Conceptual Engineering Design is a virtual organization that promotes innovation in engineering design. This project is the collaborative work of researchers at five universities across the United States, and is funded by the National Science Foundation...

      , Alpaprāna,
      Anunāsika
      Nasal consonant
      A nasal consonant is a type of consonant produced with a lowered velum in the mouth, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. Examples of nasal consonants in English are and , in words such as nose and mouth.- Definition :...

      , Drava
      Liquid
      Liquid is one of the three classical states of matter . Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Some liquids resist compression, while others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly...

      , Avyāhata
      {{IAST|ṅa}} ña {{IAST|ṇa}} na ma
      Antastha, Nāda
      VOICED
      Virtual Organization for Innovative Conceptual Engineering Design is a virtual organization that promotes innovation in engineering design. This project is the collaborative work of researchers at five universities across the United States, and is funded by the National Science Foundation...

      , {{IAST,
      Drava
      Liquid
      Liquid is one of the three classical states of matter . Like a gas, a liquid is able to flow and take the shape of a container. Some liquids resist compression, while others can be compressed. Unlike a gas, a liquid does not disperse to fill every space of a container, and maintains a fairly...

      , Avyāhata
      ya ra
      (Lunthita)
      la
      (Pārśvika
      Lateral consonant
      A lateral is an el-like consonant, in which airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth....

      )
      va
      {{IAST, Śvāsa, {{IAST, Avyāhata Visarga
      Visarga
      Visarga is a Sanskrit word meaning "sending forth, discharge". In Sanskrit phonology , is the name of a phone, , written as IAST , Harvard-Kyoto , Devanagari . Visarga is an allophone of and in pausa...

      śa {{IAST|ṣa}} sa
      Ūshman, Nāda
      VOICED
      Virtual Organization for Innovative Conceptual Engineering Design is a virtual organization that promotes innovation in engineering design. This project is the collaborative work of researchers at five universities across the United States, and is funded by the National Science Foundation...

      , Mahāprāna, Avyāhata
      ha