Shenyang J-11

Shenyang J-11

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The Shenyang J-11 with NATO reporting name
NATO reporting name
NATO reporting names are classified code names for military equipment of the Eastern Bloc...

: Flanker B+ is a single-seat, twin-engine jet fighter
Fighter aircraft
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat with other aircraft, as opposed to a bomber, which is designed primarily to attack ground targets...

 based on the Soviet
Soviet Union
The Soviet Union , officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics , was a constitutionally socialist state that existed in Eurasia between 1922 and 1991....

-designed Sukhoi Su-27
Sukhoi Su-27
The Sukhoi Su-27 is a twin-engine supermanoeuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi. It was intended as a direct competitor for the large United States fourth generation fighters, with range, heavy armament, sophisticated avionics and high manoeuvrability...

 (NATO reporting name
NATO reporting name
NATO reporting names are classified code names for military equipment of the Eastern Bloc...

: Flanker) air superiority fighter
Air superiority fighter
An air superiority fighter is a type of fighter aircraft intended to gain air superiority in a war, by entering and seizing control of enemy airspace. Air superiority fighters are designed to effectively engage enemy fighters, more than other types of aircraft...

 produced by the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation is a Chinese civilian and military aircraft manufacturer located in Shenyang. Founded in 1953, it is one of the oldest aircraft manufacturers in the People's Republic of China. Many aircraft manufacturers in China such as Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group or Guizhou...

. The People's Liberation Army Air Force
People's Liberation Army Air Force
The People's Liberation Army Air Force is the aviation branch of the People's Liberation Army, the military of the People's Republic of China...

 (PLAAF) of the People's Republic of China
People's Republic of China
China , officially the People's Republic of China , is the most populous country in the world, with over 1.3 billion citizens. Located in East Asia, the country covers approximately 9.6 million square kilometres...

 (PRC) is the sole operator of the aircraft.

In 1995, China secured a $2.5 billion production agreement which licensed China to build 200 Soviet-designed Sukhoi Su-27
Sukhoi Su-27
The Sukhoi Su-27 is a twin-engine supermanoeuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi. It was intended as a direct competitor for the large United States fourth generation fighters, with range, heavy armament, sophisticated avionics and high manoeuvrability...

SK aircraft using Russia
Russia
Russia or , officially known as both Russia and the Russian Federation , is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic, comprising 83 federal subjects...

n-supplied kits. Under the terms of the agreement, these aircraft would be outfitted with Russian avionics, radars and engines. However, only 95 of the original aircraft were delivered and the contract for the remaining 105 is still pending. It is believed that Russia cancelled the arrangement in 2006 after it discovered that China had reverse-engineered the technology and was developing an indigenous version, the J-11B. China however insists that it requested Russia to cease deliveries of the aircraft because it could no longer satisfy the PLAAF's requirements. The J-11B variant while lacking the latest Russian features, does incorporate various Chinese modifications to the airframe in addition to the inclusion of Chinese avionics
Avionics
Avionics are electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites and spacecraft.Avionic systems include communications, navigation, the display and management of multiple systems and the hundreds of systems that are fitted to aircraft to meet individual roles...

 and weapon
Weapon
A weapon, arm, or armament is a tool or instrument used with the aim of causing damage or harm to living beings or artificial structures or systems...

ry.

The J-11 is a fourth-generation jet fighter which, like its Sukhoi brethren, is intended as a direct competitor to Western previous generation fighters such as the F-15 Eagle
F-15 Eagle
The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is a twin-engine, all-weather tactical fighter designed by McDonnell Douglas to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. It is considered among the most successful modern fighters with over 100 aerial combat victories with no losses in dogfights...

 and F-16 Fighting Falcon
F-16 Fighting Falcon
The General Dynamics F-16 Fighting Falcon is a multirole jet fighter aircraft originally developed by General Dynamics for the United States Air Force . Designed as an air superiority day fighter, it evolved into a successful all-weather multirole aircraft. Over 4,400 aircraft have been built since...

.

Proposed J-11


In the 1970s, Shenyang Aircraft Factory
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation is a Chinese civilian and military aircraft manufacturer located in Shenyang. Founded in 1953, it is one of the oldest aircraft manufacturers in the People's Republic of China. Many aircraft manufacturers in China such as Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group or Guizhou...

 proposed a light fighter powered by the British Rolls-Royce Spey 512 engine, but otherwise similar to the MiG-19 then in service. Known as the J-11, the project was abandoned due to difficulty in obtaining the engines.

Modern J-11


The J-11 was finally born in 1995 as a Chinese version of the Sukhoi Su-27
Sukhoi Su-27
The Sukhoi Su-27 is a twin-engine supermanoeuverable fighter aircraft designed by Sukhoi. It was intended as a direct competitor for the large United States fourth generation fighters, with range, heavy armament, sophisticated avionics and high manoeuvrability...

SK air superiority fighter. However, in 2004, Russian media reported that Shenyang co-production of the basic J-11 was halted after around 100 examples were built. The PLAAF later revealed a mock-up of an upgraded multirole version of the J-11 in mid-2002. It was equipped with Chinese anti-ship and PL-12 air-to-air missiles presumably for the role of a maritime strike aircraft. The alleged reason for the sudden stop in the production line of the J-11 was the obsolete avionics and radar, which were structured for aerial missions. The PL-12 a active radar-guided air-to-air missile developed by China's Luoyang Electro-Optical Technology Development Center, range reported to be close to 100km, Wingspan 670mm, weight 200kg.

With a contract of an initial 200 J-11 allowed to be produced in Shenyang under the Chinese-Russian contract made in the 90's, the PLAAF decided to update the J-11 with domestic radar, avionic suites, manufacturing methods and material upgrades to extend the life of the aircraft in service.

Future


In the future, the current AL-31 powerplant may be replaced by an indigenous engine known as the WS-10 Taihang
Shenyang WS-10
-External links:* * * * * * * *...

  turbofan. At the Zhuhai 2002 airshow, a photo was released allegedly depicting a J-11 modified for flight testing of a single WS-10A. Andrei Chang, a military specialist on China reported that one J-11A was outfitted with the indigenously produced WS-10A turbofan engine, J-11B also uses WS-10A. However, Russian media reports also indicate that China still intends to upgrade the current J-11 fleet's engines with either Saturn-Lyulka
NPO Saturn
NPO Saturn is a Russian aircraft engine manufacturer, formed from the mergers of Rybinsk and Lyul'ka-Saturn . Saturn's engines power many former Eastern Bloc aircraft, such as the Tupolev Tu-154. Saturn holds a 50% stake in the PowerJet joint venture with Snecma...

 or Salyut
Salyut
The Salyut program was the first space station program undertaken by the Soviet Union, which consisted of a series of nine space stations launched over a period of eleven years from 1971 to 1982...

 powerplants. Engines under consideration include the Saturn AL-31-117S (a development of the Lyulka AL-31
Lyulka AL-31
-See also:-External links:* - AL-31 F aircraft turbofan engine* *...

F planned for the Russo-Indian Su-30MKIs), and the Salyut AL-31F-M1, an improved variant of the AL-31F engine.

In 2002, Russian media reported that Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation is a Chinese civilian and military aircraft manufacturer located in Shenyang. Founded in 1953, it is one of the oldest aircraft manufacturers in the People's Republic of China. Many aircraft manufacturers in China such as Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group or Guizhou...

 was looking into replacing Russian-made J-11/Su-27SK components with domestic, Chinese-made parts. Specifically, to replace the Russian-made NIIP N001 radar with a Chinese-made fire control radar based on the Type 147X/KLJ-X family, the AL-31F engine with WS-10A, and Russian R-77 AAM's with Chinese-made PL-9 and PL-12 AAM's. One J-11 was photographed with an AL-31F and a WS-10A engine installed for testing in 2002. However, it was not until 2007 when the Chinese government finally revealed information on the domestic J-11: the J-11 used to test WS-10 was designated as J-11WS, and it was when state television station CCTV-7
CCTV-7
CCTV-7 is the military/agricultural focused channel of the CCTV Network in the People's Republic of China.-External links:*...

 aired J-11B footages in mid-2007 when the existence of J-11 with domestic components was finally confirmed officially.

Variants

  • J-11 - The Chinese-built version of the Russian Su-27SK. The N001V radar, with TS101M processor capable of single target engagement and simultaneously tracking 10 targets during an engagement, is installed. Flight instrumentation incorporates two CRT
    Cathode ray tube
    The cathode ray tube is a vacuum tube containing an electron gun and a fluorescent screen used to view images. It has a means to accelerate and deflect the electron beam onto the fluorescent screen to create the images. The image may represent electrical waveforms , pictures , radar targets and...

     multifunction displays (MFD) of similar size, one on top of the other with the upper MFD fitted to the right of the HUD. Unconfirmed claims made by Chinese web sources state that the additional CRT display is used in conjunction with domestic electro-optical avionics and weaponry added to J-11, which avoids having to integrate the domestic avionics and weaponry with the aircraft's Russian systems.

  • J-11A - A J-11 with further radar and flight instrumentation upgrade, most notably with the adoption of EFIS in its avionics. The J-11's N001V radar is replaced by the N001VE with Baguet series BCVM-486-6 processor, capable of simultaneously engaging two of ten targets tracked with semi-active radar homing
    Semi-active radar homing
    Semi-active radar homing, or SARH, is a common type of missile guidance system, perhaps the most common type for longer-range air-to-air and surface-to-air missile systems. The name refers to the fact that the missile itself is only a passive detector of a radar signal – provided by an external ...

     air-to-air missile
    Air-to-air missile
    An air-to-air missile is a missile fired from an aircraft for the purpose of destroying another aircraft. AAMs are typically powered by one or more rocket motors, usually solid fuelled but sometimes liquid fuelled...

    s. An improved domestic Chinese helmet mounted sight (HMS) system first appeared on J-11A. The cockpit incorporates an EFIS designed by China Aviation Industry Corporation I
    China Aviation Industry Corporation I
    China Aviation Industry Corporation I was a Chinese consortium of aircraft manufacturers. The consortium was created on July 1, 1999 by splitting the state-owned consortium China Aviation Industry Corporation into AVIC I and AVIC II...

     which replaces most of the original Su-27SK's analogue dial indicators with four color MFDs
    Multi-function display
    A Multi-function display is a small screen in an aircraft surrounded by multiple buttons that can be used to display information to the pilot in numerous configurable ways. Often an MFD will be used in concert with a Primary Flight Display. MFDs are part of the digital era of modern planes or...

    . The EFIS incorporates three large MFDs, taking up most of the dashboard space, with the center MFD at a slightly lower position than the two side MFDs. A slightly smaller color MFD is located below the three large MFDs, to the bottom right corner of the dashboard.

  • J-11B - An indigenised multirole version which uses advanced Chinese avionics, weaponry and technologies, and reduced RCS. It has been reported that more than 2 regiments of J-11B are currently in service. In May 2007, the existence of J-11B was confirmed by the Chinese government for the first time when state-run Chinese TV stations aired a report on the J-11B in PLAAF service. There are well over 50 J-11B in PLAAF and it has been claimed that the J-11B is planned to incorporate an AESA radar. Chinese officials commented that the J-11B could match the performance of the F-15SE Silent Eagle
    F-15SE Silent Eagle
    The Boeing F-15SE Silent Eagle is a proposed upgrade of the F-15E by Boeing using stealth features, such as internal weapons carriage and radar-absorbent material.-Design and development:...

    , Eurofighter Typhoon
    Eurofighter Typhoon
    The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole combat aircraft, designed and built by a consortium of three companies: EADS, Alenia Aeronautica and BAE Systems; working through a holding company, Eurofighter GmbH, which was formed in 1986...

    , and Su-35.

  • J-11BS - A tandem twin seat version of the J-11B under development, initially developed to serve as a combat-capable training aircraft for J-11B pilots. It is reported that the first prototype was built by the end of 2007 and it is also rumored that a prototype aircraft crashed in 2009 during a test flight. It is believed that the letter S stands for Shuangzuo, meaning twin seater in Chinese. On June 9, 2007, and a model of the J-11BS was revealed to the public during the opening ceremony of the new aerospace museum of the Harbin Institute of Technology
    Harbin Institute of Technology
    The Harbin Institute of Technology , or HIT, is colloquially known as Hagongda . It is a research university in the city of Harbin, Heilongjiang Province, China....

    .

  • J-11BH - Naval version of the J-11B, which was first sighted in May 2010.

  • J-16 - A strike variant of the J-11BS.

  • J-17 - A much-upgraded variant of the J-11B. It features a much stealthier design, internal weapons bay
    Bomb bay
    The bomb bay or weapons bay on some military aircraft is a compartment to carry bombs, usually in the aircraft's fuselage, with "bomb bay doors" which open at the bottom. The bomb bay doors are opened and the bombs are dropped when over the target or at a specified launching point.Large-sized...

    s, stealth-optimized engine intakes, and canted vertical fins. First flight is expected to be in 2011.


Numerous further improved variants with stealth enhancements (J-18, and J-19) are believed to be under development at Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation
Shenyang Aircraft Corporation is a Chinese civilian and military aircraft manufacturer located in Shenyang. Founded in 1953, it is one of the oldest aircraft manufacturers in the People's Republic of China. Many aircraft manufacturers in China such as Chengdu Aircraft Industry Group or Guizhou...

.

Operational history


In March 2011 a joint Sino-Pakistani exercise, Shaheen 1, was conducted at a Pakistan Air Force (PAF)
Pakistan Air Force
The Pakistan Air Force is the leading air arm of the Pakistan Armed Forces and is primarily tasked with the aerial defence of Pakistan with a secondary role of providing air support to the Pakistan Army and the Pakistan Navy. The PAF also has a tertiary role of providing strategic air transport...

 base involving a contingent of Chinese aircraft and personnel from the PLAAF. Information on which aircraft were used by each side in the exercise was not released, but photos of Pakistani pilots inspecting what appeared to be Chinese Shenyang J-11B fighters were released on the internet. The exercise lasted for around 4 weeks and was the first time the PLAAF had deployed to and conducted "operational" aerial maneuvers in Pakistan with the PAF.

Operators


  • People's Liberation Army Air Force
    People's Liberation Army Air Force
    The People's Liberation Army Air Force is the aviation branch of the People's Liberation Army, the military of the People's Republic of China...

    : 120 , with additional 90 on order.

Specifications (J-11/A)



See also



External links