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Shaddadid

Shaddadid

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The Shaddadids were a Kurdish
History of the Kurds
The Kurds are an ethnic group who have historically inhabited the mountainous areas to the south of Caucasus , a geographical area collectively referred to as Kurdistan...

 dynasty who ruled in various parts of Armenia
Armenia
Armenia , officially the Republic of Armenia , is a landlocked mountainous country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia...

 and Arran
Arran (Azerbaijan)
Arran , also known as Aran, Ardhan , Al-Ran , Aghvank and Alvank , or Caucasian Albania , was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and...

 from 951-1174 AD. They were established in Dvin
Dvin
Dvin was a large commercial city and the capital of early medieval Armenia. It was situated north of the previous ancient capital of Armenia, the city of Artaxata, along the banks of the Metsamor River, 35 km to the south of modern Yerevan...

. Through their long tenure in Armenia, they often intermarried with the Bagratuni royal family of Armenia.

They began ruling in the city of Dvin, and eventually ruled other major cities, such as Barda
Barda
Barda may refer to:*Barda Rayon, a district in Azerbaijan*Barda, Azerbaijan, a town in Azerbaijan* Bârda, a village in Malovăţ Commune, Mehedinţi County, Romania*Barda, Russia, a rural locality in Perm Krai, Russia*Jean-Pierre Barda*Olaf Barda...

, Ganja. A cadet line of the Shaddadids were given the city of Ani
Ani
Ani is a ruined and uninhabited medieval Armenian city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, near the border with Armenia. It was once the capital of a medieval Armenian kingdom that covered much of present day Armenia and eastern Turkey...

 and Tbilisi
Tbilisi
Tbilisi is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari River. The name is derived from an early Georgian form T'pilisi and it was officially known as Tiflis until 1936...

 as a reward for their service to the Seljuq
Great Seljuq Empire
The Great Seljuq Empire was a medieval Persianate, Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuq Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf...

s, to whom they became vassal
Vassal
A vassal or feudatory is a person who has entered into a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe. The obligations often included military support and mutual protection, in exchange for certain privileges, usually including the grant of land held...

s. From 1047 to 1057, the Shaddadids were engaged in several wars against the Byzantine
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 army. The area between the rivers Kura
Kura
Kura may refer to:* Kura River in Turkey, Georgia and Azerbaijan* Kura River, Russia in Russia* Kura Test Range in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, a major ICBM testing site during the Cold War* Kura, Nigeria, a Local Government Area of Kano State...

 and Arax was ruled by a Shaddadid dynasty.

History


In 951, Muhammad bin Shaddadid established himself at Dvin. Unable to hold Dvin against Musafirid
Sallarid
The Sallarid dynasty was an Islamic Iranian dynasty principally known for its rule of Iranian Azerbaijan and part of Armenia from 942 until 979...

 incursion, he fled to the Armenian kingdom of Vaspurakan
Vaspurakan Kingdom
Vaspurakan was the first and biggest province of Greater Armenia, which later became an independent kingdom during the Middle Ages, centered around Lake Van...

. His son, Ali Lashkari bin Muhammad, ended Musafirid influence in Arran by taking Ganja in 971. He later expanded into Transcaucasia as far north as Shamkur and as far east as Bardha'a. His brother, Marzuban bin Muhammad's reign also lasted only a few years.

Muhammad bin Shaddadid's third son, Al-Fadl I bin Muhammad, expanded his territory during his lengthy reign. He took Dvin from Armenian Bagratids
Bagratuni Dynasty
The Bagratuni, Bagratid or alternatively Pakradouni royal dynasty of Armenia was a royal family whose branches formerly ruled many regional polities, including the Armenian lands of Sper|presently Ispir in Tayk Province of the Armenian Kingdom, Bagrevand in Ayrarat Province of the Armenian...

 in 1022 and his campaigns against them met with varying degrees of success. He also raided the Khazars in 1030, whilst holding parts of Azerbaijan. Later that year, while returning from a successful campaign in Georgia, his army encountered Georgian and Armenian forces and was decisively defeated.

Following Al-Fadl I's defeat, the entire region became chaotic with Byzantine Empire
Byzantine Empire
The Byzantine Empire was the Eastern Roman Empire during the periods of Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, centred on the capital of Constantinople. Known simply as the Roman Empire or Romania to its inhabitants and neighbours, the Empire was the direct continuation of the Ancient Roman State...

 pressuring Armenian princes and the Seljuq Turks gaining influence over Azerbaijan after a Seljuq attack on Dvin. The poet, Katran, praised Ali II Lashkari for his victory over Armenian and Georgian princes, during his stay in Ganja. Abu-l-Aswar Shavur I bin al-Fadl I took power in 1049 with Ganja as his capital. He was the last independent ruling Shaddadid until 1067, when Tugrul I arrived at Ganja and demanded his vassalage. With this, the Seljuqs imposed direct rule over Arran and ended Shaddadid influence there.

As their influence continued to decline, Abu-l-Aswar's son, Al Fadl II bin Shavur I was captured by the Georgians and in 1075 Alp Arslan annexed the last of the Shaddadid territories. A cadet branch of Shaddadids continued to rule in Ani and Tbilisi as vassals of the Great Seljuq Empire
Great Seljuq Empire
The Great Seljuq Empire was a medieval Persianate, Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qynyq branch of Oghuz Turks. The Seljuq Empire controlled a vast area stretching from the Hindu Kush to eastern Anatolia and from Central Asia to the Persian Gulf...

 until 1175, when Malik-Shah I deposed Al-Fadl III.

Shaddadid Rulers

  • Muhammad bin Shaddad
    Muhammad bin Shaddad
    Muhammad bin Shaddad was the founder and first ruler of the Shaddadids. He captured Dvin in 951....

     (AH 340/951-971 AD)
  • Ali Lashkari bin Muhammad
    Ali I bin Muhammad Lashkari
    Ali I bin Muhammad Lashkari was the son of Muhammad bin Shaddad. He succeeded his father to rule the Shaddadids. He captured Ganja from the Sallarids in 971, coming into control of the region of Arran....

     (971-978 AD)
  • Marzuban bin Muhammad
    Marzuban bin Muhammad (Shaddadid)
    Marzuban bin Muhammad was the brother of Ali I bin Muhammad Lashkari. He succeeded his brother to the throne of the Shaddadids....

    (978-986 AD)
  • Al-Fadl I bin Muhammad (AH 375-422/986-1031 AD)
  • Abu-l-Fa't Musa
    Abu-l-Fa't Musa
    Abu-l-Fa't Musa succeeded Fadl I to the throne of the Shaddadids....

     (AH 422-425/1031-1034 AD)
  • Ali II Lashkari
    Ali II Lashkari
    -Reign of Ali II Lashkari:In 1044, Constantine IX waged war against the Armenian king Gagik II. The Byzantine Emperor, sent letters to al-Lashkari's uncle, Abu'l-Aswar , inviting him to attack the territory of Ani...

     (AH 425-441/1034-1049 AD)
  • Anushirvan bin Ali II Lashkari
    Anushirvan bin Ali II Lashkari
    Ali II Lashkari was succeeded by Anushirvan apparently a minor, with the hajib or Chamberlain Abu'l Mansur serving as regent. Abu-Mansur, along his army chiefs, immediately agreed to surrender several frontier fortresses to the Georgians and Byzantines, in order, says a local chronicle, "to...

    (AH 441 /1049 AD)
  • Abu-l-Aswar Shavur I bin al-Fadl I
    Abu-l-Aswar Shavur I bin al-Fadl I
    Abu-l-Asvar Shavur I bin al-Fadl I ruled as emir of Dvin and then Ganja. Became vassal to Great Seljuqs. Married the sister of David Anholin, king of Tashir...

    (AH 441-459/1049-1067 AD)
  • Al Fadl II bin Shavur I
    Al Fadl II bin Shavur I
    Al-Fadl II bin Shavur I succeeded his father to the Shaddadid throne....

     (AH 459-466/1067-1073 AD)
  • Ashot bin Shavur I
    Ashot bin Shavur I
    Ashot bin Shavur I was the son of Shavur I, and of partial Armenian descent. Was installed in Ganja by Georgians for one year....

     (AH 459/1067 AD)
  • Al-Fadl III bin al-Fadl II
    Al-Fadl III bin al-Fadl II
    Al-Fadl III bin al-Fadl II was the last Shaddadid ruler of Ganja, which is in current-day Azerbaijan. He ruled 466-468 AH/1073-1075 AD. The realm was then absorbed by the Great Seljuqs: Shaddadids continued to rule in other parts of Armenia, but the Shaddadid Ganja was added to the realm of the...

    (AH 466-468/1073-1075 AD)

Emirs in Ani

  • Menuchir (1075-1118 AD) (The emir of Ani. A mosque in the city is named after him)
  • Abu-l-Asvar Shavur II(1118-1124 AD)
  • Fadlun IV bin Shavur II(1125-?)
  • Mahmud (?-1131 AD)
  • Khushchikr (1131-? AD)
  • Shaddad (?-1155 AD)
  • Fadl V (1155-1161 AD)
  • Shahanshah (also, Sultan ibn Mahmud) (1164-1174 AD)