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Sheriffs in the United States

Sheriffs in the United States

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In the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

, a sheriff
Sheriff
A sheriff is in principle a legal official with responsibility for a county. In practice, the specific combination of legal, political, and ceremonial duties of a sheriff varies greatly from country to country....

is a county
County (United States)
In the United States, a county is a geographic subdivision of a state , usually assigned some governmental authority. The term "county" is used in 48 of the 50 states; Louisiana is divided into parishes and Alaska into boroughs. Parishes and boroughs are called "county-equivalents" by the U.S...

 official and is typically the top law enforcement officer
Police officer
A police officer is a warranted employee of a police force...

 of a county. Historically, the sheriff was also commander of the militia
Militia
The term militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary citizens to provide defense, emergency law enforcement, or paramilitary service, in times of emergency without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. It is a polyseme with...

 in that county. Distinctive to law enforcement in the United States, sheriffs are usually elected
Election
An election is a formal decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual to hold public office. Elections have been the usual mechanism by which modern representative democracy operates since the 17th century. Elections may fill offices in the legislature, sometimes in the...

. The political election of a person to serve as a police
Police
The police is a personification of the state designated to put in practice the enforced law, protect property and reduce civil disorder in civilian matters. Their powers include the legitimized use of force...

 leader is an almost uniquely American tradition. (The Honorary Police
Honorary Police
There is an Honorary Police force in each of the 12 parishes of Jersey. Members of the Honorary Police are elected by the voters of the parish in which they serve, and are unpaid....

 of Jersey
Jersey
Jersey, officially the Bailiwick of Jersey is a British Crown Dependency off the coast of Normandy, France. As well as the island of Jersey itself, the bailiwick includes two groups of small islands that are no longer permanently inhabited, the Minquiers and Écréhous, and the Pierres de Lecq and...

, a UK
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

 Crown Dependency in the Channel Islands
Channel Islands
The Channel Islands are an archipelago of British Crown Dependencies in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two separate bailiwicks: the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey...

, have been elected since at least the 16th century.)

The law enforcement agency
Law enforcement agency
In North American English, a law enforcement agency is a government agency responsible for the enforcement of the laws.Outside North America, such organizations are called police services. In North America, some of these services are called police while others have other names In North American...

 headed by a sheriff is typically referred to as a sheriff's office or sheriff's department. According to the National Sheriffs' Association
National Sheriffs' Association
The National Sheriffs' Association is a U.S. trade association dedicated to raising the level of professionalism among U.S. sheriffs, their deputies and others in the fields of criminal justice and public safety. Since its founding in 1940, NSA has been the one voice of the nation's sheriffs in...

, an American sheriff's advocacy group
Advocacy group
Advocacy groups use various forms of advocacy to influence public opinion and/or policy; they have played and continue to play an important part in the development of political and social systems...

 founded in 1940, as of the end of 2008 there were 3,085 sheriff's offices and departments. These range in size from very small (one- or two-member) forces in sparsely populated rural areas to large, full-service law enforcement agencies, such as the Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department is a local county law enforcement agency that serves Los Angeles County, California. It is the fourth largest local policing agency in the United States, with the New York City Police Department being the first. The second largest is the Chicago Police...

, which is the largest sheriff's office and the seventh largest law enforcement agency in the United States, with 16,400 members and 400 reserve deputies. The average sheriff's department in the United States employs 24.5 sworn officers.

Of the 50 U.S. state
U.S. state
A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

s, 48 have sheriffs. The two that do not are Alaska
Alaska
Alaska is the largest state in the United States by area. It is situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent, with Canada to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, with Russia further west across the Bering Strait...

 (which has no counties), and Connecticut
Connecticut
Connecticut is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. It is bordered by Rhode Island to the east, Massachusetts to the north, and the state of New York to the west and the south .Connecticut is named for the Connecticut River, the major U.S. river that approximately...

 (which has no county governments and has state marshals
Connecticut State Marshal
The Connecticut State Marshals are duly sworn peace Officers in the state of Connecticutin accordance with C.G.S. 53a-3Connecticut State Marshals are not Connecticut state employees...

 instead of sheriffs)

Sheriffs are elected to four-year terms in 41 states, two-year terms in three states, a three-year term in one state (New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

) and a six-year term in one state (Massachusetts
Massachusetts
The Commonwealth of Massachusetts is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. It is bordered by Rhode Island and Connecticut to the south, New York to the west, and Vermont and New Hampshire to the north; at its east lies the Atlantic Ocean. As of the 2010...

).

In many rural areas of the United States, particularly in the South
Southern United States
The Southern United States—commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South—constitutes a large distinctive area in the southeastern and south-central United States...

, the sheriff has traditionally been viewed as one of a given county's most influential political office-holders.

Law enforcement officers working for an agency headed by a sheriff are typically titled sheriff's deputy, deputy sheriff, sheriff's police, or sheriff's officer, and are so-titled because they are deputized by the sheriff and charged with performing all the duties prescribed to the sheriff by that state's law. In some states a sheriff may not be a sworn peace officer, but merely an elected civilian official lacking police powers who oversees the department and its sworn peace officers. Law enforcement officers working for such departments may be subdivided, sometimes titled general deputy and special deputy.

In some areas of the country, such as in California's San Bernardino, Riverside, Orange
Orange County, California
Orange County is a county in the U.S. state of California. Its county seat is Santa Ana. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,010,232, up from 2,846,293 at the 2000 census, making it the third most populous county in California, behind Los Angeles County and San Diego County...

, and Ventura counties, the sheriff's office also has the responsibility of a coroner
Coroner
A coroner is a government official who* Investigates human deaths* Determines cause of death* Issues death certificates* Maintains death records* Responds to deaths in mass disasters* Identifies unknown dead* Other functions depending on local laws...

's office, and is charged with recovering deceased persons within their county and conducting autopsies. The official in charge of such sheriff's departments is typically titled sheriff-coroner or sheriff/coroner, and officers who perform this function for such departments are typically titled deputy sheriff-coroner or deputy coroner. The second-in-command of a sheriff's department is sometimes called an undersheriff
Undersheriff
An Undersheriff is an office derived from ancient British practice and still extant in, among other places, the United Kingdom and the United States, though somewhat different forms.-United States:...

or chief deputy, akin to the deputy chief of police
Chief of police
A Chief of Police is the title typically given to the top official in the chain of command of a police department, particularly in North America. Alternate titles for this position include Commissioner, Superintendent, and Chief constable...

 position of a municipal police department. In some counties, the undersheriff is the warden of the county jail.

Duties


Most sheriff's offices have a law enforcement role, and their basic function dates back to the origins of the title in feudal England. Although the authority of the sheriff varies from state to state, a sheriff or his deputies (in all states except Delaware, where the sheriff's defined role is going through arbitration) has the power to make arrests within his or her own jurisdiction. Some states extend this authority to adjacent counties or to the entire state.

Many sheriff's offices also perform other functions such as traffic control and enforcement, accident investigations, and maintenance and transportation of prisoners. Larger departments may perform criminal investigations or engage in other specialized law enforcement activities. Some larger sheriff's departments may have aviation
Aviation
Aviation is the design, development, production, operation, and use of aircraft, especially heavier-than-air aircraft. Aviation is derived from avis, the Latin word for bird.-History:...

 (including fixed-wing aircraft or helicopters), canine units
Police dog
A police dog, often referred to as a "K-9 dog" in some areas , is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and other law-enforcement personnel in their work...

, mounted details, or water patrols at their disposal.

Many sheriff's departments enlist the aid of local neighborhoods, using a community policing strategy, in working to prevent crime. The National Neighborhood Watch Program, sponsored by the National Sheriffs' Association, allows citizens and law enforcement officials to cooperate in keeping communities safe.

As the trends of sheriff's law enforcement duties becoming more extensive and complex continues, new career opportunities for people with specialized skills are opening up in sheriff's offices around the country. Among the specialties now in demand are underwater diving, piloting, boating, skiing, radar technology, communications, computer technology, accounting, emergency medicine, and foreign languages.

Sheriff's offices may coexist with other county level law enforcement agencies such as county police
County police
County police are the police of a county in the United States, Sweden and England .- Sweden :All of the 21 Counties of Sweden contains a County Police Department of the Swedish Police Service.-United Kingdom:...

, county park police, etc.

Sheriff's categories


Sheriffs in the United States generally fall into three broad categories:
  • Restricted service — provide basic court related services such as keeping the county jail, transporting prison
    Prison
    A prison is a place in which people are physically confined and, usually, deprived of a range of personal freedoms. Imprisonment or incarceration is a legal penalty that may be imposed by the state for the commission of a crime...

    ers, providing courthouse
    Courthouse
    A courthouse is a building that is home to a local court of law and often the regional county government as well, although this is not the case in some larger cities. The term is common in North America. In most other English speaking countries, buildings which house courts of law are simply...

     security and other duties with regard to service of process
    Service of process
    Service of process is the procedure employed to give legal notice to a person of a court or administrative body's exercise of its jurisdiction over that person so as to enable that person to respond to the proceeding before the court, body or other tribunal...

     and summons
    Summons
    Legally, a summons is a legal document issued by a court or by an administrative agency of government for various purposes.-Judicial summons:...

    es that are issued by county and state court
    Court
    A court is a form of tribunal, often a governmental institution, with the authority to adjudicate legal disputes between parties and carry out the administration of justice in civil, criminal, and administrative matters in accordance with the rule of law...

    s. The sheriff also often conducts public auction
    Public auction
    A public auction is an auction held on behalf of a government in which the property to be auctioned is either property owned by the government, or property which is sold under the authority of a court of law or a government agency with similar authority....

     sales of real property
    Real property
    In English Common Law, real property, real estate, realty, or immovable property is any subset of land that has been legally defined and the improvements to it made by human efforts: any buildings, machinery, wells, dams, ponds, mines, canals, roads, various property rights, and so forth...

     in foreclosure
    Foreclosure
    Foreclosure is the legal process by which a mortgage lender , or other lien holder, obtains a termination of a mortgage borrower 's equitable right of redemption, either by court order or by operation of law...

     in many jurisdictions, and is often also empowered to conduct seizures of chattel property to satisfy a judgment. In other jurisdictions, these civil process duties are performed by other officers, such as a marshal
    Marshal
    Marshal , is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word is an ancient loan word from Old French, cf...

     or constable
    Constable
    A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions.-Etymology:...

    . Examples are the Philadelphia Sheriff's Office in Pennsylvania and the New York City Sheriff's Office
    New York City Sheriff's Office
    The New York City Sheriff's Office is the civil law enforcement division of the New York City Department of Finance. The Sheriff's office is headed by a sheriff, who is appointed to the position by the mayor, unlike most sheriffs in New York State who are elected officials...

     (a division of the NYC Department of Finance).

  • Limited service — along with the above, perform some type of traditional law-enforcement function such as investigations and patrol. This may be limited to security police
    Security police
    In some countries, including the United States, security police are those persons, employed by or for a governmental agency, who provide police and security services to those agencies' properties....

     duties on county properties (and others by contract) to the performance of these duties in unincorporated areas of the county, and some incorporated areas by contract. One example is the San Francisco Sheriff's Department
    San Francisco Sheriff's Department
    The San Francisco Sheriff's Department is the sheriff's department for the City and County of San Francisco. The department has 850 deputized personnel, and support staff....

     in California.

  • Full service — The most common type, provide all traditional law-enforcement functions, including countywide patrol and investigations irrespective of municipal boundaries.


Note: There are two federal equivalents of the sheriff; the first is the United States Marshals Service
United States Marshals Service
The United States Marshals Service is a United States federal law enforcement agency within the United States Department of Justice . The office of U.S. Marshal is the oldest federal law enforcement office in the United States; it was created by the Judiciary Act of 1789...

, an agency of the Department of Justice
United States Department of Justice
The United States Department of Justice , is the United States federal executive department responsible for the enforcement of the law and administration of justice, equivalent to the justice or interior ministries of other countries.The Department is led by the Attorney General, who is nominated...

. There are 94 United States Marshals, one for each federal judicial district. The U.S. Marshal and his or her Deputy Marshals are responsible for the transport of prisoners and security for the United States district court
United States district court
The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. Both civil and criminal cases are filed in the district court, which is a court of law, equity, and admiralty. There is a United States bankruptcy court associated with each United States...

s, and also issue and enforce certain civil process.

The other is the Marshal of the United States Supreme Court
Marshal of the United States Supreme Court
The Marshal of the United States Supreme Court is the person, similar to a bailiff, who attends the Supreme Court of the United States.-Legal basis:In accordance with Title 28 United States Code Part III Chapter 45 § 672:...

 who performs all court related duties for the Supreme Court of the United States
Supreme Court of the United States
The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest court in the United States. It has ultimate appellate jurisdiction over all state and federal courts, and original jurisdiction over a small range of cases...

.

Alabama


In Alabama, a sheriff is an elected official and the chief law enforcement officer in any given county. There is one sheriff for each of Alabama's 67 counties, with a varying number of deputies and various staff members (usually dependent on the population). A sheriff's office generally provides law-enforcement services to unincorporated towns and cities within the boundaries of the counties.

Alaska


The office of sheriff does not exist in Alaska. Instead the functions that would be performed by deputy sheriffs (such as civil process, court security, and prisoner transport) are performed by Alaska State Troopers
Alaska State Troopers
The Division of Alaska State Troopers is the state police agency of Alaska. It is a division of the Alaska Department of Public Safety . The Alaska State Troopers are a full service law enforcement agency and handle both traffic and criminal law enforcement...

.

Arizona



In Arizona, a sheriff is an elected official and the chief law enforcement officer in any given county. There exists one sheriff for each of Arizona's 15 counties, with a varying number of deputies and assorted staff (usually dependent on population). A sheriff's office (the term "department" is not used in Arizona) generally provides law enforcement services to unincorporated towns and cities within the boundaries of their county. In addition, many sheriff's offices have agreements with the Arizona Department of Corrections
Arizona Department of Corrections
The Arizona Department of Corrections is in charge of the incarceration of inmates in 10 prisons in the U.S. state of Arizona. As of April 2009, the ADC manages over 40,191 imprisoned inmates and over 7,216 inmates who have been paroled or that are statutorily released. ADC is also in involved in...

 (AZDOC) and local police agencies to provide for the transport and detention of prisoners. After sentencing, many convicted persons are handed over to the AZDOC to serve their sentence, but this has not always been the case.

Arizona is unique in that many sheriff's offices have formed semi-permanent posse
Posse comitatus (common law)
Posse comitatus or sheriff's posse is the common-law or statute law authority of a county sheriff or other law officer to conscript any able-bodied males to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon, similar to the concept of the "hue and cry"...

 units which can be operated as a reserve to the main deputized force under a variety of circumstances, as opposed to solely for fugitive retrieval as is historically associated with the term.

The Maricopa County Sheriff's Office
Maricopa County Sheriff's Office
The Maricopa County Sheriff's Office is a local law enforcement agency that serves Maricopa County, Arizona. It is the largest sheriff's office in Arizona and provides general-service and specialized law enforcement to unincorporated areas of Maricopa County, serving as the primary law enforcement...

 is the currently the largest sheriff's office in Arizona with a total of 763 sworn officers and 2,735 civilian employees as of 2007. It is headed by Sheriff Joe Arpaio
Joe Arpaio
Joseph M. "Joe" Arpaio is the elected Sheriff of Maricopa County in the U.S. state of Arizona. First voted into office in 1992, Arpaio is responsible for law enforcement in Maricopa County. This includes management of the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office, county jail, courtroom security,...

.

Arkansas


In Arkansas, sheriffs and their deputies are fully empowered peace officers with county-wide jurisdiction and thus, may legally exercise their authority in unincorporated and incorporated areas of a county. All peace officers in Arkansas, whether sheriffs, city police, state troopers, or constables, have state-wide arrest powers for any felony criminal offense committed within their presence or view.

The duties of an Arkansas sheriff generally include providing law enforcement services to residents, managing county jail(s), and providing bailiffs for the county, district, circuit, and other courts within the county.

With very limited exceptions, sheriffs and their deputies may exercise their official authority only within the geographical boundaries of their specific county.

The office of sheriff was created by the state constitution and the office has not been substantially changed in 100 years.

Sheriffs in Arkansas are elected in even numbered years by citizens of their county to serve a term of two (2) years in office in accordance with the state constitution. Sheriffs rely upon the county's legislative body, known as the "Quorum Court", to appropriate funding and approve the yearly operating budget. However, in all other circumstances, the sheriff is entirely independent in the management of his elected office and is not subservient to or accountable to any other elected county official or body.

In some counties of Arkansas, a sheriff cannot campaign for reelection while wearing a county owned badge.

California


In California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

, a sheriff is an elected official and the chief law enforcement officer in any given county. The sheriff's department of each county polices unincorporated area
Unincorporated area
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not a part of any municipality.To "incorporate" in this context means to form a municipal corporation, a city, town, or village with its own government. An unincorporated community is usually not subject to or taxed by a municipal government...

s (areas of the county that do not lie within the jurisdiction of a police department of an incorporated municipality). As such, the sheriff and his or her deputies in rural areas and unincorporated municipalities are equivalent to police officers in the cities. The sheriff's department may also provide policing services to incorporated cities by contract (see contract city
Contract city
Contract city is a term used in the U.S. for a city which provides municipal services by contract with another unit of government, public agency or private organizations....

). Sheriff's departments in California are also responsible for enforcing criminal law on Native American tribal land, as prescribed by Public Law 280
Public Law 280
Public Law 280 is a federal law of the United States establishing "a method whereby States may assume jurisdiction over reservation Indians," as stated by Arizona Supreme Court Justice Stanley G. Feldman. Public Law 280 is a federal law of the United States establishing "a method whereby States...

, which was enacted in 1953. The law transferred the responsibility of criminal law enforcement on tribal land from the federal government to state governments in specified states.

All peace officer
Peace officer
A law enforcement officer , in North America, is any public-sector employee or agent whose duties involve the enforcement of laws. The phrase can include police officers, prison officers, customs officers, immigration officers, bailiffs, probation officers, parole officers, auxiliary officers, and...

s in California are able to exercise their police powers anywhere in the state, on or off duty, regardless of county or municipal boundaries, thus California sheriffs and their deputies have full police powers in incorporated and unincorporated municipalities, outside their own counties, and on state freeways and interstates.

Before 2000, there was a constable
Constable
A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions.-Etymology:...

 or marshal
Marshal
Marshal , is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word is an ancient loan word from Old French, cf...

 in most (but not all) of California's 58 counties. The constable or marshal who was responsible for providing bailiff
Bailiff
A bailiff is a governor or custodian ; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority, care or jurisdiction is committed...

s to the Municipal and Justice Courts and for serving criminal and civil process
Service of process
Service of process is the procedure employed to give legal notice to a person of a court or administrative body's exercise of its jurisdiction over that person so as to enable that person to respond to the proceeding before the court, body or other tribunal...

. During a reorganization of the state judicial system early in the first decade of the 21st century, the roles of constable, marshal, and sheriff were merged, so that California sheriffs assumed the duties of most marshals, and the position of constable was eliminated entirely. The marshals offices continued to exist in only three counties, Shasta, Trinity, and San Benito, where they perform all court security and warrant service functions.

Los Angeles Sheriff's Department


The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department is a local county law enforcement agency that serves Los Angeles County, California. It is the fourth largest local policing agency in the United States, with the New York City Police Department being the first. The second largest is the Chicago Police...

 (LASD) serves Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County, California
Los Angeles County is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of 2010 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 9,818,605, making it the most populous county in the United States. Los Angeles County alone is more populous than 42 individual U.S. states...

. With over 16,000 people, it is the largest Sheriff department in the United States and provides general-service law enforcement to unincorporated areas of Los Angeles County, serving as the equivalent of the city police for unincorporated areas of the county as well as incorporated cities within the county who have contracted with the agency for law-enforcement services (known as "contract cities" in local jargon). It also holds primary jurisdiction over facilities operated by Los Angeles County, such as local parks, marinas and government buildings; provides marshal
Marshal
Marshal , is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word is an ancient loan word from Old French, cf...

 service for the Superior Court of California - County of Los Angeles; operates the county jail system; and provides services such as laboratories and academy training to smaller law enforcement agencies within the county.

San Francisco



Because the City and County of San Francisco are consolidated and coterminous
Consolidated city-county
In United States local government, a consolidated city–county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. As such it is simultaneously a city, which is a municipal corporation, and a county, which is an administrative division of a state...

 (and are the only consolidated city and county in California), the San Francisco Sheriff historically possessed police authority. However, as the San Francisco Police Department
San Francisco Police Department
The San Francisco Police Department, also known as the SFPD and San Francisco Department Of Police, is the police department of the City and County of San Francisco, California...

 provides general police service for the city, the Sheriff's Department handles judicial duties, staffs the jail, and provides security for city facilities such as San Francisco City Hall
San Francisco City Hall
San Francisco City Hall, re-opened in 1915, in its open space area in the city's Civic Center, is a Beaux-Arts monument to the City Beautiful movement that epitomized the high-minded American Renaissance of the 1880s to 1917. The structure's dome is the fifth largest in the world...

 and San Francisco General Hospital
San Francisco General Hospital
San Francisco General Hospital is the main public hospital in San Francisco, California, and the only Level I Trauma Center serving San Francisco and northern San Mateo County...

. However, San Francisco Sheriff's deputies are still sworn peace officer
Peace officer
A law enforcement officer , in North America, is any public-sector employee or agent whose duties involve the enforcement of laws. The phrase can include police officers, prison officers, customs officers, immigration officers, bailiffs, probation officers, parole officers, auxiliary officers, and...

s and can back up the San Francisco Police as needed, as well as make arrests for any crimes they come across while performing their duties.

Colorado


The Denver Sheriff's Department maintains the county correctional facilities as well as court functions. Law enforcement and investigations are the responsibility of the Denver Police Department. Denver's sheriff, whose given title is Manager of Safety/Ex Officio Sheriff, is appointed by the mayor, and serves as the civilian head of the police, fire, and sheriff's department. The Director of Corrections, who acts as Denver's undersheriff, oversees the county's Corrections Department. Denver has had deputy sheriffs since the creation of the City & County of Denver in 1902, however the Denver Sheriff's Department was not established until 1969, consolidating all of the sheriff's functions under one management structure.

Connecticut


Connecticut abolished county sheriffs in 2000 by Public Act 00-01. All civil-process-serving deputies were sworn in as state marshals and criminal special deputies were sworn in as judicial marshals. Constables remain municipal officers governed by their respective town or city.

Delaware


The first Constitution of Delaware in 1776 made the sheriff the conservator of the peace
Conservator of the Peace
A conservator of the peace is defined as a public official authorized to conserve and maintain the public peace.-Examples:Under common law, conservators of the peace included judges, police, sheriffs, and constables.The king is mentioned as the first...

 within the three counties of the state, New Castle
New Castle County, Delaware
New Castle County is the northernmost of the three counties of the U.S. state of Delaware. As of 2010 its population was 538,479, an increase of 7.6% over the previous decade. The county seat is Wilmington. The center of population of Delaware is located in New Castle County, in the town of...

, Kent
Kent County, Delaware
Kent County is a county located in the central part of the U.S. state of Delaware. It is coextensive with the Dover, Delaware, Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of 2010 the population was 162,310, a 28.1% increase over the previous decade. The county seat is Dover, the state capital...

, and Sussex
Sussex County, Delaware
Sussex County is a county located in the southern part of the U.S. state of Delaware. As of 2010 the population was 197,145, an increase of 25.9% over the previous decade. The county seat is Georgetown. The Seaford Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Sussex County.Sussex County is...

. The sheriff was, and still is, chosen by the citizens of each county at the general elections to serve a four year term. The sheriff was to preserve the peace of the county and arrested all persons committing riot, murder, theft, or breach of the peace and carried them before a justice of the peace
Justice of the Peace
A justice of the peace is a puisne judicial officer elected or appointed by means of a commission to keep the peace. Depending on the jurisdiction, they might dispense summary justice or merely deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions...

. The sheriff could also appoint such number of deputies as necessary to assist them in their duties.

Today the office of the sheriff in Delaware holds a position of less importance than in the past. Responsibilities are now limited by tradition, not by law, to include processing orders of the court system; summoning inquests, jurors, and witnesses for the courts; conducting execution sales against personal and real estate property. County Sheriffs and their regular appointed deputies also take into custody unincarcerated persons immediately upon conviction of an imprisonable offense and convey them to the appropriate correctional facility to serve their terms. As a rule, though allowed by the State Constitution, the County Sheriffs and their deputies do not engage in typical law enforcement, they provide enforcement services for the courts. Typical law enforcement, such as the enforcement of motor vehicle laws, investigation of crimes and routine policing patrols are performed by State, County and municipal (Town or City) police forces.

District of Columbia


The District of Columbia as the Federal City is in a unique and complicated position compared to other jurisdictions in the United States. As the District Government is both an agency of the Federal Government and a duly elected Local Government under the District of Columbia Home Rule Act of 1973, there are many functions which would normally be reserved for the Office of the Sheriff, which are instead delegated to various other agencies. The United States Marshal Service, as an agent of the Federal Government officially handles most court and civil processes in the District of Columbia, while the District of Columbia Protective Services Police Department (PSPD) handles many other functions normally reserved for the Office of the Sheriff on behalf of the elected local government.

Florida


Florida
Florida
Florida is a state in the southeastern United States, located on the nation's Atlantic and Gulf coasts. It is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia and to the east by the Atlantic Ocean. With a population of 18,801,310 as measured by the 2010 census, it...

 sheriffs are one of a handful of "constitutional" Florida offices; that is, the position was established as part of the Florida State constitution, which specifies their powers and that they be elected in the general ballot. They serve as the chief law enforcement officer in their respective counties. The sheriff's office is responsible for law enforcement, corrections, and court services within the county. Although each county sheriff's office is an independent agency, they all wear the "Florida's sheriff green" uniform with similar badges and patches, and drive vehicles with green and gold designs, as prescribed in Florida State Statues, with the exception of Duval and Miami-Dade.

Miami-Dade County


Miami-Dade County (formerly Dade County) has two sheriffs/directors appointed by its county commission. In Miami-Dade County, the duties of the two appointed directors are split as follows:
  • One sheriff is simultaneously the metropolitan sheriff and the director of public safety. As the director of public safety he/she serves as the chief of the Miami-Dade Police Department
    Miami-Dade Police Department
    The Miami-Dade Police Department , formerly known as the Metro-Dade County Police Department , Dade County Public Safety Department and the Dade County Sheriff's Office is a Limited Service County Police Department serving Miami-Dade County, Florida's unincorporated areas, although they have...

    .
  • The other sheriff serves as director of corrections (of the Miami-Dade Department of Corrections) and is charged with the care and custody of prisoners.

Duval County


Upon the consolidation
Consolidated city-county
In United States local government, a consolidated city–county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. As such it is simultaneously a city, which is a municipal corporation, and a county, which is an administrative division of a state...

 of Duval County
Duval County, Florida
Duval County is a county located in the U.S. state of Florida. As of 2010, the population was 864,263. Its county seat is Jacksonville, with which the Duval County government has been consolidated since 1968...

 and the City of Jacksonville
Jacksonville, Florida
Jacksonville is the largest city in the U.S. state of Florida in terms of both population and land area, and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States. It is the county seat of Duval County, with which the city government consolidated in 1968...

 governments in 1968, the Duval County Sheriff's Department and the Jacksonville Police Department were merged into a single unified law enforcement agency commonly referred to as the Jacksonville Sheriff's Office
Jacksonville Sheriff's Office
The Jacksonville Sheriff's Office is a joint city-county law enforcement agency, which has primary responsibility for law enforcement, investigation, and corrections within the consolidated City of Jacksonville and Duval County, Florida, United States...

 (JSO). Commanded by the elected Sheriff of Duval County, and an appointed senior staff, it's 1675 sworn members are referred to as "police officers" rather than deputies. All JSO police officers are also deputy sheriffs, in order to perform those duties Florida solely permits "sheriffs and their deputies" to perform, such as serving warrants. Similarly, the 800 members of the JSO's Department of Corrections are "Correctional Officers". John Rutherford is the current Sheriff.

JSO police and corrections uniforms are dark navy blue, with silver devices for police and corrections officers and gold for supervisory and command personnel. Marked JSO vehicles are white with a broad gold stripe on each side with the word "SHERIFF" displayed in navy blue on each rear quarter-panel and “POLICE" in navy blue on the rear of the vehicle. In 2007, in terms of sworn officers, JSO was the 25th largest local police agency in the US, and the second largest in the state of Florida.

Broward County


The Broward Sheriff's Office is currently under the direction of Sheriff Al Lamberti and is a full service law enforcement agency. The sheriff has an undersheriff and several district chiefs, also called district commanders. These individuals generally hold the title of "captain." The Broward Sheriff's Office (BSO) also directs and oversees the fire/rescue/EMS operations for the county, referred to Broward County Fire Rescue (BSO or County Fire Rescue). Overseeing the operation of the Fire/Rescue/EMS Division is a fire chief and several deputy chiefs. BSO Fire Rescue serves unincorporated parts of the county as well as municipalities under contract for fire/rescue/EMS. BSO also operates several helicopters that serve a dual purpose. Each helicopter is suited for law enforcement duties as well as medical evacuation (MEDEVAC); the helicopters are staffed both by sworn deputies as well as a flight nurse or flight medic. The Broward Sheriff's office also contracts its law enforcement duties to municipalities that either have no local police department or have disbanded the local police department to be incorporated to BSO.

Georgia


One of five county officials listed in the state constitution, sheriffs in Georgia
Georgia (U.S. state)
Georgia is a state located in the southeastern United States. It was established in 1732, the last of the original Thirteen Colonies. The state is named after King George II of Great Britain. Georgia was the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution, on January 2, 1788...

 are full-service county officers. Article IX, Section I of the constitution specifies that sheriffs "shall be elected by the qualified voters of their respective counties for a term of four years and shall have such qualifications, powers and duties as provided by general law." However, several metropolitan counties have opted to form a county police
County police
County police are the police of a county in the United States, Sweden and England .- Sweden :All of the 21 Counties of Sweden contains a County Police Department of the Swedish Police Service.-United Kingdom:...

 to perform law enforcement functions leaving the sheriff to court functions. Others also have a county marshal
Marshal
Marshal , is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word is an ancient loan word from Old French, cf...

 who provide civil law enforcement. Even with other agencies in the same county, such as county police, the Sheriff is the Chief Law Enforcement Officer of each county. All law enforcement officers in Georgia have state wide jurisdiction if the crime happens in their immediate presence, but sheriffs have state wide jurisdiction also if the crime originated in their county. This means if someone breaks the law in one county and flees to another the sheriff can go anywhere inside the state to investigate the crime, make the arrest, and transport the accused back to the original county.

Most of the qualifications, powers and duties of a sheriff in Georgia are detailed in Title 15, Chapter 16 of state law. Among other things, the law states that "the sheriff is the basic law enforcement officer of the several counties of this state." Section 10 makes it clear that the sheriff has as much authority within municipalities as he does in unincorporated areas of his county, although many sheriffs refrain from performing standard law-enforcement functions within municipalities that have their own police department unless specifically requested to do so, or are required to do so in order to fulfill other provisions in state law.

In addition to law enforcement, sheriffs or their deputies execute and return all processes and orders of the courts; receive, transport, and maintain custody of incarcerated individuals for court; attend the place or places of holding elections; keep all courthouses, jails, public grounds, and other county property; maintain a register of all precious-metal dealers; enforce the collection of taxes that may be due to the state; as well as numerous other duties.

The office of Sheriff in Georgia existed in colonial times, and was included in the first official constitution of Georgia in 1777. There is no limit to how many terms a sheriff may serve. Title 15, Chapter 16, Section 40 of Georgia law specifies that, upon reaching 75 years of age, a sheriff who has held that office for 45 or more years automatically holds the honorary office of sheriff emeritus of the State of Georgia.

In metropolitan counties the sheriff's responsibilities have changed from that of being the sole law enforcement official for their counties, to performing only traditional court-related functions but with wide-ranging duties in coordination with a county police department in the suburbs of the state capital and major cities. When these county police departments were formed they assumed patrol, investigative, crime fighting, and transportation safety responsibilities.

Hawaii


Hawaii has two sheriffs:
  • The Office of Sheriff falls under the Sheriff's Division of the Hawaii Department of Public Safety
    Hawaii Department of Public Safety
    The Hawaii Department of Public Safety is a department with in the executive branch of the government of the U.S. state of Hawaii. It is headquartered in Room 400 in the 919 Ala Moana Boulevard building in Honolulu CDP, City and County of Honolulu...

    . It is the functional equivalent of a state police
    State police
    State police are a type of sub-national territorial police force, particularly in Australia and the United States. Some other countries have analogous police forces, such as the provincial police in some Canadian provinces, while in other places, the same responsibilities are held by national...

     department and has the distinction of making Hawaii the only U.S. state
    U.S. state
    A U.S. state is any one of the 50 federated states of the United States of America that share sovereignty with the federal government. Because of this shared sovereignty, an American is a citizen both of the federal entity and of his or her state of domicile. Four states use the official title of...

     without an officially named state police department and one of two with a statewide Sheriff's Department (the other being Rhode Island). Although the Sheriff Division's jurisdiction covers the entire state, its primary functions are judicial and executive protection, security at the Hawaii State Capitol
    Hawaii State Capitol
    The Hawaii State Capitol is the official statehouse or capitol building of Hawaii in the United States. From its chambers, the executive and legislative branches perform the duties involved in governing the state...

    , law enforcement at Hawaii's airport
    Airport
    An airport is a location where aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters, and blimps take off and land. Aircraft may be stored or maintained at an airport...

    s, narcotics enforcement, prisoner transportation, the processing and service of court orders and warrants, and the patrol of certain roads and waterways in conjunction with other state agencies.
  • The Sheriff of Kalawao County, Hawaii
    Kalawao County, Hawaii
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 147 people, 115 households, and 21 families residing in the county. The population density was 11 people per square mile . There were 172 housing units at an average density of 13 per square mile...

    , located on the Kalaupapa Peninsula on the north coast of the island of Moloka'i, is selected from among the 147 local residents (147 total population per the 2000 United States Census), by the Hawaii Department of Health
    Hawaii Department of Health
    The Hawaii Department of Health is a state agency of Hawaii, with its headquarters in Honolulu CDP, City and County of Honolulu on the island of Oahu.-External links:*...

    , which administers the county. The sheriff is the sole county government employee.

Illinois


In Illinois, the sheriff is the highest law enforcement authority in each county; however, incorporated municipalities, regardless of their sizes, are responsible for primary law enforcement within their jurisdiction. Therefore, the sheriffs' departments generally concentrate their police functions on unincorporated areas. In addition, many small municipalities pay the sheriff's department a portion of their law enforcement funds for the sheriff to act as their primary law enforcement: usually either overnight, which allows the local police department to operate with local officers during the day; or full-time, relieving the village of needing its own police department.

In addition to providing policing, the sheriff's department controls the county jail, guards the courthouse
Courthouse
A courthouse is a building that is home to a local court of law and often the regional county government as well, although this is not the case in some larger cities. The term is common in North America. In most other English speaking countries, buildings which house courts of law are simply...

, acts as the process server
Service of process
Service of process is the procedure employed to give legal notice to a person of a court or administrative body's exercise of its jurisdiction over that person so as to enable that person to respond to the proceeding before the court, body or other tribunal...

 for court documents such as summons
Summons
Legally, a summons is a legal document issued by a court or by an administrative agency of government for various purposes.-Judicial summons:...

es, and oversees eviction
Eviction
How you doing???? Eviction is the removal of a tenant from rental property by the landlord. Depending on the laws of the jurisdiction, eviction may also be known as unlawful detainer, summary possession, summary dispossess, forcible detainer, ejectment, and repossession, among other terms...

s, even inside municipalities with their own police forces.

Cook County


The Cook County
Cook County, Illinois
Cook County is a county in the U.S. state of Illinois, with its county seat in Chicago. It is the second most populous county in the United States after Los Angeles County. The county has 5,194,675 residents, which is 40.5 percent of all Illinois residents. Cook County's population is larger than...

 Sheriff's Office
Cook County Sheriff's Office
The Cook County Sheriff's Office is a local law enforcement agency that serves Cook County, Illinois. It is the second largest Sheriff's department in the United States, with over 6,900 members. It is headed by the Sheriff of Cook County, currently Thomas Dart...

 is the second largest in the United States, with over 6,900 members. Due to its size, the Cook County Sheriff's Office divides its operations by task into 8 departments, the most recognizable of which is the Cook County Sheriff's Court Services Department. The much smaller Cook County Sheriff 's Police Department provides traditional police services in Unincorporated Cook County while the Department of Corrections staffs the Cook County Department of Corrections.

All Cook County Sheriff's Police Officers are Cook County Sheriff's deputies, but not all Cook County Sheriff's deputies are Sheriff's Police Officers (only about 600 Sheriff's Police out of 5500+ employees). Police Officer is a job function and title within the Cook County Sheriff's Police Department. It should be noted; that, all Cook County Sheriff's Deputies have Police Powers regardless of their particular job function or title. Like other sheriffs' departments in Illinois, the Sheriff's Police can provide all traditional law-enforcement functions, including county-wide patrol and investigations irrespective of municipal boundaries, even in the city of Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

, but has traditionally limited its police patrol functions to unincorporated areas of the county because unincorporated areas are the primary jurisdiction of a Sheriff's Department in Illinois.

The Sheriff's Police patrol services are often not required in incorporated cities because the cities such as Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

 have established their own police departments. The 500-600 member Sheriff's Police Department would not have the personnel necessary to supply full police services to all incorporated areas in Cook County especially in a municipality such as Chicago
Chicago
Chicago is the largest city in the US state of Illinois. With nearly 2.7 million residents, it is the most populous city in the Midwestern United States and the third most populous in the US, after New York City and Los Angeles...

.

Sheriff's deputies, outside the Sheriff's Police, provide the other services of the sheriff, such as guarding the various courthouses in Cook County, running and guarding the 9,800-detainee Cook County Jail, and overseeing other offender rehabilitation programs.

Indiana


In Indiana
Indiana
Indiana is a US state, admitted to the United States as the 19th on December 11, 1816. It is located in the Midwestern United States and Great Lakes Region. With 6,483,802 residents, the state is ranked 15th in population and 16th in population density. Indiana is ranked 38th in land area and is...

, county sheriffs are elected to office and limited by the state constitution to serving no more than two four-year terms consecutively. Indiana sheriffs are empowered to make arrests of persons who commit an offense within the sheriff's view, and take them before a court of the county having jurisdiction, and detain them in custody until the cause of the arrest has been investigated. They possess a general power to suppress breaches of the peace, calling the power of the county
Posse comitatus (common law)
Posse comitatus or sheriff's posse is the common-law or statute law authority of a county sheriff or other law officer to conscript any able-bodied males to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon, similar to the concept of the "hue and cry"...

 to the sheriff's aid if necessary; pursue and jail felons; serve and execute judicial process; attend and preserve order in all courts of the county; take care of the county jail and the prisoners there; take photographs, fingerprints, and other identification data as the sheriff shall prescribe of persons taken into custody for felonies or misdemeanors. They are required to provide an accounting to the state department of correction concerning the costs of incarcerating prisoners in the county.

Somewhat unusual among the states, Indiana sheriffs are paid a salary
Salary
A salary is a form of periodic payment from an employer to an employee, which may be specified in an employment contract. It is contrasted with piece wages, where each job, hour or other unit is paid separately, rather than on a periodic basis....

 out of which they must feed the prisoners in the county jails in their charge. They must account for the money they spend on prisoner's food; many counties' agreement with the sheriff's department allows the elected sheriff to keep the remaining funds allocated, which is contrary to state law. As a result, in many Indiana counties, the position of sheriff is one of the more lucrative of the elected officials, and the elections for sheriff are frequently hotly contested and draw larger numbers of candidates than most other county elective positions.

Indiana Sheriffs may also appoint Special Deputies to act as private security police
Security police
In some countries, including the United States, security police are those persons, employed by or for a governmental agency, who provide police and security services to those agencies' properties....

 for businesses.

Iowa


Iowa
There are 99 Sheriffs in the State of Iowa; one for each county. Sheriffs are elected to four year terms in office with no term limits. The Sheriff is the head law enforcement officer in the county.

Sheriff's Offices within Iowa have many functions: Patrol - which is the most visible and provides public safety activities and traffic enforcement duties; Jail - according to Iowa law, the Sheriff is responsible for the operation of the County jail. This responsibility includes the transportation of prisoners, the guarding of jail facilities, and in some counties, the securing of the County courthouse; Civil - according to Iowa law, the Sheriff is responsible for the civil process, which includes serving legal documents from the court and conducting evictions, sales and other civil related duties; and Detective- which investigates crimes and conducts follow up activities on cases.

Although a primary responsibility of the Sheriff’s Office is to provide law enforcement protection to the unincorporated and rural areas of the county, most Sheriff’s Offices contract to provide law enforcement services to smaller incorporated communities that do not have their own police department.

A Sheriff must be a certified peace officer through the Iowa Law Enforcement Academy as required under the Code of Iowa chapter 80B or must complete the basic training course within one year of taking office.
Iowa deputy sheriffs are covered by civil service law which ensures that after their probationary periods they are only removed from office for just cause. Deputy Sheriffs must complete the state law enforcement academy within their first year of employment.

In accordance with state law, the Iowa State Sheriffs’ and Deputies’ Association establishes the uniform and vehicle standards for all 99 counties. As such, all uniforms and patrol vehicle graphics are the same for each of the 99 Sheriff’s Offices throughout Iowa with the exception of the respective County’s name appearing on their badges, uniform patches, and vehicle markings.
Badge numbers for Sheriffs and Deputies consist of a prefix number, which represents the county number, followed by a one to three digit number, which represents the Sheriff’s or Deputy’s number within that specific office. The Sheriff’s badge number in each county is always #1. So the Sheriff from Bremer County would have an ID number of 9-1 (9 is the county number for Bremer County and 1 is the number for the Sheriff).

Kansas


Sheriffs are elected officials in their counties. They serve four year terms between elections.

Kentucky


Sheriffs in Kentucky
Kentucky
The Commonwealth of Kentucky is a state located in the East Central United States of America. As classified by the United States Census Bureau, Kentucky is a Southern state, more specifically in the East South Central region. Kentucky is one of four U.S. states constituted as a commonwealth...

 are elected for four-year terms and are not term limited. Kentucky Sheriffs are the chief law-enforcement officers in their county. Sheriff's departments in Kentucky have full police powers in all areas of their particular county, including incorporated cities. In most cases, however, they will patrol in cities only when requested by the mayor and/or the chief of police, or in the case of a major emergency. Deputies will jointly patrol unincorporated areas of their county with the Kentucky State Police
Kentucky State Police
The Kentucky State Police is a department of the Kentucky Justice and Public Safety Cabinet. The department was founded in 1948 and replaced the Kentucky Highway Patrol...

, who have full statewide police authority. In addition, sheriffs in Kentucky are responsible for court security, serving court papers and transporting prisoners. They are also responsible for collecting taxes on real estate and tangible property.

One of the main differences between Kentucky sheriffs and sheriffs in other states is that Kentucky sheriffs do not run the county jails. County jails are run by a separate elected officer called a jailer who has the authority to employ deputy jailers. The sheriff's office, however, may be asked by the jailer to assist with jail security in the event of an emergency.

Deputy sheriffs, like municipal police officers, must be trained and certified as peace officers through the Kentucky Justice and Public Safety Cabinet Law Enforcement Training Center at Eastern Kentucky University
Eastern Kentucky University
Eastern Kentucky University, commonly referred to as Eastern or by the acronym EKU by local residents, is an undergraduate and graduate teaching and research institution located in Richmond, Kentucky, U.S.A.. EKU is accredited by the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools...

 in Richmond
Richmond, Kentucky
There were 10,795 households out of which 24.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 35.2% were married couples living together, 12.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.6% were non-families. Of all households, 34.7% were made up of individuals and 8.8% had...

, unless they have previously completed another recognized police academy. To maintain certification, all certified peace officers must complete forty hours of in-service training annually. Sheriffs themselves, however, are not mandated to be trained and certified as the job requirements for sheriff are described in the Kentucky Constitution
Kentucky Constitution
The Constitution of the Commonwealth of Kentucky is the document that governs the Commonwealth of Kentucky. It was first adopted in 1792 and has since been rewritten three times and amended many more...

, rather than the Kentucky Revised Statutes
Kentucky Revised Statutes
Kentucky Revised Statutes is the name given to the body of laws which govern the Commonwealth of Kentucky, United States. They are created pursuant to the Kentucky Constitution and must conform to the limitations set out in the Constitutions of Kentucky and the United States...

. Many sheriffs, however, do choose to receive this training if they had not received it as a law enforcement officer with another agency prior to their election.

Louisiana


The Louisiana
Louisiana
Louisiana is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America. Its capital is Baton Rouge and largest city is New Orleans. Louisiana is the only state in the U.S. with political subdivisions termed parishes, which are local governments equivalent to counties...

 constitution establishes the office of sheriff in each parish, except Orleans Parish which had two sheriffs, each elected to a term of four years (Const. Art. V, §27). The sheriff is the chief law enforcement officer in the parish and has both criminal and civil jurisdiction. The sheriff is in charge of all criminal investigations and is responsible for executing court orders and process. The sheriff is the collector of ad valorem tax
Ad valorem tax
An ad valorem tax is a tax based on the value of real estate or personal property. It is more common than a specific duty, a tax based on the quantity of an item, such as cents per kilogram, regardless of price....

es and other taxes and license fees as provided by law and is the keeper of the public jail in the parish. Article V, Section 32 provides for the offices of civil sheriff and criminal sheriff in Orleans Parish. State & Local Government in Louisiana, Chapter 3 Local Government, Part. II. Constitutional Offices.

Orleans Parish


Orleans Parish
New Orleans, Louisiana
New Orleans is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana. The New Orleans metropolitan area has a population of 1,235,650 as of 2009, the 46th largest in the USA. The New Orleans – Metairie – Bogalusa combined statistical area has a population...

 now has one sheriff Marlin N. Gusman, with the new Orleans Parish Sheriff's Office combining the following two offices into one office in accordance with Louisiana Revised Statute 33:1500,. This statute required the Orleans Parish criminal and civil sheriffs' offices to be merged into one office by 2010 as a result of legislation passed to merge the Criminal and Civil Courts into one consolidated district court, as in all other Louisiana parishes.
  • The Criminal Sheriff, operates Orleans Parish Prison; and performs security, serves process, and performs enforcement functions for the Criminal District Court. Deputies are state-commissioned peace officers and are empowered to enforce all the laws of the state and ordinances of the parish. In addition, the Criminal Sheriff operates a Search & Rescue unit for maritime operations, as part of the Special Operations Division.
  • The Civil Sheriff, under Louisiana Revised Statute 13:1311, "...and the constables of the First and Second City Courts of New Orleans and their deputies, are hereby granted the powers of peace officers when carrying out the duties of the court, and are authorized to require incarceration of the subject involved in any of the city, parish or state prisons, precinct stations, or houses of detention in the parish of Orleans. They shall be exempt from liability for their actions in the exercise of this power in the same manner and fashion as liability is excluded generally for peace officers of this state and political subdivisions."

Maryland


In Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

, per the State Constitution, each county shall have an elected sheriff that serves a term of four years with all deputy sheriffs required to be sworn law enforcement officials with full arrest authority by the state's governing agency, the Maryland Police and Correctional Training Commission
Maryland Police and Correctional Training Commission
Headquartered in Sykesville, MD, the Maryland Police And Correctional Training Commissions is a state oversight agency for all law enforcement and correctional agencies in Maryland.-Duties:...

. In all counties (except for Anne Arundel, Baltimore, Baltimore City, Howard, Montgomery, and Prince George's), the County Sheriff is the primary law enforcement agency charged with investigating crimes, enforcing traffic laws, enforcing orders of the court, and transporting, housing, and controlling the county jail inmate population.

In Anne Arundel County, Baltimore County, Baltimore City, Howard County
Howard County, Maryland
-2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*62.2% White*17.5% Black*0.3% Native American*14.4% Asian*0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.6% Two or more races*2.0% Other races*5.8% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

, and Montgomery County
Montgomery County, Maryland
Montgomery County is a county in the U.S. state of Maryland, situated just to the north of Washington, D.C., and southwest of the city of Baltimore. It is one of the most affluent counties in the United States, and has the highest percentage of residents over 25 years of age who hold post-graduate...

 the Sheriff's Office still retains its law enforcement authority in all areas, however, their duties are strictly limited to enforcing orders of the court except in rare instances where called upon by the County Police
County police
County police are the police of a county in the United States, Sweden and England .- Sweden :All of the 21 Counties of Sweden contains a County Police Department of the Swedish Police Service.-United Kingdom:...

 or other law enforcement to assist. In Prince George's County, the Sheriff's Office and the County Police share the responsibility of county law enforcement. The Prince George's County Police still enforce the vast majority of crimes and traffic laws. Along with the traditional duties of enforcing all orders of the court, the Prince George's County Sheriff's Office
Prince George's County Sheriff's Office
The Prince George's County Sheriff's Office provides law enforcement services in Prince George's County, Maryland in the United States. Its headquarters is located in Upper Marlboro. The Sheriff is the chief law enforcement officer of Prince George's County and is elected by popular vote of the...

 responds to all domestic calls for service within the county's District III, is in place at all county high schools, is a part of the Homeland Security Task Force, and the FBI Task Force. Within Maryland, the size of each county's Sheriff's Office varies greatly from forces of approximately 30 sworn to well over 500 in the more populated counties.

Massachusetts


Most Massachusetts counties currently exist only as geographic regions, and have little county government. Most former county functions were assumed by state agencies in the late 1990s-early 2000. Each county still elects their own sheriff to a six-year term.

The duties of the office of the sheriff are corrections and service of process
Service of process
Service of process is the procedure employed to give legal notice to a person of a court or administrative body's exercise of its jurisdiction over that person so as to enable that person to respond to the proceeding before the court, body or other tribunal...

, and although they have police power, their duties do not include include general law enforcement or patrol function.

Michigan


In Michigan
Michigan
Michigan is a U.S. state located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake"....

, sheriffs are constitutionally mandated, elected county officials. All sheriff's offices have general law enforcement powers throughout their entire county, as well as traditional judicial-process, court-protection (bailiff
Bailiff
A bailiff is a governor or custodian ; a legal officer to whom some degree of authority, care or jurisdiction is committed...

) and jail-operation powers. Sheriff's offices may primarily patrol areas of their county without municipal police services; however, they are free to patrol anywhere in their county, including cities, villages and charter township
Charter township
A charter township is a form of local government in the U.S. state of Michigan. Townships in Michigan are organized governments. A charter township is a township that has been granted a charter, which allows it certain rights and responsibilities of home rule that are generally intermediary in...

s that have their own police services. Occasionally, this results in conflict over jurisdiction between municipal police agencies and sheriff's offices.

In some counties (primarily urban counties such as Oakland
Oakland County, Michigan
-Demographics:As of the 2010 Census, there were 1,202,362 people, 471,115 households, and 315,175 families residing in the county. The population density as of the 2000 census was 1,369 people per square mile . There were 492,006 housing units at an average density of 564 per square mile...

, Macomb
Macomb County, Michigan
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 788,149 people, 309,203 households, and 210,876 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,640 people per square mile . There were 320,276 housing units at an average density of 667 per square mile...

, Wayne
Wayne County, Michigan
-History:Wayne County was one of the first counties formed when the Northwest Territory was organized. It was named for the American general "Mad Anthony" Wayne. It originally encompassed the entire area of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, as well as small sections that are now part of northern...

, Genesee
Genesee County, Michigan
-Interstates:* I-69* I-75* I-475-Michigan State Trunklines:* M-13* M-15* M-21* M-54* M-57-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 436,141 people, 169,825 households, and 115,990 families residing in the county. The population density was 682 people per square mile . There were 183,630...

, Saginaw
Saginaw County, Michigan
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 210,039 people, 80,430 households, and 55,818 families residing in the county. The population density was 260 people per square mile . There were 85,505 housing units at an average density of 106 per square mile...

, Bay
Bay County, Michigan
-Demographics:As of the 2000 census, there were 110,157 people, 43,930 households, and 30,048 families residing in the county. The population density was 248 people per square mile . There were 46,423 housing units at an average density of 104 per square mile...

, Midland
Midland County, Michigan
-Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 82,874 people, 31,769 households, and 22,683 families residing in the county. The population density was 159 people per square mile . There were 33,796 housing units at an average density of 65 per square mile...

 and Washtenaw
Washtenaw County, Michigan
Washtenaw County is a county in the U.S. state of Michigan. As of the 2010 census, the population was 344,791. Its county seat is Ann Arbor. The United States Office of Management and Budget defines the county as part of the Detroit–Warren–Flint Combined Statistical Area...

), sheriff's offices provide dedicated police services under contract to some municipalities, in lieu of those municipalities providing their own police services. (Michigan law provides for or requires municipalities, depending upon their structure, to provide dedicated police services.)

The sheriffs of all 83 Michigan counties are members of the Michigan Sheriffs' Association. This professional organization, formed in 1877, promulgates standardized insignias that are used, to varying degrees, by all Michigan sheriff's offices on their uniforms and vehicles.

Notably, the Michigan State Police
Michigan State Police
The Michigan State Police is the state police agency for the state of Michigan. The MSP is a full service law enforcement agency with its sworn members having full police powers statewide....

 have general law-enforcement powers throughout the entire state. Thus, all Michigan residents have at least two levels of general police services (state police and sheriff's offices), while residents of a municipality that has its own police service have a third level of general police service.

Michigan law mandates the county sheriff be responsible for execution of all civil judgments by the circuit court, be primary law enforcement of all inland lakes via a marine division and run the county jail. The law also mandates the sheriff's "office" be established in the county seat.

Currently the Oakland County Sheriff's Department is the largest full service sheriff's department in the state.

Missouri


There are 114 counties and one independent city (City of St. Louis) in Missouri. Sheriff's in Missouri are elected to a four (4) year term. The sheriff and his deputies may conduct a variety of duties within their respective jurisdictions. Section 57.100 of the Missouri Revised Statutes states that "Every sheriff shall quell and suppress assaults and batteries, riots, routs, affrays and insurrections; shall apprehend and commit to jail all felons and traitors, and execute all process directed to him by legal authority, including writs of replevin, attachments and final process issued by circuit and associate circuit judges."

Generally, the sheriff is responsible for police patrol in unincorporated areas of the county, but retains full jurisdiction within the entire county. Generally, city or village police handle general law enforcement duties in incorporated areas. In addition, the sheriff is responsible for court security, serving court documents, operating the jail (some jurisdictions have separate county correctional departments), executing warrants, issuing concealed weapon carry permits, and other duties. In the Independent City of St. Louis, the sheriff's duties include court security for the Circuit Court, transporting prisoners between the Courts and detention facilities, serving court papers and eviction notices, and issuing concealed carry permits. Patrol duties are handled by the City of St. Louis Police Department.

Some sheriff's departments provide School Resource Deputies to public school districts under contract with the local school board. These deputies not only perform law enforcement duties, but act as mentors and instructors in safety and security related matters.

In addition, sheriffs may utilize SWAT or STAR teams, consisting of specially trained deputies who may handle hostage situations, security details, or special events. K-9 units, boat patrols, air patrols, traffic units, reserve units, and Emergency Management Division units are just some of the other specialized divisions that may be formed by the sheriff.

Since January 1, 2010, Missouri Revised Statutes 57.010 states that county sheriff's must have a Missouri Peace Officer's License before they may perform any law enforcement functions. Deputy Sheriff's are considered law enforcement officers, and must be certified by The Department of Public Safety's Peace Officer Standards and Training (POST) Program.

Nebraska


All Nebraska
Nebraska
Nebraska is a state on the Great Plains of the Midwestern United States. The state's capital is Lincoln and its largest city is Omaha, on the Missouri River....

 counties have sheriff's offices responsible for general law-enforcement functions in areas other than those covered by local city police departments. In larger cities such as Omaha
Omaha, Nebraska
Omaha is the largest city in the state of Nebraska, United States, and is the county seat of Douglas County. It is located in the Midwestern United States on the Missouri River, about 20 miles north of the mouth of the Platte River...

 or Lincoln
Lincoln, Nebraska
The City of Lincoln is the capital and the second-most populous city of the US state of Nebraska. Lincoln is also the county seat of Lancaster County and the home of the University of Nebraska. Lincoln's 2010 Census population was 258,379....

, sheriff's offices perform mainly judicial duties such as serving warrants
Warrant (law)
Most often, the term warrant refers to a specific type of authorization; a writ issued by a competent officer, usually a judge or magistrate, which permits an otherwise illegal act that would violate individual rights and affords the person executing the writ protection from damages if the act is...

 and providing courtroom security. Sheriff's deputies in Nebraska are certified by the state law-enforcement commission and have full arrest powers.

Nebraska State Troopers
Nebraska State Patrol
The Nebraska State Patrol is Nebraska's only statewide full-service law enforcement agency. Serving Nebraska since 1937, State Patrol officers perform a wide variety of duties...

 are sworn state deputy sheriffs and are authorized to perform police services in all of Nebraska's 93 counties. (See the Nebraska State Patrol website.)

Nevada


There are 16 sheriff's departments in Nevada, and two of them are unique, as the Carson City Sheriff's Office is a result of the 1967 merger of the old Carson City Police Department and the Ormsby County Sheriff's Department, as well as the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department
Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department
The Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department is a joint city-county police force for the City of Las Vegas and Clark County, Nevada. It is run by the Sheriff of Clark County, elected every four years. The current Sheriff of Clark County is Douglas C...

 is the result of the 1973 merger of the Clark County Sheriff's Office and the old Las Vegas Police Department.

New Hampshire


The New Hampshire
New Hampshire
New Hampshire is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian...

 position of High Sheriff
High Sheriff
A high sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement officer in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.In England and Wales, the office is unpaid and partly ceremonial, appointed by the Crown through a warrant from the Privy Council. In Cornwall, the High Sheriff is appointed by the Duke of...

 dates back to pre-Revolutionary War days. Today, there are 10 counties and 10 High Sheriffs in New Hampshire. The ten sheriffs are the highest ranking and most powerful uniformed law-enforcement officers in the state. The state constitution gives the sheriff of each county full law-enforcement authority throughout the county. In 1911, this authority was expanded by the state legislature to include the entire state. Sheriffs are elected to two-year terms without term limits. The sheriff is responsible for patrol duties, civil process, transport of prisoners, and criminal and civil warrants. Most county sheriff's offices provide dispatch service for many of the county's communities. Sheriffs are also responsible for the security in all the county courthouses throughout the state. Finally, sheriff are responsible for the prisoners in the local district courts throughout the state.

New Jersey


Sheriffs in New Jersey
New Jersey
New Jersey is a state in the Northeastern and Middle Atlantic regions of the United States. , its population was 8,791,894. It is bordered on the north and east by the state of New York, on the southeast and south by the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Pennsylvania and on the southwest by Delaware...

 are sworn law-enforcement officers with full arrest powers. They also serve writs and other legal process and perform court-security functions. In some counties, responsibility for the county jail rests with the sheriff's office; in other counties, this responsibility rests with a separate corrections department. In most counties, the police functions provided by the sheriff's office are limited to patrolling county property such as parks, courts, county facilities, and roads; plus, providing specialized units and support to local police, e.g., bomb squads, emergency response (SWAT
SWAT
A SWAT team is an elite tactical unit in various national law enforcement departments. They are trained to perform high-risk operations that fall outside of the abilities of regular officers...

) and investigative units. Essex County Sheriff's Bureau of Narcotics is featured in the film American Gangster which stars Denzel Washington
Denzel Washington
Denzel Hayes Washington Jr. is an American actor, screenwriter, director, and film producer. He first rose to prominence when he joined the cast of the medical drama, St. Elsewhere, playing Dr...

 and Russell Crowe
Russell Crowe
Russell Ira Crowe is a New Zealander Australian actor , film producer and musician. He came to international attention for his role as Roman General Maximus Decimus Meridius in the 2000 historical epic film Gladiator, directed by Ridley Scott, for which he won an Academy Award for Best Actor, a...

. The Essex County
Essex County, New Jersey
Essex County is a county located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the United States 2010 Census, the population was 783,969, ranking it third in the state after Bergen County and Middlesex County; Essex County's population has declined from 786,147 as of the bureau's...

 Sheriff and the Hudson County Sheriff, also holds the unique title of the Office of Emergency Management and serves a highly populated urban area including Newark
Newark, New Jersey
Newark is the largest city in the American state of New Jersey, and the seat of Essex County. As of the 2010 United States Census, Newark had a population of 277,140, maintaining its status as the largest municipality in New Jersey. It is the 68th largest city in the U.S...

, in Essex County, which is New Jersey's largest city and Jersey City, in Hudson County, which is New Jersey's second largest city.

Note: Both Bergen County
Bergen County, New Jersey
Bergen County is the most populous county of the state of New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States Census, its population was 905,116. The county is part of the New York City Metropolitan Area. Its county seat is Hackensack...

 and Union County
Union County, New Jersey
Union County is a county located in the U.S. state of New Jersey. As of the 2010 Census, the population was 536,499. It is part of the New York Metropolitan Area. Its county seat is Elizabeth. Union County ranks 93rd among the highest-income counties in the United States. It also ranks 74th in...

 also have separate county-wide police forces, which fulfills many of the police functions provided by sheriff's offices in other counties.

Essentially, all areas of New Jersey are incorporated municipalities and the vast majority have their own local police agencies that provide general law enforcement. The New Jersey State Police
New Jersey State Police
The New Jersey State Police is the state police force for the state of New Jersey. It is a general-powers police agency with state wide jurisdiction when requested by the Governor, designated by Troop Sectors.-History:...

 provides primary law enforcement in only a few rural areas in Southern and North Western NJ that lack local police.

New York


Like most other states, sheriffs and deputy sheriffs in the State of New York
New York
New York is a state in the Northeastern region of the United States. It is the nation's third most populous state. New York is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south, and by Connecticut, Massachusetts and Vermont to the east...

 are regular law-enforcement officers with full police powers and duties such as patrol work, prisoner transport, civil process, and court security.

Many sheriffs' offices in New York State also have canine
Police dog
A police dog, often referred to as a "K-9 dog" in some areas , is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and other law-enforcement personnel in their work...

, marine, aviation and SWAT
SWAT
A SWAT team is an elite tactical unit in various national law enforcement departments. They are trained to perform high-risk operations that fall outside of the abilities of regular officers...

 units, as well as various other specialized units. In N.Y., the Undersheriff is often the Warden of the county jail.

Until recently, most sheriff's officers wore a standardized uniform (black pants and shirt with dark gray straw Stetson
Stetson
Stetsons are the brand of hat manufactured by the John B. Stetson Company of St. Joseph, Missouri.Stetson eventually became the world’s largest hat maker, producing over 3.3 million hats a year in a factory spread over . Today Stetson remains a family-owned concern...

 hat in the summer and a black felt Stetson hat in the winter with a black Class A jacket for the dress uniform and a black leather jacket for the winter) and all patrol vehicles were marked in the same manner (white with red stripes, etc.). Several counties have moved away from these practices. Patrol cars in these counties have different vehicle markings, and deputy sheriffs wear different uniforms. Some examples are Ulster County
Ulster County, New York
Ulster County is a county located in the state of New York, USA. It sits in the state's Mid-Hudson Region of the Hudson Valley. As of the 2010 census, the population was 182,493. Recent population estimates completed by the United States Census Bureau for the 12-month period ending July 1 are at...

, which has dark gray uniforms similar to the New York State Police; and Warren County
Warren County, New York
Warren County is a county in the U.S. state of New York. It is part of the Glens Falls, New York, Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 census, the population was 65,707. It is named in honor of General Joseph Warren, an American Revolutionary War hero of the Battle of Bunker Hill...

, whose deputy sheriffs wear tan shirts with dark brown pants. Dutchess County Deputy Sheriff's wear tactical Class B uniforms consisting of black shirts and black pants and a Class A uniform with light blue shirts with darker blue pants. In Suffolk County
Suffolk County, New York
Suffolk County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York on the eastern portion of Long Island. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,493,350. It was named for the county of Suffolk in England, from which its earliest settlers came...

, the sheriff vehicles are black and white (similar to the police/sheriff vehicle scheme used in California). In New York City
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, deputy sheriffs wear a navy blue shirt, navy blue pants, and a 8-point hat when in patrol uniform, and wear a navy blue shirt, navy blue pants, a navy blue serge jacket, and a navy blue stetson when in Class A uniform. New sheriff vehicles are white with light blue decals (similar to the police vehicle scheme used by the NYPD). Ontario County
Ontario County, New York
As of the census of 2000, there were 100,224 people, 38,370 households, and 26,360 families residing in the county. The population density was 156 people per square mile . There were 42,647 housing units at an average density of 66 per square mile...

 Sheriff's deputies wear the traditional uniform; black pants, black shirt with brass buttons, and a black stetson.

Currently there are 57 county sheriff's offices, and one city sheriff's office (see below) which covers the five boroughs (counties) of New York City. The largest sheriff's office in New York State is the Erie County Sheriff's Office
Erie County, New York Sheriff's Office
The Erie County Sheriff's Office is Erie County's oldest law enforcement agency.The Office of the Sheriff is the oldest office under the system of common law in the United States and is an integral part of government in the State of New York....

, followed by the Suffolk County Sheriff's Department
Suffolk County, New York Sheriff's Office
The Suffolk County Sheriff's Office is the oldest law enforcement agency in Suffolk County, New York. The sheriff's office currently employs approximately 1200 people, including 841 correction officers, 247 deputy sheriffs, and 130 civilian personnel...

 with around 275 deputies and 900 correction officers.

Sheriffs in New York State (outside of New York City, Nassau and Westchester Counties) are elected for three or four-year terms, depending on the vote of the county government, specifically the county legislature. The Sheriff of New York City is appointed by the mayor (see below) and the Sheriffs of Nassau County and Westchester County are appointed by the county executives of those respective counties.

New York City




The City of New York
New York City
New York is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York Metropolitan Area, one of the most populous metropolitan areas in the world. New York exerts a significant impact upon global commerce, finance, media, art, fashion, research, technology, education, and...

, although it comprises five counties
Borough (New York City)
New York City, one of the largest cities in the world, is composed of five boroughs. Each borough now has the same boundaries as the county it is in. County governments were dissolved when the city consolidated in 1898, along with all city, town, and village governments within each county...

, currently has a single Sheriff's Office
New York City Sheriff's Office
The New York City Sheriff's Office is the civil law enforcement division of the New York City Department of Finance. The Sheriff's office is headed by a sheriff, who is appointed to the position by the mayor, unlike most sheriffs in New York State who are elected officials...

, part of the New York City Department of Finance
New York City Department of Finance
The New York City Department of Finance is the local taxation agency of New York City. The New York City Sheriff's Office is its civil enforcement arm.-Mission statement:The Department's primary operational goals are:...

. The Sheriff's Office is headed by a sheriff, appointed by the mayor
Mayor of New York City
The Mayor of the City of New York is head of the executive branch of New York City's government. The mayor's office administers all city services, public property, police and fire protection, most public agencies, and enforces all city and state laws within New York City.The budget overseen by the...

.

The Sheriff's Office serves the entire city. It is the civil enforcement arm of the Department of Finance, typically acting as the enforcer of civil judgments won by the city against individuals and businesses. Though deputy sheriffs retain their status as peace officers/law enforcement officers, traditional patrol and other law enforcement functions are handled by other departments - The New York City Police Department
New York City Police Department
The New York City Police Department , established in 1845, is currently the largest municipal police force in the United States, with primary responsibilities in law enforcement and investigation within the five boroughs of New York City...

 oversees law enforcement; the Department of Corrections manages the city's jails; the Office of the Medical Examiner handles the coroner functions; Court Officers
New York State Court Officers
New York State Court Officers are law enforcement officers who provide police services to the New York State Unified Court System, and enforce state and city laws at all facilities operated by the New York State Unified Court System.- Training :...

 handle security for the courts themselves and in lock-ups within court buildings; and so on).

The sheriff or his deputies serve processes and writs; handle evictions from city apartments or buildings seized for nonpayment of taxes; serve mental hygiene and family court
Family court
A family court is a court convened to decide matters and make orders in relation to family law, such as custody of children. In common-law jurisdictions "family courts" are statutory creations primarily dealing with equitable matters devolved from a court of inherent jurisdiction, such as a...

 warrants to take persons into custody for committal or guardianship; enforce traffic and parking laws, particularly in seizing automobiles the owners of which have failed to pay parking fines; and conducting sheriff's sales of real estate and personal property seized.

The Administrative Division controls the five county divisions, each corresponding to a borough. The department also has five undersheriffs, one per borough, approximately 150 deputy sheriffs, and non-sworn clerical staff.

There are currently about 150 deputy sheriffs employed by the New York City Sheriff's Office. Deputies have full peace officer powers and are allowed to carry firearms on and off duty (as per the New York State Penal Code).

The sheriff is not to be confused with New York City Marshal
New York City Marshal
New York City Marshals are civil law enforcement officers of New York City appointed by the mayor to 5-year terms. During their term of office they receive no salary from the city. By law, no more than 83 city marshals shall be appointed by a mayor...

s, who are licensed by the city as private businessmen to be hired by people and businesses to enforce their own civil judgments. For instance, while the sheriff seizes land or cars for nonpayment of taxes or fines, the marshals may be hired by private owners to evict tenants or seize property as a result of a default on a loan.

North Carolina


The office of sheriff is constitutionally mandated in North Carolina
North Carolina
North Carolina is a state located in the southeastern United States. The state borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west and Virginia to the north. North Carolina contains 100 counties. Its capital is Raleigh, and its largest city is Charlotte...

. It is an elected law enforcement office.

The sheriff has duties in all three branches of law enforcement: Policing, Courts/Criminal Justice and Corrections/Jail. The Office of the Sheriff is the primary law enforcement agency for the unincorporated areas of North Carolina's counties. The Sheriff, as the County's chief law enforcement officer, has jurisdiction anywhere in the County, including municipalities, where the Sheriff's Office provides assistance and support to local law enforcement agencies.

Law enforcement duties of this Office include patrolling the counties, preventing crime, investigating violations of the law, and apprehending law violators. In addition, support services, such as communications, evidence, and property control services are provided. The Sheriff is also responsible for keeping and maintaining the common jail of the county, which currently consists of separate detention facilities at the County Public Safety Centers and the Detention Annex if required by the counties. The Office is responsible for transporting prisoners for court appearances.

In the area of judicial services, the Office of the Sheriff serves as the enforcement arm of the North Carolina General Court of Justice. The Office serves civil and criminal processes issued by the courts, which often includes arresting persons and bringing them before the courts, as well as the seizure and sale of personal and real property to satisfy court judgments. The Sheriff is responsible for courtroom security in the District and Superior courtrooms in the county.

Other miscellaneous duties of the Office mandated by the State include pistol purchase permits, concealed handgun permits, parade and picketing permits, and maintaining registries of sexual offenders and domestic violators.

In North Carolina, the sheriff is elected to a 4-year term. A county sheriff is responsible not to county authorities but to the citizens of the county. County governments are responsible for providing funding to the Sheriff's Office.

Exceptions


Exceptions to the County Sheriff in North Carolina are that of two of North Carolina's Counties,Gaston and Mecklenburg.http://www.co.gaston.nc.us/gastonpd/index.htm These Counties have a police force for the whole county, as well as a Sheriff Department that is responsible for the jails. http://www.co.gaston.nc.us/sheriff

In Gaston County, the Gaston County Police is responsible for county-wide police services for the incorporated and unincorporated areas of the county, while overlapping with City and Township police. The Gaston County Sheriffs Department is responsible for the jails and the court system in Gastonia, the county seat.
http://www.co.gaston.nc.us/gastonpd/index.html

In Charlotte, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department
Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department
The Charlotte-Mecklenburg Police Department is the police department of the City of Charlotte & Mecklenburg County, North Carolina. With over 1,716 officers and 530 civilian staff, covering an area of with a population of more than 713,455.-Organization:...

 is responsible for the incorporated areas of Charlotte, and the unincorporated areas of the county. While the Sheriff's Office is responsible for the jails, courts, and warrant service.
http://www.charmeck.org/Departments/MCSO/Home.htm

Ohio


Until Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

 achieved statehood in 1803, the position of Sheriff was filled through appointments made at the pleasure of the Territorial Governor, Arthur St. Clair
Arthur St. Clair
Arthur St. Clair was an American soldier and politician. Born in Scotland, he served in the British Army during the French and Indian War before settling in Pennsylvania, where he held local office...

. The first Sheriff on the record in Ohio and the Northwest Territory
Northwest Territory
The Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, more commonly known as the Northwest Territory, was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 13, 1787, until March 1, 1803, when the southeastern portion of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Ohio...

 was Colonel Ebenezer Sproat
Ebenezer Sproat
Ebenezer Sproat , surname also spelled Sprout, was an officer of the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War, a pioneer to the Ohio Country, and one of the founders of Marietta, Ohio, the first permanent American settlement in the Northwest Territory...

, who served fourteen years. At the time he was appointed in 1788, Colonel Sproat's jurisdiction covered all of Washington County; this enormous area of land then included all of eastern Ohio from the Ohio River to Lake Erie. The "First to Serve Since 1788" motto on Ohio sheriff vehicles refers to Sheriff Sproat's service.

After statehood, only three public offices in Ohio were filled via the electoral-process system. The position of Sheriff was one of them. Through this new system, William Skinner became the first elected Sheriff in the Buckeye State. Since the early 19th century, Ohio sheriffs have been elected on the county level by the people they serve. The term of office for county sheriffs in Ohio is four years.

In each of the 88 counties of Ohio, the sheriff is the chief law-enforcement officer. His primary duties are to provide common pleas court services and corrections on a countywide basis, and full police protection to the unincorporated areas of the county. However, he also maintains full police jurisdiction in all municipalities, townships, and villages. In an effort to become consistent on a statewide level, Ohio sheriffs and deputies wear a standardized uniform, and all patrol vehicles are marked in the same manner.

Within Ohio, sheriff's offices have probably one of the most extensive sets of responsibilities to those they serve. By statute they must provide the following: line law enforcement; court security and service of papers; jail operations; extradition process; and transportation of prisoners.

Oklahoma


Oklahoma
Oklahoma
Oklahoma is a state located in the South Central region of the United States of America. With an estimated 3,751,351 residents as of the 2010 census and a land area of 68,667 square miles , Oklahoma is the 28th most populous and 20th-largest state...

's Sheriffs, whose primary role is as an officer of the court
Officer of the court
The generic term officer of the court applies to all those who, in some degree in function of their professional or similar qualifications, have a legal part—and hence legal and deontological obligations—in the complex functioning of the judicial system as a whole, in order to forge justice out of...

, provide full services, that is, providing tradition law-enforcement functions such as countywide patrol and investigations. As the chief peace officer of each of Oklahoma's 77 counties, the Sheriffs serve and execute all process, writs, precepts and orders issued or made by lawful authorities, namely the courts. The Sheriff's office also provides security for judges and courthouses. The Sheriffs are in charge of and have custody over the jail of their county, and all the prisoners in the jail are under the Sheriff's supervision, with the Sheriff serving as the county's jailer.

Under their law-enforcement responsibilities, the Sheriffs are responsible for ensuring that the peace is preserved, riot
Riot
A riot is a form of civil disorder characterized often by what is thought of as disorganized groups lashing out in a sudden and intense rash of violence against authority, property or people. While individuals may attempt to lead or control a riot, riots are thought to be typically chaotic and...

s are suppressed, and that unlawful assemblies and insurrections are controlled throughout their county. To ensure justice is administered, the Sheriff is empowered to apprehend any person charged with a felony or breach of the peace and may attend any court within the county. The Sheriffs are also empowered
Posse comitatus (common law)
Posse comitatus or sheriff's posse is the common-law or statute law authority of a county sheriff or other law officer to conscript any able-bodied males to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon, similar to the concept of the "hue and cry"...

 to conscript
Conscription
Conscription is the compulsory enlistment of people in some sort of national service, most often military service. Conscription dates back to antiquity and continues in some countries to the present day under various names...

 any person or persons of their county that they may deem necessary to fulfill their duties.

Pennsylvania


Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania
The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania is a U.S. state that is located in the Northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The state borders Delaware and Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, New York and Ontario, Canada, to the north, and New Jersey to...

 sheriffs may have all the traditional sheriff powers, but in practice perform only traditional court-related functions since the establishment of the Pennsylvania State Police
Pennsylvania State Police
The Pennsylvania State Police is the state police force of Pennsylvania, responsible for statewide law enforcement. It was founded in 1905 by order of Governor Samuel Pennypacker, in response to the private police forces used by mine and mill owners to stop worker strikes and the inability or...

 in 1905. The status of Pennsylvania's county sheriffs was in a legal gray area for many years. While sheriffs routinely provided court security, prisoner transport, and civil process services, it was unclear whether they had actual law-enforcement powers. In the 1970s through the early 1990s, a number of defendants charged by deputy sheriffs with crimes attempted to suppress the results of their arrests on the basis that the deputies were not bona fide law-enforcement officers. In Commonwealth of Pennsylvania vs. Leet, a 1991 decision by the Pennsylvania Superior Court, a 2–1 majority of the Court held that deputy sheriffs had no law-enforcement powers. That decision was reversed by the Pennsylvania Supreme Court in a 1994 decision by Justice John P. Flaherty, which held that sheriffs do indeed have the power to enforce motor-vehicle laws. In his majority opinion, Justice Flaherty spent a great deal of time exploring the historical roots of the office of Sheriff and concluded that the powers developed as a matter of common law:
Presently, every Pennsylvania county has a Sheriff's Office. This has led to some overlap in places such as Allegheny County
Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
Allegheny County is a county in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,223,348; making it the second most populous county in Pennsylvania, following Philadelphia County. The county seat is Pittsburgh...

, where the County Police is responsible for supporting local law-enforcement and patrolling county-owned property, including the Pittsburgh International Airport
Pittsburgh International Airport
Pittsburgh International Airport , formerly Greater Pittsburgh Airport, Greater Pittsburgh International Airport and commonly referred to as Pittsburgh International, is a joint civil–military international airport located in the Pittsburgh suburb of Findlay Township, approximately west of...

. Similarly, the Delaware County Courthouse and Park Police Department
Delaware County Courthouse and Park Police Department
The Delaware County Courthouse & Park Police Department is a county-wide police department, responsible for providing security and protection for all parks, physical property, and government buildings of Delaware County, Pennsylvania...

 provides security police
Security police
In some countries, including the United States, security police are those persons, employed by or for a governmental agency, who provide police and security services to those agencies' properties....

 functions. With the newly expanded powers of the County Sheriff, however, this has led to some power struggles.

Philadelphia County


As part of the City of Philadelphia, the Sheriff is elected for a four year term and provides basic court related services such as transporting prisoners, providing courthouse security and other duties with regard to service of process and summonses that are issued by county and state courts. The sheriff also often conducts auction sales of real property in foreclosure in many jurisdictions, and is often also empowered to conduct seizures of personal property
Personal property
Personal property, roughly speaking, is private property that is moveable, as opposed to real property or real estate. In the common law systems personal property may also be called chattels or personalty. In the civil law systems personal property is often called movable property or movables - any...

 (chattel) to satisfy a judgment. The Philadelphia
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Philadelphia is the largest city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania and the county seat of Philadelphia County, with which it is coterminous. The city is located in the Northeastern United States along the Delaware and Schuylkill rivers. It is the fifth-most-populous city in the United States,...

 Sheriff's Department has made clear its intent to carry out community law-enforcement while continuing its statutory duties.

Rhode Island


The Rhode Island State Sheriff's Department is a statewide law enforcement agency under the Department of Administration. The Rhode Island
Rhode Island
The state of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, more commonly referred to as Rhode Island , is a state in the New England region of the United States. It is the smallest U.S. state by area...

 Division of the State Sheriff is a state executive office with an Executive High Sheriff responsible for State Sheriff operations and 3 county sheriffs responsible for County duties. Rhode Island counties provide only judicial functions. Currently there are 196 sworn and civilian personnel under the command of the State's Executive High Sheriff, Colonel Gary P. Dias.

The Rhode Island State Sheriff's Department comprises one hundred, ninety-six men and women who are assigned to various job functions within Rhode Island's four County Court facilities: Providence County, Kent County, Newport County and Washington County. Note that the court facility in Bristol County was closed in 2002. They also serve at the Inmate Custody, Control and Transportation Unit in Cranston.

The functions of the Department include Courtroom and Judicial Security, Court Facility and Cellblock Operations, Inmate Transportation, Interstate Extraditions and Interstate Inmate Transfers, Writ Services, Body Attachments, Fugitive Apprehension, Narcotics Interdiction, Search and Rescue
Search and rescue
Search and rescue is the search for and provision of aid to people who are in distress or imminent danger.The general field of search and rescue includes many specialty sub-fields, mostly based upon terrain considerations...

, and Special Operations.

The Executive High Sheriff
High Sheriff
A high sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement officer in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.In England and Wales, the office is unpaid and partly ceremonial, appointed by the Crown through a warrant from the Privy Council. In Cornwall, the High Sheriff is appointed by the Duke of...

 is responsible for the overall administration of the Department. He works with a command staff consisting of a Major, the three County Sheriffs, Chiefs Deputy Sheriff, Captains, Lieutenants and Sergeants. Kent, Newport and Washington Counties each have a County Sheriff who are charged with the responsibility of supervising their respective county court facility and all assigned personnel.

South Dakota


In the state of South Dakota, the Sheriff's duties, by law, are as follows: "Sheriff to preserve the peace--Apprehension of felons--Execution of
process. The sheriff shall keep and preserve the peace within his county, for which purpose he is empowered to call to his aid such persons or power of
his county as he may deem necessary. He must pursue and apprehend all felons, and must execute all writs, warrants, and other process from any court or
magistrate which shall be directed to him by legal authority."
Every county in the state of South Dakota is required to hold an election for Sheriff every 4 (four) years. There is no limit to how many consecutive 4 (four) year terms an individual can serve as Sheriff.
The Sheriff in all counties has law enforcement powers, they also serve court documents both civil and criminal, provide courthouse security,
conduct investigations, and usually operate a county jail. Some counties contract-out jail space for other counties to use. (Fees are usually
determined by the number of inmates housed per day.)
Sheriff's are required by state law to be paid a minimum annual salary. The law and guidelines are shown below.
7-12-15. Sheriff's salary schedule. The board of county commissioners shall establish, by resolution, the salary payable to the sheriff. The
salary payable may not be less than the following schedule based upon the most recent decennial federal census of population of counties.
County Population Salary Schedule
Below 10,000 $35,700
10,000-14,999 $38,700
15,000-24,999 $39,900
25,000-69,999 $44,700
70,000 and over $48,600
The board of county commissioners may not decrease the salary of the sheriff during consecutive terms of office of the sheriff. Any sheriff
having responsibility for managing a full-time jail shall receive an additional ten percent added to the base salary listed in this section.

Tennessee


The Tennessee Constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

 requires each county to elect a sheriff to a four-year term. In all Tennessee counties except one, the sheriff is an official with full police powers, usually county-wide, although Tennessee sheriffs and their deputies generally perform the patrol portion of their duties primarily in unincorporated areas of their counties if the municipalities have their own police departments. The exception to the rule is Davidson County
Davidson County, Tennessee
Davidson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee. As of 2010, the population was 626,681. Its county seat is Nashville.In 1963, the City of Nashville and the Davidson County government merged, so the county government is now known as the "Metropolitan Government of Nashville and...

. In Davidson County, the sheriff has the primary responsibility of serving civil process and jail functions without the common law
Common law
Common law is law developed by judges through decisions of courts and similar tribunals rather than through legislative statutes or executive branch action...

 powers to keep the peace. Protection of the peace is instead the responsibility of the Metropolitan Nashville Police Department
Metropolitan Nashville Police Department
The Metropolitan Nashville Police Department is the primary provider of law enforcement services for Metropolitan Nashville and Davidson County, Tennessee. The MNPD covers a total area of that encompasses everything from high density urban locations to rural areas.-Composition and organization:The...

 under the county's Metropolitan Charter
Consolidated city-county
In United States local government, a consolidated city–county is a city and county that have been merged into one unified jurisdiction. As such it is simultaneously a city, which is a municipal corporation, and a county, which is an administrative division of a state...

. The Metropolitan Charter did not remove the Davidson County Sheriff's status as a Law Enforcement officer however. It is simply not his or her primary function as it was prior to the consolidation of the City of Nashville and Davidson County.

The current Sheriff of Davidson County, Daron Hall, is still elected as is every other sheriff in the state, has recently added a new law enforcement division to his department. The division is called I.C.E. which deals with immigration issues.

Texas


The Texas
Texas Constitution
The Constitution of the State of Texas is the document that describes the structure and function of the government of the U.S. State of Texas.Texas has had seven constitutions: the constitution of Coahuila y Tejas, the 1836 Constitution of the Republic of Texas, the state constitutions of 1845,...

 Constitution
Constitution
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed. These rules together make up, i.e. constitute, what the entity is...

 (Article 5, Section 23) provides for the election of a Sheriff in each one of the 254 counties. Currently, the term of office for Texas Sheriffs is four years. However, when vacancies arise, the commissioners court of the respective county will appoint a replacement to serve out the remaining term.

In Texas, Sheriffs and their deputies are fully empowered peace officers with county-wide jurisdiction and thus, may legally exercise their authority in unincorporated and incorporated areas of a county. However, they primarily provide law enforcement services for only the unincorporated areas of a county and do not normally patrol in incorporated cities which have their own police agencies. All peace officers in Texas, whether Sheriffs, city Police, State Troopers, Constables, or Marshals, have state-wide arrest powers for any criminal offense committed within their presence or view.

The duties of a Texas Sheriff generally include providing law enforcement services to residents, managing the county jail, providing bailiffs for the county and district courts within the county, and in some cases serving process issued therefrom (the office of the constable is responsible for most civil process).

The Harris County Sheriff's Office
Harris County Sheriff's Office
The Harris County Sheriff's Office is a local law enforcement agency serving the over three million citizens of Harris County, Texas, United States. It is headquartered in the 1200 Jail in Downtown Houston.As of the 2000 U.S...

 is the largest sheriff’s office in Texas, with a sworn employee count of 2,537 in 2005. In 2000, 60% of deputies were assigned to jail operations, 26% to patrol, 12% to investigations, and 1% to process serving.

The smallest sheriff's office in Texas is in Loving County, with a sheriff and two deputies, due to its very small population (approximately 67 residents).

Vermont


Vermont sheriff responsibilities include furnishing security for the county Superior Court and Vermont District Court located in their county, serving civil and criminal papers, transportation of prisoners, patrolling towns, motor vehicle and snowmobile enforcement, and furnishing security for special events.

Virginia


The position of sheriff is established by the Virginia Constitution, with the sheriff and his deputies having both civil and concurrent criminal jurisdiction countywide. Sheriffs terms are for four years and are not term limited. Unlike other states, the Sheriff is not the chief law enforcement officer; this distinction is reserved for the Commonwealth's Attorney in the jurisdiction. In such areas, the Chief of Police is the highest ranking officer, such as in incorporated towns or cities.

Virginia is unique in that all cities are independent jurisdictions and are completely separate from any county. Thus, most cities (with few exceptions such as Poquoson and Franklin) have elected sheriffs, most of which focus on court and jail operations. By law, sheriffs can enforce all the laws of the Commonwealth in the jurisdiction they serve. Some city sheriffs (such as Portsmouth) also work alongside the city police in responding to calls and enforcing traffic violations.

In cities such as Poquoson and Franklin, these cities grew out of a county and still use that county's sheriff for civil process and court services. Those sheriff's offices still have concurrent jurisdiction in those cities but do not generally exercise them, allowing the city police to handle criminal/traffic matters.

All sheriffs are responsible for civil process, jails, serving levies and holding sheriff's sales to satisfy judgements.

Since 1983, when the General Assembly passed legislation allowing counties to establish police departments by referendum, only seven counties have done so. In most of those counties, such as Henrico and Chesterfield, the sheriffs offices exercise criminal enforcement authority sharing it with the county police, but generally let the county police investigate most crime.

The city of Williamsburg incorporated as a city from James City County in 1699. Prior to 1983, the sheriff's office handled all police functions for James City County while a sheriff performed court/jail functions for Williamsburg. When James City County established its county police department, that department operated under the county sheriff for two years before becoming a separate agency. Williamsburg's sheriff's office comprised only 8 personnel, it eventually merged with the county's sheriff's office to form the Williamsburg-James City County Sheriff's office.

In the early 1990s the General Assembly mandated the uniforms for all sheriffs as being dark brown shirts with tan pants that have a brown stripe. Sheriff's office vehicles were to be dark brown with a five point star on the front doors and "sheriff's office" on the trunk. The five point star must have the jurisdiction's name in a half circle on the star and "sheriff's office" in a half circle under that.

In the early first decade of the 21st century, legislation was passed to allow sheriffs to purchase white vehicles (if agreed to by the city or county), and allowing sheriffs' deputies to wear any color uniform the sheriff chose. Sheriffs' vehicles still must have the star on the front doors and markings on the trunk as before.

The Sheriff's Office, in conjunction with local police departments, assist with controlling traffic, issuing traffic summonses, and working with state and local law-enforcement agencies. Additionally, sheriff's deputies aid the county police
County police
County police are the police of a county in the United States, Sweden and England .- Sweden :All of the 21 Counties of Sweden contains a County Police Department of the Swedish Police Service.-United Kingdom:...

, the United States Marshals Service, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation
Federal Bureau of Investigation
The Federal Bureau of Investigation is an agency of the United States Department of Justice that serves as both a federal criminal investigative body and an internal intelligence agency . The FBI has investigative jurisdiction over violations of more than 200 categories of federal crime...

 in a joint fugitive task force that provides apprehension and arrest of felons who face current warrants. Sheriffs are also solely responsible for executing detention orders for those who are ordered to receive mental health care.

Deputy sheriffs are the only members of law enforcement that can be dual-certified in civil process/courts and basic law enforcement. There is no distinction made by title, all those who work for a sheriff are Deputies. Police officers are prohibited from performing civil process or court duties. All deputies and police officers must meet state certification standards as set by DCJS (Department of Criminal Justice Services).

In Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia consists of several counties and independent cities in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in a widespread region generally radiating southerly and westward from Washington, D.C...

 the sheriff's responsibilities have changed from that of being the sole law enforcement official for their counties, to performing only traditional court-related functions but with wide-ranging duties in coordination with a county police department in the suburbs of the nation's capital. When these county police departments were formed they assumed patrol, investigative, crime fighting, and transportation safety responsibilities.

By law, sheriffs are not elected at the same time. County sheriffs are sworn into office on even-numbered years; city sheriffs are sworn into office on odd-numbered years. All deputies must be re-sworn after each election. Sheriffs have complete authority to hire and fire as they see fit; deputy sheriffs serve at the sole pleasure of the sheriff. Sheriff's offices are completely funded by the state, unless a county or city wishes to supplement with funding. For example in Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia
Northern Virginia consists of several counties and independent cities in the Commonwealth of Virginia, in a widespread region generally radiating southerly and westward from Washington, D.C...

 Sheriff's Offices are funded by a county or city.

Washington


In Washington State, each sheriff of the thirty-nine counties is an elected official serving a four-year term.

The voters of Pierce County voted to pass Charter Amendment 1 on November 7, 2006 to change the sheriff's position from appointed to elected. The first sheriff's election in 30 years was held in 2008.

The sheriff is the chief law-enforcement officer of a county and is empowered to enforce the criminal laws of the State of Washington and the county their office represents, as well as to serve or execute civil processes (such as court orders, evictions, property foreclosures, tax warrants); to maintain county jails; to provide courthouse security; and to provide general law enforcement in unincorporated areas. In many cities, police services are contracted to the sheriff's department in lieu of a city police department.

West Virginia


In West Virginia
West Virginia
West Virginia is a state in the Appalachian and Southeastern regions of the United States, bordered by Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest, Pennsylvania to the northeast and Maryland to the east...

, the sheriff of a given county performs two distinct duties. They are the chief law-enforcement officers in the county, although much of this duty is handled by their chief deputies. They are also responsible for the collection of any taxes due to the county. While many sheriffs have a background in professional law enforcement, others are politicians or other local notables. West Virginia sheriffs are limited to two consecutive four-year terms.

Wisconsin


In Wisconsin
Wisconsin
Wisconsin is a U.S. state located in the north-central United States and is part of the Midwest. It is bordered by Minnesota to the west, Iowa to the southwest, Illinois to the south, Lake Michigan to the east, Michigan to the northeast, and Lake Superior to the north. Wisconsin's capital is...

, the sheriff and his deputies are responsible for patrolling towns and villages not large enough to support their own police department, and also aids local departments when required.

Famous American sheriffs

  • Buford Pusser
    Buford Pusser
    Buford Hayse Pusser was the Sheriff of McNairy County, Tennessee , from 1964 to 1970. Pusser is known for his virtual one-man war on moonshining, prostitution, gambling, and other vices on the Mississippi-Tennessee state-line. His story has directly inspired several books, songs, movies and at...

     — McNairy County, Tennessee portrayed in Walking Tall
    Walking Tall
    Walking Tall is a 1973 semi-biopic of Sheriff Buford Pusser, a former professional wrestler-turned-lawman in McNairy County, Tennessee. It starred Joe Don Baker as Pusser...

    , and in a suite of songs on Drive-By Truckers
    Drive-By Truckers
    Drive-By Truckers are an alternative country/Southern rock band based in Athens, Georgia, though three out of six members are originally from The Shoals region of Northern Alabama, and the band strongly identifies with Alabama. Their music uses three guitars as well as bass, drums, and now...

    ' 2004 album, The Dirty South
    The Dirty South (album)
    The Dirty South is the fifth album by Alabamian alternative country/Southern rock group Drive-By Truckers, released in 2004. The Dirty South is Drive-By Truckers' third concept album...

    .
  • Theodore Roosevelt
    Theodore Roosevelt
    Theodore "Teddy" Roosevelt was the 26th President of the United States . He is noted for his exuberant personality, range of interests and achievements, and his leadership of the Progressive Movement, as well as his "cowboy" persona and robust masculinity...

     - the 26th President Of the United States spend some of his early career as deputy sheriff in Medora, North Dakota.
  • Seth Bullock - enterpreneur and sheriff in Deadwood, South Dakota
    Deadwood, South Dakota
    Deadwood is a city in South Dakota, United States, and the county seat of Lawrence County. It is named for the dead trees found in its gulch. The population was 1,270 according to a 2010 census...

    .
  • Joe Arpaio
    Joe Arpaio
    Joseph M. "Joe" Arpaio is the elected Sheriff of Maricopa County in the U.S. state of Arizona. First voted into office in 1992, Arpaio is responsible for law enforcement in Maricopa County. This includes management of the Maricopa County Sheriff's Office, county jail, courtroom security,...

     — Maricopa County, Arizona
    Maricopa County, Arizona
    -2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*73.0% White*5.0% Black*2.1% Native American*3.5% Asian*0.2% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*3.5% Two or more races*12.7% Other races*29.6% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

    (1994–present), infamous for his stance on political issues.
  • Daniel Boone
    Daniel Boone
    Daniel Boone was an American pioneer, explorer, and frontiersman whose frontier exploits mad']'e him one of the first folk heroes of the United States. Boone is most famous for his exploration and settlement of what is now the Commonwealth of Kentucky, which was then beyond the western borders of...

     — Fayette County, Kentucky
    Fayette County, Kentucky
    Fayette County is a county located in the U.S. state of Kentucky. The population was 295,083 in the 2010 Census. Its territory, population and government are coextensive with the city of Lexington, which also serves as county seat....

  • Mike Brown — Island County, Washington
    Island County, Washington
    Island County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. In 2010 census, its population was 78,506. Its county seat is Coupeville, while its largest city is Oak Harbor....

    , reduced crime rate
  • Eugene Coon
    Eugene Coon
    Eugene L. "Gene" Coon was a long-time Sheriff of Allegheny County, Pennsylvania and an influential figure in the local Democratic party.-Early Life:...

     - Allegheny County (Pittsburgh), Pennsylvania
    Allegheny County, Pennsylvania
    Allegheny County is a county in the southwestern part of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,223,348; making it the second most populous county in Pennsylvania, following Philadelphia County. The county seat is Pittsburgh...

     (1969–1996) famous for halting foreclosure sales on laid off steel workers in the recession of the early 1980s.
  • Pat Garrett
    Pat Garrett
    Patrick Floyd "Pat" Garrett was an American Old West lawman, bartender, and customs agent who was best known for killing Billy the Kid...

     — Lincoln County, New Mexico
    Lincoln County, New Mexico
    -2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*85.1% White*0.5% Black*2.4% Native American*0.4% Asian*0.0% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.5% Two or more races*9.1% Other races*29.8% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

    , famous for killing Billy the Kid
    Billy the Kid
    William H. Bonney William H. Bonney William H. Bonney (born William Henry McCarty, Jr. est. November 23, 1859 – c. July 14, 1881, better known as Billy the Kid but also known as Henry Antrim, was a 19th-century American gunman who participated in the Lincoln County War and became a frontier...

    .
  • Bat Masterson
    Bat Masterson
    William Barclay "Bat" Masterson was a figure of the American Old West known as a buffalo hunter, U.S. Marshal and Army scout, avid fisherman, gambler, frontier lawman, and sports editor and columnist for the New York Morning Telegraph...

     — Ford County, Kansas
    Ford County, Kansas
    Ford County is a county located in southwest Kansas, in the Central United States. As of the 2010 census, the county population was 33,848. The Dodge City Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Ford County. Its county seat and most populous city is Dodge City. The county is named in...

  • Lamar Potts
    Murder in Coweta County
    The murder in Coweta County was an April 1948 act of murder committed in Coweta County in the U.S. state of Georgia and involving the sheriff of neighboring Meriwether County...

     - Coweta County, Georgia
    Coweta County, Georgia
    Coweta County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of 2000, the population was 89,215. The 2009 Census Estimate placed the population at 131,936...

  • Sherman Block
    Sherman Block
    Sherman Block was the 29th Sheriff of Los Angeles County, California from January 1982 until his death.He was preceded by Peter Pitchess and succeeded by Lee Baca....

     — Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
    Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
    The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department is a local county law enforcement agency that serves Los Angeles County, California. It is the fourth largest local policing agency in the United States, with the New York City Police Department being the first. The second largest is the Chicago Police...

    (1982–2000), highest paid government administrator in the United States.
  • Lee Baca
    Lee Baca
    Leroy David "Lee" Baca is the Sheriff of Los Angeles County, California. Baca holds a Doctorate of Public Administration from the University of Southern California....

     — Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
    Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department
    The Los Angeles County Sheriff's Department is a local county law enforcement agency that serves Los Angeles County, California. It is the fourth largest local policing agency in the United States, with the New York City Police Department being the first. The second largest is the Chicago Police...

    (2000–present), Block's successor; notable for his alleged preferential treatment of celebrities Mel Gibson
    Mel Gibson
    Mel Colm-Cille Gerard Gibson, AO is an American actor, film director, producer and screenwriter. Born in Peekskill, New York, Gibson moved with his parents to Sydney, Australia when he was 12 years old and later studied acting at the Australian National Institute of Dramatic Art.After appearing in...

     and Paris Hilton
    Paris Hilton
    Paris Whitney Hilton is an American businesswoman, heiress, and socialite. She is a great-granddaughter of Conrad Hilton . Hilton is known for her controversial participation in a sex tape in 2003, and appearance on the television series The Simple Life alongside fellow socialite and childhood...

    .
  • Dave Reichert
    Dave Reichert
    David George Reichert is the U.S. Representative for , serving since 2005. He is a member of the Republican Party. He previously served as Sheriff of King County, Washington.-Early life, education and career:...

     — King County, Washington
    King County, Washington
    King County is a county located in the U.S. state of Washington. The population in the 2010 census was 1,931,249. King is the most populous county in Washington, and the 14th most populous in the United States....

    , tracked the Green River killer; elected to Congress in 2004.
  • John Bunnell
    John Bunnell
    John Edwin Bunnell is a former Sheriff of Multnomah County, Oregon. Bunnell is best known for presenting World's Wildest Police Videos between 1998 and 2002.-Background:...

     — Former sheriff of Multnomah County, Oregon
    Multnomah County, Oregon
    Multnomah County is one of 36 counties in the U.S. state of Oregon. Though smallest in area, it is the most populous as its county seat, Portland, is the state's largest city...

    ; most famous for presenting/hosting World's Wildest Police Videos
    World's Wildest Police Videos
    World's Wildest Police Videos is a reality TV series that dealt with police videos from across the world. Video footage of car chases, subsequent arrests, robberies, riots and other crimes appeared on the show...

    ,
    appearances on COPS, and other acting roles.
  • Grover Cleveland
    Grover Cleveland
    Stephen Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. Cleveland is the only president to serve two non-consecutive terms and therefore is the only individual to be counted twice in the numbering of the presidents...

     — Erie County, New York
    Erie County, New York
    Erie County is a county located in the U.S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 919,040. The county seat is Buffalo. The county's name comes from Lake Erie, which in turn comes from the Erie tribe of American Indians who lived south and east of the lake before 1654.Erie...

    , the only sheriff ever to be elected President of the United States
    President of the United States
    The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is the commander-in-chief of the United States Armed Forces....

    .
  • Mike Carona
    Mike Carona
    Michael S. "Mike" Carona is a convicted felon and former Sheriff-Coroner of Orange County, California. The Sheriff was the elected head of the Orange County Sheriff's Department. He gained national prominence during the hunt for the killer of Samantha Runnion...

     — Orange County, California
    Orange County, California
    Orange County is a county in the U.S. state of California. Its county seat is Santa Ana. As of the 2010 census, its population was 3,010,232, up from 2,846,293 at the 2000 census, making it the third most populous county in California, behind Los Angeles County and San Diego County...

    (1999–2009), dubbed "America's Sheriff" by Larry King
    Larry King
    Lawrence Harvey "Larry" King is an American television and radio host whose work has been recognized with awards including two Peabodys and ten Cable ACE Awards....

  • William J. Brady
    William J. Brady
    William J. Brady was the sheriff of Lincoln County during the Lincoln County Wars in New Mexico, United States. He was killed in an ambush, aged 48, in which Billy the Kid took part.-Early life:...

     — Sheriff of Lincoln County during the Lincoln County War
    Lincoln County War
    The Lincoln County War was a 19th-century range war between two factions during the Old West period. Numerous notable figures of the American West were involved, including Billy the Kid, aka William Henry McCarty; sheriffs William Brady and Pat Garrett; cattle rancher John Chisum, lawyer and...

    s in New Mexico, United States. He was killed in an ambush by Billy the Kid
    Billy the Kid
    William H. Bonney William H. Bonney William H. Bonney (born William Henry McCarty, Jr. est. November 23, 1859 – c. July 14, 1881, better known as Billy the Kid but also known as Henry Antrim, was a 19th-century American gunman who participated in the Lincoln County War and became a frontier...

    .
  • Richard Mack
    Richard Mack
    Richard Ivan Mack, popularly known as Sheriff Mack, is a former sheriff of Graham County, Arizona and Libertarian candidate for United States Senate election in Arizona, 2006. He is also a member of the Oath Keepers....

     — Former sheriff of Graham County, Arizona
    Graham County, Arizona
    -2010:Whereas according to the 2010 U.S. Census Bureau:*72.1% White*1.8% Black*14.4% Native American*0.5% Asian*0.1% Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander*2.8% Two or more races*8.3% Other races*30.4% Hispanic or Latino -2000:...

    . Mack received national attention for opposition to the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
    Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act
    The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act is an Act of the United States Congress that, for the first time, instituted federal background checks on firearm purchasers in the United States....

    .
  • Steven Seagal
    Steven Seagal
    Steven Frederic Seagal is an American action film star, producer, writer, martial artist, guitarist and reserve deputy sheriff. A 7th-dan black belt in Aikido, Seagal began his adult life as an Aikido instructor in Japan...


Infamous American sheriffs

  • Gerald Hege
    Gerald Hege
    Gerald Hege was the controversial sheriff of Davidson County, North Carolina. A veteran of the Vietnam War, he became famous for his highly eccentric behavior, his internationally known television show, and eventually for the charges of corruption that led to his resignation. He is a Republican,...

     — Davidson County, North Carolina
    Davidson County, North Carolina
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2010, there were 149,331 people, 58,156 households, and 42,512 families residing in the county. The population density was 267 people per square mile . There were 62,432 housing units at an average density of 113 per square mile...

    , famous for his "no-deals" behavior and highly unorthodox way of fighting crime. Convicted felon.
  • Lawrence Rainey — Neshoba County, Mississippi
    Neshoba County, Mississippi
    -Demographics:As of the census of 2000, there were 28,684 people, 10,694 households, and 7,742 families residing in the county. The population density was 50 people per square mile . There were 11,980 housing units at an average density of 21 per square mile...

     1963-1968, formerly accused but later cleared of charges relating to the violation of civil rights of three Civil Rights workers down Mississippi, back in 1964.
  • Lee Baca
    Lee Baca
    Leroy David "Lee" Baca is the Sheriff of Los Angeles County, California. Baca holds a Doctorate of Public Administration from the University of Southern California....

     — Los Angeles County, California
    Los Angeles County, California
    Los Angeles County is a county in the U.S. state of California. As of 2010 U.S. Census, the county had a population of 9,818,605, making it the most populous county in the United States. Los Angeles County alone is more populous than 42 individual U.S. states...

    , Current, Sheriff Baca is known to give special treatment for the famous and connected. He created the "Special reserves program" so that he could give CCW permits to favored individuals while with holding consideration for everyone else on the legal pretext that no citizen has legal "good cause".

Fictional American sheriffs


Many Western movies feature sheriffs of frontier
Frontier
A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary. 'Frontier' was absorbed into English from French in the 15th century, with the meaning "borderland"--the region of a country that fronts on another country .The use of "frontier" to mean "a region at the...

 towns who are either corrupt weaklings or glorious heroes who eventually rid their towns of all their mean elements. See Destry Rides Again
Destry Rides Again
Destry Rides Again is a western starring Marlene Dietrich and James Stewart. The supporting cast includes Mischa Auer, Charles Winninger, Brian Donlevy, Allen Jenkins, Irene Hervey, Billy Gilbert, Bill Cody, Jr., and Una Merkel. The original Max Brand novel was translated into an "oater" with the...

and Dodge City for two examples of the latter type. Fictional sheriffs include:
  • Sheriff Andy Taylor of the The Andy Griffith Show
    The Andy Griffith Show
    The Andy Griffith Show is an American sitcom first televised by CBS between October 3, 1960, and April 1, 1968. Andy Griffith portrays a widowed sheriff in the fictional small community of Mayberry, North Carolina...

  • Sheriff J.W. Pepper of the James Bond film Live and Let Die
    Live and Let Die (film)
    Live and Let Die is the eighth spy film in the James Bond series, and the first to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond. The film was produced by Albert R. Broccoli and Harry Saltzman...

  • Buford T. Justice
    Buford T. Justice
    Sheriff Buford T. Justice is the fictional character played by Jackie Gleason in the movies Smokey and the Bandit , Smokey and the Bandit II and Smokey and the Bandit Part 3...

     of the Smokey and the Bandit
    Smokey and the Bandit
    Smokey and the Bandit is a 1977 American film starring Burt Reynolds, Sally Field, Jackie Gleason, Jerry Reed, Pat McCormick, Paul Williams, and Mike Henry. It inspired several other trucking films, including two sequels, Smokey and the Bandit II, and Smokey and the Bandit Part 3...

    films
  • Sheriff Rosco P. Coltrane
    Sheriff Rosco P. Coltrane
    On the American TV series The Dukes of Hazzard, Rosco Purvis Coltrane is the bumbling sheriff of Hazzard County and right-hand man of its corrupt county commissioner, Jefferson Davis "J.D." Hogg ....

     on the TV show The Dukes of Hazzard
    The Dukes of Hazzard
    The Dukes of Hazzard is an American television series that aired on the CBS television network from 1979 to 1985.The series was inspired by the 1975 film Moonrunners, which was also created by Gy Waldron and had many identical or similar character names and concepts.- Overview :The Dukes of Hazzard...

  • Hildy Granger, played by Suzanne Somers
    Suzanne Somers
    Suzanne Somers is an American actress, author, singer and businesswoman, known for her television roles as Chrissy Snow on Three's Company and as Carol Lambert on Step by Step....

    , in She's the Sheriff
    She's the Sheriff
    She's the Sheriff is American sitcom that aired in syndication from 1987 to 1989. Produced by Lorimar Television, the series marked the return of Suzanne Somers to television for the first time since she walked out on her famous role as Chrissy Snow on ABC's Three's Company.-Synopsis:Somers stars...

  • Elroy P. Lobo, played by Claude Akins
    Claude Akins
    Claude Marion Akins was an American actor with a long career on stage, screen and television.Powerful in appearance and voice, Akins could be counted on to play the clever tough guy, on the side of good or bad, in movies and television. He is best remembered as Sheriff Lobo in the 1970s TV series...

    , in B.J. and the Bear
    B.J. and the Bear
    B.J. and the Bear is an American comedy series which aired on NBC from 1979 to 1981. Created by Christopher Crowe and Glen A. Larson, the series stars Greg Evigan and Claude Akins.-Plot:Greg Evigan stars as B.J...

    and the The Misadventures of Sheriff Lobo
    The Misadventures of Sheriff Lobo
    The Misadventures of Sheriff Lobo is an American action/adventure sitcom that ran on NBC from 1979 to 1981. For its second season the show was renamed Lobo. The program aired Tuesday nights, at 8 p.m. Eastern time. The lead character, Sheriff Elroy P. Lobo, played by Claude Akins, was a spin-off...

  • Roy Mobey, played by Victor French
    Victor French
    Victor Edwin French was an American actor and director.-Early career:Born in Santa Barbara, California,...

    , in Carter Country
    Carter Country
    Carter Country is an American television sitcom that ran from 1977 to 1979 on ABC.-Synopsis:Carter Country was set in the fictional small town of Clinton Corners in Georgia Carter Country is an American television sitcom that ran from 1977 to 1979 on ABC.-Synopsis:Carter Country was set in the...

  • Don Lamb
    Don Lamb
    Sheriff of Balboa County Don Lamb is a fictional character played by Michael Muhney on the UPN/The CW television series Veronica Mars, which debuted during the fall 2004 season on UPN....

     in Veronica Mars
    Veronica Mars
    Veronica Mars is an American television series created by Rob Thomas. The series premiered on September 22, 2004, during television network UPN's final two years, and ended on May 22, 2007, after a season on UPN's successor, The CW Television Network. Veronica Mars was produced by Warner Bros...

  • Sheriff Jack Carter
    Jack Carter (Eureka character)
    Jack Carter is a fictional character and the protagonist of the American science fiction drama Eureka. He is played by Colin Ferguson.-Description:Carter is a street-smart cop who sees connections where others do not. His I.Q. is 111...

     in Eureka
    Eureka (TV series)
    Eureka is an American science fiction television series that premiered on Syfy on July 18, 2006. Since then four seasons have aired, and a fifth is currently being filmed. The second half of season 4 began on SyFy on July 11, 2011 and ended on September 19, 2011...

  • Sheriff Harry S. Truman in Twin Peaks
    Twin Peaks
    Twin Peaks is an American television serial drama created by David Lynch and Mark Frost. The series follows the investigation headed by FBI Special Agent Dale Cooper , of the murder of a popular teenager and homecoming queen, Laura Palmer...

  • Sheriff Walt Bannerman in The Dead Zone
    The Dead Zone (TV series)
    The Dead Zone, aka Stephen King's Dead Zone is an American-Canadian science fiction/suspense series starring Anthony Michael Hall as Johnny Smith, who discovers he has developed psychic abilities after a coma...

    .
  • Sheriff Sara Breaker in the Alan Wake
    Alan Wake
    Alan Wake is a story-driven action game in the psychological thriller genre, developed by Remedy Entertainment and published by Microsoft Game Studios, released for the Xbox 360 video game console in 2010...

     Video Game. Breaker is the Sheriff of Bright Falls, WA
  • Sheriff Albert Earp, played by Jon Pertwee
    Jon Pertwee
    John Devon Roland Pertwee , was an English actor. Pertwee is best known for his role in the BBC science fiction television series Doctor Who, in which he played the third incarnation of the Doctor from 1970 to 1974, and as the title character in the series Worzel Gummidge...

    , in the 1966 comedy film Carry On Cowboy
    Carry On Cowboy
    Carry On Cowboy is the eleventh in the Carry On series of films. It was released in 1965 and was the first film to feature series regulars Peter Butterworth and Bernard Bresslaw...

  • Sheriff Wyner, played by George Wallace
    George Wallace (comedian)
    George Henry Wallace is an American comedian and actor. He is number 93 on Comedy Central's list of the 100 Greatest Stand-Ups of All Time.-Early life:...

     - The lazy sheriff of Saucier in the movie Ladykillers
    The Ladykillers (2004 film)
    The Ladykillers is a 2004 dark comedy film directed, written and produced by the Coen brothers and stars Tom Hanks, with a supporting cast that includes J. K. Simmons, Marlon Wayans, Tzi Ma, Ryan Hurst and Irma P. Hall...

  • The characters of Comedy Central
    Comedy Central
    Comedy Central is an American cable television and satellite television channel that carries comedy programming, both original and syndicated....

    's hit show Reno 911!
    Reno 911!
    Reno 911! is an American comedy television series on Comedy Central that ran from 2003 to 2009. It is a mockumentary-style parody of law enforcement documentary shows, specifically COPS, with comic actors playing the police officers. Most of the material is improvised, using a broad outline, and...

    revolve around the scenario of a mediocre (yet humorous) look at the fictional Reno, Nevada
    Reno, Nevada
    Reno is the county seat of Washoe County, Nevada, United States. The city has a population of about 220,500 and is the most populous Nevada city outside of the Las Vegas metropolitan area...

     Sheriff's Department (NOT the real-life Washoe County Sheriff's Department), and the crazy deputies who serve the area.
  • Sheriff Brackett from the Halloween
    Halloween (franchise)
    Halloween is an American horror franchise that consists of ten slasher films, novels, and comic books. The franchise focuses on the fictional character of Michael Myers who was committed to a sanitarium as a child for the murder of his older sister, Judith Myers...

    films
  • Sheriff Bart in the Mel Brooks
    Mel Brooks
    Mel Brooks is an American film director, screenwriter, composer, lyricist, comedian, actor and producer. He is best known as a creator of broad film farces and comic parodies. He began his career as a stand-up comic and as a writer for the early TV variety show Your Show of Shows...

     comedy Blazing Saddles
    Blazing Saddles
    Blazing Saddles is a 1974 satirical Western comedy film directed by Mel Brooks. Starring Cleavon Little and Gene Wilder, the film was written by Brooks, Andrew Bergman, Richard Pryor, Norman Steinberg, and Al Uger, and was based on Bergman's story and draft. The movie was nominated for three...

    .
  • Lex from The Tribe was appointed the 'City Sheriff' in Season 4.


Other important representations of fictional sheriffs have been Collie Entragian (Desperation and The Regulators
The Regulators
The Regulators is a novel by Stephen King under the pseudonym Richard Bachman. It was published in 1996 at the same time as its "mirror" novel, Desperation. The two novels represent parallel universes relative to one another, and most of the characters present in one novel's world also exist in the...

), Alan Pangborn
Alan Pangborn
Alan Pangborn is a fictional character created by Stephen King. He is the Sheriff of the fictional town of Castle Rock, Maine, assisted by deputies Norris Ridgewick, John LaPointe, Andy Clutterbuck, and Seaton Thomas.-Background:...

 in The Dark Half
The Dark Half
The Dark Half is a horror novel by Stephen King, published in 1989. Publishers Weekly listed The Dark Half as the second best-selling book of 1989 behind Tom Clancy's Clear and Present Danger. It was adapted into a feature film of the same name in 1993.Stephen King wrote several books under a...

 and Needful Things
Needful Things
Needful Things is a 1991 horror novel by American author Stephen King. According to the cover, it is "The Last Castle Rock Story." However, the town later served as the setting for the short story "It Grows on You," published in King's 1993 collection Nightmares and Dreamscapes which, according to...

, and Edgler Vess in Dean Koontz
Dean Koontz
Dean Ray Koontz is a prolific American author best known for his novels which could be described broadly as suspense thrillers. He also frequently incorporates elements of horror, science fiction, mystery, and satire. A number of his books have appeared on the New York Times Bestseller List, with...

's novel, Intensity
Intensity (novel)
-Plot summary:Chyna Shepard is a college student visiting the family of her friend, Laura Templeton, for a long weekend. Chyna, who was abused and neglected by her mother as a child, finds the Templeton house provides something she has yearned: acceptance...

.

50 Largest Sheriffs Departments in the U.S.


Department / Full-Time Sworn Personnel 2004
  • Los Angeles Co. (CA) 8,239
  • Cook Co. (IL) 5,555
  • Broward Co. (FL) 3,190
  • Harris Co. (TX) 2,545
  • Orange Co. (CA) 2,119
  • Jacksonville (FL) 1,650
  • Sacramento Co. (CA) 1,565
  • San Bernardino Co. (CA) 1,542
  • Riverside Co. (CA) 1,490
  • Orange Co. (FL) 1,304
  • San Diego Co. (CA) 1,261
  • Palm Beach Co. (FL) 1,153
  • Hillsborough Co. (FL) 1,151
  • Alameda Co. (CA) 923
  • Pinellas Co. (FL) 920
  • Wayne Co. (MI) 900
  • E. Baton Rouge Par. (LA) 890
  • Oakland Co. (MI) 840
  • Erie Co. (NY) 811
  • San Francisco Co. (CA) 795
  • Contra Costa Co. (CA) 759
  • Maricopa Co. (AZ) 731
  • Ventura Co. (CA) 729
  • King Co. (WA) 700
  • Manatee Co. (FL) 687
  • Passaic Co. (NJ) 667
  • Jefferson Parish (LA) 662
  • Calcasieu Parish (LA) 642
  • Fulton Co. (GA) 635
  • Travis Co. (TX) 617
  • Milwaukee Co. (WI) 605
  • Collier Co. (FL) 598
  • St. Tammany Parish (LA) 588
  • Will Co. (IL) 581
  • Lee Co. (FL) 545
  • Jefferson Co. (AL) 538
  • Polk Co. (FL) 529
  • Hamilton Co. (OH) 517
  • Fairfax Co. (VA) 516
  • Kern Co. (CA) 509
  • Richmond Co. (GA) 501
  • Shelby Co. (TN) 482
  • Dallas Co. (TX) 476
  • Rapides Parish (LA) 470
  • Knox Co. (TN) 468
  • Fresno Co. (CA) 464
  • Brevard Co. (FL) 460
  • Jefferson Co. (CO) 457
  • Pima Co. (AZ) 455
  • Tarrant Co. (TX) 452
  • Franklin Co. (OH) 449
  • Bexar Co. (TX) 444

See also

  • High Sheriff
    High Sheriff
    A high sheriff is, or was, a law enforcement officer in the United Kingdom, Canada and the United States.In England and Wales, the office is unpaid and partly ceremonial, appointed by the Crown through a warrant from the Privy Council. In Cornwall, the High Sheriff is appointed by the Duke of...

  • Police memorabilia collecting
    Police memorabilia collecting
    Police memorabilia collecting is a hobby involving the collection and trading of law enforcement related patches or badges, and other memorabilia including bobby helmets, training manuals, police medals, and historic artifacts such as turn-of-the-century screw-based handcuffs and police-box...

  • Sharif
    Sharif
    Sharīf or Chérif is a traditional Arab tribal title given to those who serve as the protector of the tribe and all tribal assets, such as property, wells, and land. In origin, the word is an adjective meaning "noble", "highborn". The feminine singular is sharifa...

    , an Arab
    Arab
    Arab people, also known as Arabs , are a panethnicity primarily living in the Arab world, which is located in Western Asia and North Africa. They are identified as such on one or more of genealogical, linguistic, or cultural grounds, with tribal affiliations, and intra-tribal relationships playing...

     office sometimes anglicised as "Sheriff"
  • Schultheiß
    Schultheiß
    In medieval Germany, the Schultheiß was the head of a municipality , a Vogt or an executive official of the ruler.As official it was...

    , the equivalent German mediæval office
  • Constable
    Constable
    A constable is a person holding a particular office, most commonly in law enforcement. The office of constable can vary significantly in different jurisdictions.-Etymology:...

  • Marshal
    Marshal
    Marshal , is a word used in several official titles of various branches of society. The word is an ancient loan word from Old French, cf...

  • Viscount
    Viscount
    A viscount or viscountess is a member of the European nobility whose comital title ranks usually, as in the British peerage, above a baron, below an earl or a count .-Etymology:...