Shabtai Rosenne

Shabtai Rosenne

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Shabtai Rosenne formerly known as Sefton Wilfred David Rowson (24 November 1917 – 21 September 2010) was a Professor of International Law and an Israeli diplomat.

Rosenne was awarded the 1960 Israel Prize
Israel Prize
The Israel Prize is an award handed out by the State of Israel and is largely regarded as the state's highest honor. It is presented annually, on Israeli Independence Day, in a state ceremony in Jerusalem, in the presence of the President, the Prime Minister, the Knesset chairperson, and the...

 for Jurisprudence, the 1999 Manley O. Hudson Medal for International Law and Jurisprudence, the 2004 Hague Prize for International Law and the 2007 Distinguished Onassis Scholar Award. He has been the leading scholar of the World Court - the PCIJ
Permanent Court of International Justice
The Permanent Court of International Justice, often called the World Court, was an international court attached to the League of Nations. Created in 1922 , the Court was initially met with a good reaction from states and academics alike, with many cases submitted to it for its first decade of...

 and ICJ and he also had a widely recognized expertise in treaty
Treaty
A treaty is an express agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an agreement, protocol, covenant, convention or exchange of letters, among other terms...

 law, state responsibility, self-defence, UNCLOS and other issues of international law. Rosenne authored some 200 articles and essays, as well as The Law and Practice of the International Court in 1997 and 2006, United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982: a Commentary in 2002, Provisional Measures in International Law: the International Court of Justice and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in 2005, and Essays on International Law and Practice in 2007.

In June 2010, he was appointed to the Israeli special independent public Turkel Commission of Inquiry into the Gaza flotilla raid
Gaza flotilla raid
The Gaza flotilla raid was a military operation by Israel against six ships of the "Gaza Freedom Flotilla" on 31 May 2010 in international waters of the Mediterranean Sea...

.

Education


Rosenne was born in London
London
London is the capital city of :England and the :United Kingdom, the largest metropolitan area in the United Kingdom, and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. Located on the River Thames, London has been a major settlement for two millennia, its history going back to its...

, United Kingdom
United Kingdom
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern IrelandIn the United Kingdom and Dependencies, other languages have been officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous languages under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages...

, the son of Harry Rowson. In 1938, Rosenne completed his academic studies in law (LL.B.; University of London
University of London
-20th century:Shortly after 6 Burlington Gardens was vacated, the University went through a period of rapid expansion. Bedford College, Royal Holloway and the London School of Economics all joined in 1900, Regent's Park College, which had affiliated in 1841 became an official divinity school of the...

), studying naval law. In 1959, he earned a Ph.D. from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem
Hebrew University of Jerusalem
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem ; ; abbreviated HUJI) is Israel's second-oldest university, after the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. The Hebrew University has three campuses in Jerusalem and one in Rehovot. The world's largest Jewish studies library is located on its Edmond J...

.

Royal Air Force and Jewish Agency


He served from 1940 to 1946 in the Royal Air Force
Royal Air Force
The Royal Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the British Armed Forces. Formed on 1 April 1918, it is the oldest independent air force in the world...

. He then worked in the Political Department of the Jewish Agency
Jewish Agency for Israel
The Jewish Agency for Israel , also known as the Sochnut or JAFI, served as the organization in charge of immigration and absorption of Jews from the Diaspora into the state of Israel.-History:...

, initially in London and subsequently in Jerusalem, for two years.

Foreign Ministry and Ambassador


With the approach of the end of the British Mandate in Palestine, Rosenne was appointed to the Legal Secretariat of the Situation Committee, which helped create the administrative apparatus of the new State of Israel. After the declaration of the State, he joined the Israeli Foreign Ministry. From 1948 to 1967, Rosenne served as a Legal Adviser to the Foreign Ministry. Among other things, he was as a member of the Israeli delegation to the 1949 Armistice Agreements
1949 Armistice Agreements
The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and neighboring Egypt, Lebanon, Jordan, and Syria. The agreements ended the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and established armistice lines between Israeli forces and the forces in...

. He was also a member of the UN-established International Law Commission
International Law Commission
The International Law Commission was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 for the "promotion of the progressive development of international law and its codification."It holds an annual session at the United Nations Office at Geneva....

 from 1962 to 1971, and has been a member of the Institut de Droit International
Institut de droit international
The Institut de droit international is an organization devoted to the study and development of international law, whose membership comprises the world's leading public international lawyers...

 since 1963.http://books.google.com/books?id=Z6fBymZTGIoC&pg=PA16&dq=%22shabtai+rosenne%22+%22ll.b.%22&hl=en&ei=cKsjTK2HB8L88AbZheSyBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CFIQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=%22shabtai%20rosenne%22%20%22ll.b.%22&f=false


In 1960, he was appointed to the rank of Ambassador. He served as Deputy Permanent Representative of Israel to the United Nations
United Nations
The United Nations is an international organization whose stated aims are facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress, human rights, and achievement of world peace...

 in New York from 1967 to 1971, and Israel's Permanent Representative to the United Nations and other international organizations in Geneva from 1971 to 1974. In 1972, a letter bomb was sent to him, which was defused. He was appointed Ambassador-at-Large in 1974.

He was Vice Chairman of Delegation to the First and Second United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea
Law of the sea
Law of the sea may refer to:* United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea* Admiralty law* The Custom of the Sea...

, and from 1973 to 1982 he was Chairman of the Delegation to the Third UN Conference on the Law of the Sea and a member of the Drafting Committee of the UNCLOS.

In 1993, he acted as Serbia's chief legal advisor. From 1994 to 1996 he was a Member of the Permanent Court of Arbitration
Permanent Court of Arbitration
The Permanent Court of Arbitration , is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands.-History:The court was established in 1899 as one of the acts of the first Hague Peace Conference, which makes it the oldest institution for international dispute resolution.The creation of...

 in The Hague. He was also a member of the Court's Steering Committee.

Academia


He returned to Britain and lectured in international law and naval law at the Royal Naval College
Old Royal Naval College
The Old Royal Naval College is the architectural centrepiece of Maritime Greenwich, a World Heritage Site in Greenwich, London, described by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation as being of “outstanding universal value” and reckoned to be the “finest and most...

 in Greenwich, London, from 1946 to 1947. Rosenne taught at the Hague Academy of International Law
Hague Academy of International Law
The Hague Academy of International Law is a center for high-level education in both public and private international law housed in the Peace Palace in The Hague, The Netherlands...

 in 1954 and 2001. He became a member of the Institute of International Law in 1963.

After leaving public service, Rosenne became a member of the faculty (with the rank of Professor) at Bar Ilan University. He also taught at the Rhodes Oceans Academy in Greece, as the Arthur Goodhart Professor in Legal Science in the University of Cambridge
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a public research university located in Cambridge, United Kingdom. It is the second-oldest university in both the United Kingdom and the English-speaking world , and the seventh-oldest globally...

, the Bella van Zuylen Professor in the University of Utrecht, and visiting professor in international law at the University of Amsterdam and the University of Virginia
University of Virginia
The University of Virginia is a public research university located in Charlottesville, Virginia, United States, founded by Thomas Jefferson...

.

In 2001, after Rosenne was invited to teach his General Course on The Perplexities of Modern International Law, he became a member of the Hague Academy of International Law
Hague Academy of International Law
The Hague Academy of International Law is a center for high-level education in both public and private international law housed in the Peace Palace in The Hague, The Netherlands...

. He has also served as a consultant to various governments, including to the United States and Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia
Yugoslavia refers to three political entities that existed successively on the western part of the Balkans during most of the 20th century....

 (in the Bosnian Genocide Case) before the ICJ, and to Japan and Suriname in their Arbitrations in the ICSID
ICSID
ICSID may refer to:* International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes* International Council of Societies of Industrial Design...

 and PCA
Permanent Court of Arbitration
The Permanent Court of Arbitration , is an international organization based in The Hague in the Netherlands.-History:The court was established in 1899 as one of the acts of the first Hague Peace Conference, which makes it the oldest institution for international dispute resolution.The creation of...

 respectively.

He wrote United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, 1982: a Commentary in 2002, Provisional Measures in International Law: the International Court of Justice and the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea in 2005, and Essays on International Law and Practice in 2007. The first edition of Rosenne's monumental treatise on The Law and Practice of the International Court was handed to then ICJ President Stephen M. Schwebel
Stephen M. Schwebel
Stephen Myron Schwebel is an American jurist and expert on international law. He is well known for his separate and dissenting opinions as a Judge of the International Court of Justice 1981-2000 and for his involvement in many cases of the ICSID and Permanent Court of Arbitration.-Biography:Judge...

 and UN Legal Counsel Hans Corell
Hans Corell
Hans Axel Valdemar Corell is a Swedish lawyer and diplomat. Between March 1994 and March 2004 he was Under-Secretary-General for Legal Affairs and the Legal Counsel of the United Nations...

 in November 1997. The second edition was handed by Rosenne to ICJ President Rosalyn Higgins
Rosalyn Higgins
Dame Rosalyn Higgins, DBE, QC is the former President of the International Court of Justice. Higgins was the first female judge to be appointed to the ICJ, and was elected President in 2006. Her term of office expired on 6 February 2009...

 on the eve of the Court's 60th Anniversary in April 2006 and it was praised in solemn tribute of ICJ President Hisashi Owada
Hisashi Owada
is a former Japanese diplomat and a judge on the International Court of Justice, and currently serves as its President, having been elected to this post in 2009.-Early life:Hisashi Owada was born in Shibata, Niigata Prefecture, Japan. After earning a B.A...

 to the memory of Professor Rosenne of 11 October 2010 as “an indispensable guide to the role and functioning of the Court as the principal judicial organ of the United Nations”. As President Owada at his tribute's p. 10 added: "Rosenne's keen interest in and enthusiasm about the work of the Court, which continued unabated throughout his life, was greatly appreciated by all Members of the Court, past and present”.

Turkel Commission of Inquiry


On 14 June 2010, Rosenne was appointed to the Israeli special independent public Turkel Commission of Inquiry into the Gaza flotilla raid
Gaza flotilla raid
The Gaza flotilla raid was a military operation by Israel against six ships of the "Gaza Freedom Flotilla" on 31 May 2010 in international waters of the Mediterranean Sea...

.

The Commission was established to investigate whether Israel's actions in preventing the arrival of ships in Gaza were in accordance with international law
International law
Public international law concerns the structure and conduct of sovereign states; analogous entities, such as the Holy See; and intergovernmental organizations. To a lesser degree, international law also may affect multinational corporations and individuals, an impact increasingly evolving beyond...

. Its focus included the security considerations for imposing a naval blockade on the Gaza Strip; the conformity of the naval blockade with the rules of international law; the conformity of the actions during the raid to principles of international law; and the actions taken by those who organized and participated in the flotilla and their identities.

Also appointed to the Commission were former Israeli Supreme Court Justice, Jacob Turkel
Jacob Turkel
Jacob Turkel is an Israeli judge, and former Supreme Court of Israel Justice.His family immigrated to Israel in 1933 from Vienna, Austria. Turkel served as a judge for 38 years, a decade of that time on the Israeli Supreme Court...

, and former Technion University President, Amos Horev
Amos Horev
Amos Horev is an Israeli former Israeli Defense Forces major-general, Chief of Ordnance and subsequently Quartermaster General and Chief Scientist of the IDF, military expert, nuclear scientist, President of Technion University, and Chairman of Rafael.Horev has served on and headed a number of...

, as well two other members, Miguel Deutch and Reuven Merchav, added in July 2010. In addition, two foreign observers were appointed to the Commission, former First Minister
First Minister and deputy First Minister
The First Minister and the Deputy First Minister , sometimes abbreviated to FM/DFM, are positions in the Northern Ireland...

 of Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is one of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Situated in the north-east of the island of Ireland, it shares a border with the Republic of Ireland to the south and west...

, David Trimble, and former head of the Canadian military's judiciary, Judge Advocate General
Judge Advocate General (Canada)
The Office of the Judge Advocate General for the Canadian Forces provides legal advice to commanders at bases and wings, provides lawyers who defend accused persons at courts martial, teaches courses to other CF members or advises a commanding officer in an operational theatre to uphold the ethical...

, Ken Watkin
Ken Watkin
Brigadier General Kenneth "Ken" Watkin, OMM, CD, QC was Judge Advocate General of the Canadian Forces from 2006 to 2010. He is an expert on military law....

, authorized to take part in hearings and discussions, but not to vote on final conclusions.

Awards and honours


Select works


Books


Articles