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, or Sefarad
, or Sfard
, is a biblical place name
of uncertain location. It is mentioned only once in the Bible
The Hebrew Bible is a term used by biblical scholars outside of Judaism to refer to the Tanakh , a canonical collection of Jewish texts, and the common textual antecedent of the several canonical editions of the Christian Old Testament...
, in the Book of Obadiah
The canonical Book of Obadiah is an oracle concerning the divine judgment of Edom and the restoration of Israel. The text consists of a single chapter, divided into 21 verses, making it the shortest book in the Hebrew Bible....
. There are, however, Persian inscriptions that refer to two places called "Saparda
Saparda , was an ancient land south of Zikirti, corresponding to the modern Bijar area in northwestern Iran....
": one area in Media and another in Asia Minor
Asia Minor is a geographical location at the westernmost protrusion of Asia, also called Anatolia, and corresponds to the western two thirds of the Asian part of Turkey...
. It is speculated that Sepharad could have been Sardis
Sardis or Sardes was an ancient city at the location of modern Sart in Turkey's Manisa Province...
Since the period of Roman Antiquity, after the Peshitta
The Peshitta is the standard version of the Bible for churches in the Syriac tradition.The Old Testament of the Peshitta was translated into Syriac from the Hebrew, probably in the 2nd century AD...
of the 2nd century, Spanish Jews
The Jews , also known as the Jewish people, are a nation and ethnoreligious group originating in the Israelites or Hebrews of the Ancient Near East. The Jewish ethnicity, nationality, and religion are strongly interrelated, as Judaism is the traditional faith of the Jewish nation...
gave the name "Sepharad" to the Iberian peninsula
The Iberian Peninsula , sometimes called Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe and includes the modern-day sovereign states of Spain, Portugal and Andorra, as well as the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar...
. The descendants of Iberian Jews refer to themselves as Sephardi Jews
Sephardi Jews is a general term referring to the descendants of the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula before their expulsion in the Spanish Inquisition. It can also refer to those who use a Sephardic style of liturgy or would otherwise define themselves in terms of the Jewish customs and...
(Hebrew, plural: Sephardim
) and identify Spain
Spain , officially the Kingdom of Spain languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Spain's official name is as follows:;;;;;;), is a country and member state of the European Union located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula...
as "Sepharad" in modern Hebrew.
- Ovadiah 1:20 (trans. Nevi'im) "And this exiled host of the children of Israel who are [with] the Canaanites as far as Zarephath and the exile of Jerusalem which is in Sepharad shall inherit the cities of the southland" - Chabad.org.
- Obadiah 1:20 (NKJV) "And the captivity of this host of the children of Israel, that are among the Canaanites, even unto Zarephath, and the captivity of Jerusalem, that is in Sepharad, shall possess the cities of the South."
- Obadiah 1:20 (Vulgate) et transmigratio exercitus huius filiorum Israhel omnia Chananeorum usque ad Saraptham et transmigratio Hierusalem quae in Bosforo est possidebit civitates austri.
- Sefarad, Journal on Hebraic, Sephardim and Middle East Studies, ILC, CSIC
The Spanish National Research Council is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe...
(scientific articles in Spanish, English and other languages)