Sequoia

Sequoia

Overview
Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of the genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
The Cupressaceae or cypress family is a conifer family with worldwide distribution. The family includes 27 to 30 genera , which include the junipers and redwoods, with about 130-140 species in total. They are monoecious, subdioecious or dioecious trees and shrubs from 1-116 m tall...

 (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae
Taxodiaceae
The Taxodiaceae were at one time regarded as a distinct plant family comprising the following ten genera of coniferous trees:*Athrotaxis*Cryptomeria*Cunninghamia*†Cunninghamites*Glyptostrobus*Metasequoia*Sciadopitys...

). Common names include coast redwood, California redwood, and giant redwood. It is an evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

, long-lived, monoecious tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

 living 12001800 years or more. This species includes the tallest trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet (115.5 m) in height (without the roots
Root
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil. This is not always the case, however, since a root can also be aerial or aerating . Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either...

) and up to 26 feet (7.9 m) diameter at breast height
Diameter at breast height
Diameter at breast height, or DBH, is a standard method of expressing the diameter of the trunk or bole of a standing tree. DBH is one of the most common dendrometric measurements....

.
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Encyclopedia
Sequoia sempervirens is the sole living species
Species
In biology, a species is one of the basic units of biological classification and a taxonomic rank. A species is often defined as a group of organisms capable of interbreeding and producing fertile offspring. While in many cases this definition is adequate, more precise or differing measures are...

 of the genus
Genus
In biology, a genus is a low-level taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, which is an example of definition by genus and differentia...

 Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae
Cupressaceae
The Cupressaceae or cypress family is a conifer family with worldwide distribution. The family includes 27 to 30 genera , which include the junipers and redwoods, with about 130-140 species in total. They are monoecious, subdioecious or dioecious trees and shrubs from 1-116 m tall...

 (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae
Taxodiaceae
The Taxodiaceae were at one time regarded as a distinct plant family comprising the following ten genera of coniferous trees:*Athrotaxis*Cryptomeria*Cunninghamia*†Cunninghamites*Glyptostrobus*Metasequoia*Sciadopitys...

). Common names include coast redwood, California redwood, and giant redwood. It is an evergreen
Evergreen
In botany, an evergreen plant is a plant that has leaves in all seasons. This contrasts with deciduous plants, which completely lose their foliage during the winter or dry season.There are many different kinds of evergreen plants, both trees and shrubs...

, long-lived, monoecious tree
Tree
A tree is a perennial woody plant. It is most often defined as a woody plant that has many secondary branches supported clear of the ground on a single main stem or trunk with clear apical dominance. A minimum height specification at maturity is cited by some authors, varying from 3 m to...

 living 12001800 years or more. This species includes the tallest trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet (115.5 m) in height (without the roots
Root
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil. This is not always the case, however, since a root can also be aerial or aerating . Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either...

) and up to 26 feet (7.9 m) diameter at breast height
Diameter at breast height
Diameter at breast height, or DBH, is a standard method of expressing the diameter of the trunk or bole of a standing tree. DBH is one of the most common dendrometric measurements....

. Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree occurred naturally in an estimated 2100000 acres (8,498.4 km²) along much of coastal California
California
California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States. It is by far the most populous U.S. state, and the third-largest by land area...

 (excluding southern California where rainfall is not abundant enough) and the southwestern corner of coastal Oregon
Oregon
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. It is located on the Pacific coast, with Washington to the north, California to the south, Nevada on the southeast and Idaho to the east. The Columbia and Snake rivers delineate much of Oregon's northern and eastern...

 within the United States.

The name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoioideae
Sequoioideae
Sequoioideae is a subfamily in the Cupressaceae family, with three genera.-Genera:The three redwood subfamily genera are: Sequoia and Sequoiadendron of California and Oregon, USA; and Metasequoia in China. The redwood species contains the largest and tallest trees in the world. These trees can live...

, which includes S. sempervirens along with Sequoiadendron
Sequoiadendron
Sequoiadendron giganteum is the sole living species in the genus Sequoiadendron, and one of three species of coniferous trees known as redwoods, classified in the family Cupressaceae in the subfamily Sequoioideae, together with Sequoia sempervirens and...

(giant sequoia) and Metasequoia
Metasequoia
Metasequoia is a fast-growing, deciduous tree, and the sole living species, Metasequoia glyptostroboides, is one of three species of conifers known as redwoods. It is native to the Sichuan-Hubei region of China. Although the least tall of the redwoods, it grows to at least 200 feet in height...

(dawn redwood). On its own, the term redwood usually refers to the coast redwood, which is covered in this article, and not to the other two species.

Description


Coast redwoods have a conical
Cone (geometry)
A cone is an n-dimensional geometric shape that tapers smoothly from a base to a point called the apex or vertex. Formally, it is the solid figure formed by the locus of all straight line segments that join the apex to the base...

 crown
Crown (botany)
The crown of a plant refers to the totality of the plant's aboveground parts, including stems, leaves, and reproductive structures. A plant canopy consists of one or more plant crowns growing in a given area....

, with horizontal to slightly drooping branches. The bark
Bark
Bark is the outermost layers of stems and roots of woody plants. Plants with bark include trees, woody vines and shrubs. Bark refers to all the tissues outside of the vascular cambium and is a nontechnical term. It overlays the wood and consists of the inner bark and the outer bark. The inner...

 is very thick, up to 30 cm (12 in), and quite soft, fibrous with a bright red-brown when freshly exposed (hence the name redwood), weathering darker. The root
Root
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil. This is not always the case, however, since a root can also be aerial or aerating . Furthermore, a stem normally occurring below ground is not exceptional either...

 system is composed of shallow, wide-spreading lateral roots.

The leaves
Leaf
A leaf is an organ of a vascular plant, as defined in botanical terms, and in particular in plant morphology. Foliage is a mass noun that refers to leaves as a feature of plants....

 are variable, being 15 – long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees, and scale-like, 5 – long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown of older trees; there is a full range of transition between the two extremes. They are dark green above, and with two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light capture.

The species is monoecious
Plant sexuality
Plant sexuality covers the wide variety of sexual reproduction systems found across the plant kingdom. This article describes morphological aspects of sexual reproduction of plants....

, with pollen and seed cones on the same plant. The seed cones
Conifer cone
A cone is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta that contains the reproductive structures. The familiar woody cone is the female cone, which produces seeds. The male cones, which produce pollen, are usually herbaceous and much less conspicuous even at full maturity...

 are ovoid, 15 – long, with 15–25 spirally arranged scales; pollination
Pollination
Pollination is the process by which pollen is transferred in plants, thereby enabling fertilisation and sexual reproduction. Pollen grains transport the male gametes to where the female gamete are contained within the carpel; in gymnosperms the pollen is directly applied to the ovule itself...

 is in late winter with maturation about 89 months after. Each cone scale bears 37 seed
Seed
A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant...

s, each seed 3 – long and 0.5 millimetre (0.0196850393700787 in) broad, with two wings 1 millimetre (0.0393700787401575 in) wide. The seeds are released when the cone scales dry out and open at maturity. The pollen cones are oval, 4 – long.

Its genetic
Genetics
Genetics , a discipline of biology, is the science of genes, heredity, and variation in living organisms....

 makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid (6n) and possibly allopolyploid (AAAABB).
The mitochondrial genome of the redwood is paternally inherited (unlike that of other conifers).

Range and ecology



Coast redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land approximately 750 km (470 miles) in length and 8–75 km (5–47 miles) in width along the Pacific
Pacific Ocean
The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic in the north to the Southern Ocean in the south, bounded by Asia and Australia in the west, and the Americas in the east.At 165.2 million square kilometres in area, this largest division of the World...

 coast of North America; from the most southerly grove in Monterey County, California
Monterey County, California
Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. The northern half of the bay is in Santa Cruz County. As of 2010, the population was 415,057. The county seat and largest city is Salinas...

 to groves that exist in extreme southwestern Oregon. The elevation range is mostly from 30 –, occasionally down to sea level and up to 920 m (about 3,000 feet) (Farjon 2005). They usually grow in the mountains where there is more precipitation from the incoming moisture off the ocean. The tallest and oldest trees are found in deep valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, and fog drip is regular. The trees above the fog layer, above about 700 metres (2,296.6 ft), are shorter and smaller due to the drier, windier, and colder conditions. In addition, tanoak
Tanoak
Tanoak, formerly known taxonomically as Lithocarpus densiflorus, was recently moved into a new genus, Notholithocarpus, based on multiple lines of evidence....

, pine
Pine
Pines are trees in the genus Pinus ,in the family Pinaceae. They make up the monotypic subfamily Pinoideae. There are about 115 species of pine, although different authorities accept between 105 and 125 species.-Etymology:...

 and Douglas-fir
Douglas-fir
Douglas-fir is one of the English common names for evergreen coniferous trees of the genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae. Other common names include Douglas tree, and Oregon pine. There are five species, two in western North America, one in Mexico, and two in eastern Asia...

 often crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the ocean, due to intense salt spray, sand and wind. Condensation from coastal fog accounts for a considerable part of the trees' water needs.

The northern boundary of its range is marked by two groves on the Chetco River
Chetco River
The Chetco River is a stream located in the southwestern portion of the U.S. state of Oregon. It drains approximately of Curry County. Flowing through a rugged and isolated coastal region, it descends rapidly from about to sea level at the Pacific Ocean. Except for the lowermost , the river is...

 on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains
Klamath Mountains
The Klamath Mountains, which include the Siskiyou, Marble, Scott, Trinity, Trinity Alps, Salmon, and northern Yolla-Bolly Mountains, are a rugged lightly populated mountain range in northwest California and southwest Oregon in the United States...

, 25 km (15 miles) north of the California-Oregon border. The largest (and tallest) populations are in Redwood National and State Parks
Redwood National and State Parks
The Redwood National and State Parks are located in the United States, along the coast of northern California. Comprising Redwood National Park and California's Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith, and Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks , the combined RNSP contain...

 (Del Norte
Del Norte County, California
Del Norte County is a county located at the far northwest corner of the U.S. state of California on the Pacific adjacent to the Oregon border. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 28,610. The county seat is Crescent City, the county's only incorporated city. Del Norte is the abbreviated...

 and Humboldt
Humboldt County, California
Humboldt County is a county in the U.S. state of California, located on the far North Coast 200 miles north of San Francisco. According to 2010 Census Data, the county’s population was 134,623...

 Counties) and Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park is located south of Eureka, California in southern Humboldt County, within northern California. Established by the Save-the-Redwoods League in 1921 with the dedication of the Raynal Bolling Memorial Grove, it has grown to become the third largest park in the California...

 (Humboldt County, California
Humboldt County, California
Humboldt County is a county in the U.S. state of California, located on the far North Coast 200 miles north of San Francisco. According to 2010 Census Data, the county’s population was 134,623...

), with the majority located in the much larger Humboldt County. The southern boundary of its range is the Los Padres National Forest
Los Padres National Forest
Los Padres National Forest is a forest located in southern and central California, which includes most of the mountainous land along the California coast from Ventura to Monterey, extending inland...

's Silver Peak Wilderness
Silver Peak Wilderness
The Silver Peak Wilderness is located in the southwestern corner of Monterey County in the Santa Lucia Mountains along the Central Coast of California. It southern boundary largely follows the Monterey County/San Luis Obispo County line. Its eastern boundary is defined by Ft. Hunter Liggett, while...

 in the Santa Lucia Mountains
Santa Lucia Mountains
The Santa Lucia Mountains or Santa Lucia Range is a mountain range in coastal California, running from Monterey southeast for 105 miles to San Luis Obispo. The highest summit is Junipero Serra Peak, in Monterey County...

 of the Big Sur
Big Sur
Big Sur is a sparsely populated region of the Central Coast of California where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean. The name "Big Sur" is derived from the original Spanish-language "el sur grande", meaning "the big south", or from "el país grande del sur", "the big...

 area of Monterey County, California
Monterey County, California
Monterey County is a county located on the Pacific coast of the U.S. state of California, its northwestern section forming the southern half of Monterey Bay. The northern half of the bay is in Santa Cruz County. As of 2010, the population was 415,057. The county seat and largest city is Salinas...

. The southernmost grove is in the Southern Redwood Botanical Area, just north of the national forest's Salmon Creek trailhead.

This native area provides a unique environment with heavy seasonal rains (2500 millimetres (98.4 in) annually). Cool coastal air and fog drip
Fog drip
Fog drip is a type of precipitation that forms when fog droplets condense on the needles or leaves of trees or other objects, and drips to the ground....

 keep this forest consistently damp year round. Several factors, including the heavy rainfall, create a soil with fewer nutrients than the trees need, causing the trees to depend heavily on the entire biotic community of the forest, and complete recycling of the trees when dead. This forest community includes Coast Douglas-fir
Coast Douglas-fir
Pseudotsuga menziesii, known as Douglas-fir, Oregon Pine, or Douglas spruce, is an evergreen conifer species native to western North America. Its variety Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii, also known as coast Douglas-fir grows in the coastal regions, from west-central British Columbia, Canada...

, Western Hemlock
Western Hemlock
Tsuga heterophylla. the Western Hemlock, is a species of hemlock native to the west coast of North America, with its northwestern limit on the Kenai Peninsula, Alaska, and its southeastern limit in northern Sonoma County, California.-Habitat:...

, Tanoak
Tanoak
Tanoak, formerly known taxonomically as Lithocarpus densiflorus, was recently moved into a new genus, Notholithocarpus, based on multiple lines of evidence....

, Pacific Madrone
Pacific Madrone
Arbutus menziesii, commonly known as the Pacific Madrone, is a species of Arbutus found on the west coast of North America, from British Columbia to California...

, and other trees along with a wide variety of fern
Fern
A fern is any one of a group of about 12,000 species of plants belonging to the botanical group known as Pteridophyta. Unlike mosses, they have xylem and phloem . They have stems, leaves, and roots like other vascular plants...

s, Redwood sorrel
Redwood sorrel
Oxalis oregana is a species of the wood sorrel family, Oxalidaceae, native to moist Douglas-fir and Coast Redwood forests of western North America from southwestern British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California.-Description:Oxalis oregana is a short herbaceous perennial plant with erect...

, moss
Moss
Mosses are small, soft plants that are typically 1–10 cm tall, though some species are much larger. They commonly grow close together in clumps or mats in damp or shady locations. They do not have flowers or seeds, and their simple leaves cover the thin wiry stems...

es and mushrooms
Fungus
A fungus is a member of a large group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds , as well as the more familiar mushrooms. These organisms are classified as a kingdom, Fungi, which is separate from plants, animals, and bacteria...

. Redwood forests provide habitat for a variety of mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. Old growth redwood stands provide habitat for the federally threatened Spotted Owl
Spotted Owl
The Spotted Owl, Strix occidentalis, is a species of true owl. It is a resident species of forests in western North America, where it nests in tree holes, old bird of prey nests, or rock crevices. Nests can be between 13 and 66 yards high and usually contain two eggs...

 and the California-endangered Marbled Murrelet
Marbled Murrelet
The Marbled Murrelet is a small seabird from the North Pacific. It is a member of the auk family. It nests in old-growth forests or on the ground at higher latitudes where trees cannot grow...

.

The thick, tannin
Tannin
A tannin is an astringent, bitter plant polyphenolic compound that binds to and precipitates proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.The term tannin refers to the use of...

-rich bark, combined with foliage that starts high above the ground provides good protection from both fire
Wildfire
A wildfire is any uncontrolled fire in combustible vegetation that occurs in the countryside or a wilderness area. Other names such as brush fire, bushfire, forest fire, desert fire, grass fire, hill fire, squirrel fire, vegetation fire, veldfire, and wilkjjofire may be used to describe the same...

 and insect
Insect
Insects are a class of living creatures within the arthropods that have a chitinous exoskeleton, a three-part body , three pairs of jointed legs, compound eyes, and two antennae...

 damage, contributing to the coast redwood's longevity. The oldest known coast redwood is about 2,200 years old; many others in the wild exceed 600 years. The numerous claims of older trees are incorrect. Because of their seemingly timeless lifespan, coast redwoods were deemed the "everlasting redwood" at the turn of the century; in Latin
Latin
Latin is an Italic language originally spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. It, along with most European languages, is a descendant of the ancient Proto-Indo-European language. Although it is considered a dead language, a number of scholars and members of the Christian clergy speak it fluently, and...

, "sempervirens" means "ever green" or "everlasting". Redwood must successfully endure fire in order to attain such great ages and thus it is perhaps not surprising that this species has many fire-resistant characteristics. In addition, fires appear to actually benefit redwood by causing substantial mortality in competing species while having only minor effects on redwood. One recent study, the first to compare post-wildfire survival and regeneration of redwood and associated species, concluded that fires of all severity increase the relative abundance of redwood and that higher severity fires provide the greatest benefit.

The prehistoric fossil
Fossil
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of animals , plants, and other organisms from the remote past...

 range of the genus is considerably greater, with a subcosmopolitan distribution including Europe and Asia until about 5 million years ago.

Reproduction


Coast redwood reproduces both sexually by seed and asexually by sprouting of buds, layering, or lignotubers. Seed production begins at 10–15 years of age, and large seed crops occur frequently, but viability of the seed is low, typically well below 15%. The low viability may discourage seed predators, which do not want to waste time sorting chaff (empty seeds) from edible seeds. The winged seeds are small and light, weighing 3.3–5 mg (200-300 seeds/g; 5,600-8,500/ounce). The wings are not effective for wide dispersal, and seeds are dispersed by wind an average of only 60–120 m (200–400 feet) from the parent tree.
Growth of seedlings is very fast, with young trees known to reach 20 m (65 ft) tall in 20 years.

Coast redwoods can also reproduce asexually by layering or sprouting from the root crown, stump, or even fallen branches; if a tree falls over, it will regenerate a row of new trees along the trunk. This is the reason for many trees naturally growing in a straight line. Sprouts originate from dormant or adventitious buds at or under the surface of the bark. The dormant sprouts are stimulated when the main adult stem gets damaged or starts to die. Many sprouts spontaneously erupt and develop around the circumference of the tree trunk. Within a short period after sprouting, each sprout will develop its own root system, with the dominant sprouts forming a ring of trees around the parent root crown or stump. This ring of trees is called a "fairy ring". Sprouts can achieve heights of 2.3 m (8 ft) in a single growing season.

Redwoods may also reproduce using burl
Burl
A burl or bur or burr is a tree growth in which the grain has grown in a deformed manner. It is commonly found in the form of a rounded outgrowth on a tree trunk or branch that is filled with small knots from dormant buds.A burl results from a tree undergoing some form of stress. It may be caused...

s. A burl is a woody lignotuber
Lignotuber
A lignotuber is a starchy swelling of the root crown possessed by some plants as a protection against destruction of the plant stem by fire. The crown contains buds from which new stems may sprout, and a sufficient store of nutrients to support a period of growth in the absence of...

 that commonly appears on a redwood tree below the soil line, though when above usually within 3 metres (9.8 ft) of the soil. Burls are capable of sprouting into new trees when detached from the parent tree though exactly how this happens is yet to be studied. Shoot clones commonly sprout from burls and are often turned into decorative hedges when found in suburbia.

The species is very tolerant of flood
Flood
A flood is an overflow of an expanse of water that submerges land. The EU Floods directive defines a flood as a temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water...

ing and flood deposits the roots rapidly growing into thick silt deposits after floods.

Cultivation and uses


Coast redwood is one of the most valuable timber
Timber
Timber may refer to:* Timber, a term common in the United Kingdom and Australia for wood materials * Timber, Oregon, an unincorporated community in the U.S...

 species in California with 899000 acres (3,638.1 km²) of redwood forest, all second growth, managed for timber production. Coast redwood lumber is highly valued for its beauty, light weight, and resistance to decay. Its lack of resin makes it resistant to fire.

P. H. Shaughnessy, Chief Engineer of the San Francisco Fire Department wrote:
In the recent great fire
1906 San Francisco earthquake
The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that struck San Francisco, California, and the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the earthquake is a moment magnitude of 7.9; however, other...

 of San Francisco, that began April 18th, 1906, we succeeded in finally stopping it in nearly all directions where the unburned buildings were almost entirely of frame construction and if the exterior finish of these buildings had not been of redwood lumber, I am satisfied that the area of the burned district would have been greatly extended.


Because of its impressive resistance to decay, redwood was extensively used for railroad ties and trestle
Trestle
A trestle is a rigid frame used as a support, especially referring to a bridge composed of a number of short spans supported by such frames. In the context of trestle bridges, each supporting frame is generally referred to as a bent...

s throughout California. Many of the old ties have been recycled for use in gardens as borders, steps, etc. Redwood burls are used in the production of table tops, veneers, and turned goods.

The coast redwood is locally naturalized
Naturalisation (biology)
In biology, naturalisation is any process by which a non-native organism spreads into the wild and its reproduction is sufficient to maintain its population. Such populations are said to be naturalised....

 in New Zealand
New Zealand
New Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses and numerous smaller islands. The country is situated some east of Australia across the Tasman Sea, and roughly south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga...

, notably at Whakarewarewa
Whakarewarewa
Whakarewarewa is a geothermal area within Rotorua city in the Taupo Volcanic Zone of New Zealand...

 Forest, Rotorua
Rotorua
Rotorua is a city on the southern shores of the lake of the same name, in the Bay of Plenty region of the North Island of New Zealand. The city is the seat of the Rotorua District, a territorial authority encompassing the city and several other nearby towns...

. Redwood has been grown in New Zealand plantations for over 100 years, and Redwoods planted in New Zealand have higher growth rates than those in California. This is due mainly to even rainfall distribution through the year. In 2001 this led the family owned Soper Wheeler Company of California to begin planting redwoods on bare land that to 2011 has 3000 ha under cultivation.

Other areas of successful cultivation outside of the native range include Great Britain
Great Britain
Great Britain or Britain is an island situated to the northwest of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, and the largest European island, as well as the largest of the British Isles...

, Italy
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

, Portugal
Portugal
Portugal , officially the Portuguese Republic is a country situated in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of Europe, and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and South and by Spain to the North and East. The Atlantic archipelagos of the...

, the Queen Charlotte Islands
Queen Charlotte Islands
Haida Gwaii , formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands, is an archipelago on the North Coast of British Columbia, Canada. Haida Gwaii consists of two main islands: Graham Island in the north, and Moresby Island in the south, along with approximately 150 smaller islands with a total landmass of...

, middle elevations of Hawaii
Hawaii
Hawaii is the newest of the 50 U.S. states , and is the only U.S. state made up entirely of islands. It is the northernmost island group in Polynesia, occupying most of an archipelago in the central Pacific Ocean, southwest of the continental United States, southeast of Japan, and northeast of...

, Hogsback
Hogsback
Hogsback can refer to:* Hogsback, Eastern Cape, a village in the Amatola Mountains, in the Eastern Cape province, in South Africa.* Hog's Back in the North Downs in Surrey, England* Hogs Back Brewery from the same area of Surrey, England...

 in South Africa
South Africa
The Republic of South Africa is a country in southern Africa. Located at the southern tip of Africa, it is divided into nine provinces, with of coastline on the Atlantic and Indian oceans...

, a small area in central Mexico (Jilotepec) and the southeastern United States from eastern Texas
Texas
Texas is the second largest U.S. state by both area and population, and the largest state by area in the contiguous United States.The name, based on the Caddo word "Tejas" meaning "friends" or "allies", was applied by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves and to the region of their settlement in...

 to Maryland
Maryland
Maryland is a U.S. state located in the Mid Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and the District of Columbia to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east...

. Coast redwood trees were used in a display at Rockefeller Center and then given to Longhouse Reserve in East Hampton, Long Island, New York and these have now been living there for over 17 years (2010) and survived 2 °F (-17 °C).

Statistics





Trees over 60 m (200 ft) are common, and many are over 90 m (300 ft). The current tallest tree is Hyperion
Hyperion (tree)
Hyperion is the name of a Coast Redwood in Northern California that was measured at , which ranks it as the world's tallest known living tree. Despite its great height, Hyperion is not the largest known coast redwood; that distinction belongs to the Lost Monarch tree.Hyperion was discovered August...

, measuring at 115.61 m (379.3 ft). The tree was discovered in Redwood National Park
Redwood National and State Parks
The Redwood National and State Parks are located in the United States, along the coast of northern California. Comprising Redwood National Park and California's Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith, and Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks , the combined RNSP contain...

 during Summer 2006 by Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor and has been measured as the world's tallest living organism. The previous record holder was the Stratosphere Giant
Stratosphere Giant
Stratosphere Giant was once considered the tallest tree in the world. It was discovered in July 2000 in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, measuring 112.34 metres tall....

 in the Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park is located south of Eureka, California in southern Humboldt County, within northern California. Established by the Save-the-Redwoods League in 1921 with the dedication of the Raynal Bolling Memorial Grove, it has grown to become the third largest park in the California...

, at 112.83 m, last measured in 2004 (was 112.34 m in Aug 2000 and 112.56 m in 2002). Until it fell in March 1991, the "Dyerville Giant" was the record holder. It too stood in Humboldt Redwoods State Park; it was 113.4 metres high and estimated to be 1,600 years old.

There are 41 measured living trees more than 110 metres (360.9 ft) tall. There are 178 measured trees that are more than 106.7 metres (350.1 ft) tall. Preliminary analysis of LiDAR
LIDAR
LIDAR is an optical remote sensing technology that can measure the distance to, or other properties of a target by illuminating the target with light, often using pulses from a laser...

 data indicates there are hundreds of additional trees in excess of 106 metres (347.8 ft) previously unknown.

A tree claimed to be 115.86 metres (380.1 ft) was cut down in 1914. A tree claimed to be 129.26 metres (424 ft) was felled in November 1886 by the Elk River Mill and Lumber Co. at the south fork of Elk river in Humboldt County, yielding 79,736 marketable board feet from 21 cuts.

Although coast redwoods are currently the world's tallest trees, it is possible that Australian mountain ash
Eucalyptus regnans
Eucalyptus regnans, known variously by the common names Mountain Ash, Victorian Ash, Swamp Gum, Tasmanian Oak or Stringy Gum, is a species of Eucalyptus native to southeastern Australia, in Tasmania and Victoria...

 and Douglas-fir
Douglas-fir
Douglas-fir is one of the English common names for evergreen coniferous trees of the genus Pseudotsuga in the family Pinaceae. Other common names include Douglas tree, and Oregon pine. There are five species, two in western North America, one in Mexico, and two in eastern Asia...

 trees were taller—exceeding 400 feet (121.9 m)—before the commercial logging of the 19th and 20th centuries. However, there is fairly solid evidence that before logging coast redwoods were the world's largest trees, with specimens measured at over 55000 cubic feet (1,557.4 m³).

The theoretical maximum potential height of coast redwoods is limited to between 122 to 130 m (400.3 to 426.5 ft), due to gravity and the friction
Friction
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and/or material elements sliding against each other. There are several types of friction:...

 between water and the vessel
Vessel element
A vessel element is one of the cell types found in xylem, the water conducting tissue of plants. Vessel elements are typically found in the angiosperms but absent from most gymnosperms such as the conifers....

s through which it flows.

The largest coast redwood is the "Lost Monarch", with an estimated volume of 42500 cubic feet (1,203 m³); it is 320 feet (97.5 m) tall with a diameter of 26 feet (7.9 m) at breast high (DBH). It is located in the Grove of Titans
Grove of Titans
The Grove of Titans is a redwood grove in Del Norte County, Northern California, which includes several massive Coast Redwood trees, some being the largest known redwoods in terms of wood volume. The largest Coastal Redwood tree in the grove by volume is Lost Monarch...

. Among current living trees there are only 6 known giant sequoias that are larger; these are shorter, but have thicker trunks overall, giving the largest giant sequoia, General Sherman
General Sherman (tree)
The General Sherman is a giant sequoia tree located in the Giant Forest of Sequoia National Park in Tulare County, California. By volume, it is the largest known living single stem tree on Earth...

, a volume of 1487 cubic metre, making it the world's largest known tree. A redwood cut down in 1926 had a claimed volume of 1794 cubic metre, but this was not verified.

About fifty albino redwood
Albino redwood
The Albino redwood is a redwood tree which is unable to produce chlorophyll, so has white instead of green needles. In order to survive it must remain attached to the roots of its parent tree from which it obtains nutrition as a parasite. Only about twenty-five examples of the albino redwood are...

s (mutant individuals that cannot manufacture chlorophyll
Chlorophyll
Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in almost all plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρος, chloros and φύλλον, phyllon . Chlorophyll is an extremely important biomolecule, critical in photosynthesis, which allows plants to obtain energy from light...

) are known to exist, reaching heights of up to 20 metres (66 ft). These trees survive as parasite
Parasitic plant
A parasitic plant is one that derives some or all of its sustenance from another plant. About 4,100 species in approximately 19 families of flowering plants are known. Parasitic plants have a modified root, the haustorium, that penetrates the host plant and connects to the xylem, phloem, or...

s, obtaining food by grafting
Grafting
Grafting is a horticultural technique whereby tissues from one plant are inserted into those of another so that the two sets of vascular tissues may join together. This vascular joining is called inosculation...

 their root systems with those of normal trees. While similar mutations occur sporadically in other conifers, no cases are known of such individuals surviving to maturity in any other conifer species.

Largest trees


The ten largest known coast redwoods by total wood volume in the main trunk and stems combined, as of 2009.
Rank Tree Name Location Volume Height Diameter (b.h)
      (m³) (cu ft) (m) (ft) (m) (ft)
1 Lost Monarch
Lost Monarch
Lost Monarch is the name of a Coast Redwood tree in Northern California that is in diameter at breast height , and in height...

JSRSP
Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park
Jedediah Smith Redwoods Park, established in 1929, was named after the noted fur trapper Jedediah Smith, who visited its location during an 1826 expedition. It is located in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, nine miles east of Crescent City, on U.S. Route 199...

1206 42,500 97.8 321 7.92 26.0
2 Melkor RNP 1109 39,100 106.3 349 6.82 22.4
3 Iluvatar
Iluvatar (tree)
Iluvatar is a redwood tree in Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park in Northern California that has been confirmed to be at least in diameter at breast height, and in height. Measured by Stephen C. Sillett, it is the world's third-largest coast redwood, the largest being Lost Monarch.Iluvatar is...

PCRSP
Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park
Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park is a state park, located in Humboldt County, California, near the town of Orick and 50 miles north of Eureka...

1064 37,500 91.4 300 6.25 20.5
4 Del Norte Titan
Del Norte Titan
Del Norte Titan is the name of a Coast Redwood tree in Del Norte County, Northern California, that was confirmed by measuring to be at least in diameter at DBH , and tall...

JSRSP
Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park
Jedediah Smith Redwoods Park, established in 1929, was named after the noted fur trapper Jedediah Smith, who visited its location during an 1826 expedition. It is located in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, nine miles east of Crescent City, on U.S. Route 199...

1055 37,200 93.6 307 7.22 23.7
5 El Viejo Del Norte JSRSP
Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park
Jedediah Smith Redwoods Park, established in 1929, was named after the noted fur trapper Jedediah Smith, who visited its location during an 1826 expedition. It is located in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, nine miles east of Crescent City, on U.S. Route 199...

1002 35,400 98.7 324 7.01 23.0
6 Howland Hill Giant JSRSP
Jedediah Smith Redwoods State Park
Jedediah Smith Redwoods Park, established in 1929, was named after the noted fur trapper Jedediah Smith, who visited its location during an 1826 expedition. It is located in the northern part of the U.S. state of California, nine miles east of Crescent City, on U.S. Route 199...

953 33,580 100.6 330 6.02 19.8
7 Sir Isaac Newton PCRSP
Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park
Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park is a state park, located in Humboldt County, California, near the town of Orick and 50 miles north of Eureka...

942 33,192 91.1 299 6.85 22.5
8 Terex Titan PCRSP
Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park
Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park is a state park, located in Humboldt County, California, near the town of Orick and 50 miles north of Eureka...

919 32,384 82.3 270 6.49 21.3
9 Adventure Tree PCRSP
Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park
Prairie Creek Redwoods State Park is a state park, located in Humboldt County, California, near the town of Orick and 50 miles north of Eureka...

912 32,140 101.8 334 4.95 16.5
10 Bull Creek Giant HRSP
Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park is located south of Eureka, California in southern Humboldt County, within northern California. Established by the Save-the-Redwoods League in 1921 with the dedication of the Raynal Bolling Memorial Grove, it has grown to become the third largest park in the California...

882 31,144 102.7 339 6.79 22.3

The order of largest and tallest can change at any time due to new discoveries, loss of stem and foliage, growth, and new measurements. One of the better known Internet databases for large conifers is The Gymnosperm Database, but its data can be different from other resources due to differences in standards.

Tallest trees


Trees over 112 metres (367 ft), as of 2010.
Tree Name Height Location
  (m) (ft)  
Hyperion
Hyperion (tree)
Hyperion is the name of a Coast Redwood in Northern California that was measured at , which ranks it as the world's tallest known living tree. Despite its great height, Hyperion is not the largest known coast redwood; that distinction belongs to the Lost Monarch tree.Hyperion was discovered August...

115.61 379.3 RNSP
Redwood National and State Parks
The Redwood National and State Parks are located in the United States, along the coast of northern California. Comprising Redwood National Park and California's Del Norte Coast, Jedediah Smith, and Prairie Creek Redwoods State Parks , the combined RNSP contain...

Helios 114.58 375.9 RNSP
Icarus 113.14 371.2 RNSP
Stratosphere Giant
Stratosphere Giant
Stratosphere Giant was once considered the tallest tree in the world. It was discovered in July 2000 in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, measuring 112.34 metres tall....

113.11 371.1 HRSP
Humboldt Redwoods State Park
Humboldt Redwoods State Park is located south of Eureka, California in southern Humboldt County, within northern California. Established by the Save-the-Redwoods League in 1921 with the dedication of the Raynal Bolling Memorial Grove, it has grown to become the third largest park in the California...

National Geographic 112.71 369.9 RNSP
Orion 112.63 369.5 RNSP
Lauralyn 112.62 369.5 HRSP
Paradox 112.56 369.3 HRSP
Mendocino 112.20 368.1 MWSR
Montgomery Woods State Reserve
Montgomery Woods State Reserve is a state-owned park located in the Coastal Range in Mendocino County, California, United States. The Reserve occupies the headwaters of Montgomery Creek, a tributary of Big River, which flows into the Pacific Ocean at Mendocino Headlands State Park...

Apex 112.00 367.4 HRSP


There is fairly solid evidence that before logging, coast redwoods were the world's largest trees, with specimens measured at over 55000 cubic feet (1,557.4 m³).

See also

  • Bank Hall Gardens
    Bank Hall Gardens
    Bank Hall Gardens comprise of land around Bank Hall, in Bretherton, Lancashire, England. The gardens contain specimen trees including a yew thought to be the oldest in Lancashire. Many architectural features, statues, low garden walls, conservatory and greenhouses have gone but there are plans to...

  • Bury Me in Redwood Country
    Bury Me in Redwood Country
    Bury Me in Redwood Country is a 2009 documentary film about the Redwood forest landscape. It is a meditative look at the tallest and largest trees on the planet, offering a reverential perspective that approaches the ecstatic...

  • Cryptomeria
    Cryptomeria
    Cryptomeria is a monotypic genus of conifer in the cypress family Cupressaceae formerly belonging to the family Taxodiaceae; it includes only one species, Cryptomeria japonica . It is endemic to Japan, where it is known as Sugi...

  • Leighton Hall, Powys
    Leighton Hall, Powys
    Leighton Hall is an estate and farming complex, located outside Welshpool in Powys, Wales. A grade 1 listed building and estate farming complex, located on the opposite side of the valley to Powis Castle...

  • List of largest giant sequoias
  • Northern California coastal forests (WWF ecoregion)
  • Pacific temperate rain forest (WWF ecoregion)
  • Redwood (color)
  • Save-the-Redwoods League
    Save-the-Redwoods League
    The Save the Redwoods League is an organization dedicated to the protection of the remaining Coast Redwood trees in the state of California. It was founded in 1918 by Frederick Russell Burnham, Madison Grant, John C. Merriam, and Henry Fairfield Osborn....


External links


Further reading

  • Preston, Richard
    Richard Preston
    Richard Preston, born August 5, 1954 in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S., is a New Yorker writer and bestselling author perhaps best-known for his books about infectious disease epidemics and bioterrorism, although he has written other non-fiction works...

    "The Wild Trees: A Story of Passion and Daring", Random House, 2007, ISBN 978-1-4000-6489-2. Database entry includes a lengthy justification of why this species is vulnerable
  • Farjon, A. (2005). Monograph of Cupressaceae and Sciadopitys. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. ISBN 1-84246-068-4
  • Noss, R. F., ed. (2000). The Redwood Forest: history, ecology and conservation of the Coast Redwood. Island Press, Washington DC. ISBN 1-55963-726-9