Senate of Pakistan

Senate of Pakistan

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The Senate of Pakistan is the upper house
Upper house
An upper house, often called a senate, is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the lower house; a legislature composed of only one house is described as unicameral.- Possible specific characteristics :...

 of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. Elections are held every three years for one half of the senate and each senator has a term of six years. If the office of the President of Pakistan becomes vacant, or the President is unable to perform his functions, the Chairman of the Senate acts as President until a President is elected.

The Chairman of the Senate
Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan
The current Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan is Farooq Naek since 12 March, 2009.The first Chairman of the Senate was Justice Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat.-History:...

 is Farooq H. Naek since 12 March 2009.

History


After Independence, the first Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
Constituent Assembly of Pakistan
The Constituent Assembly of Pakistan was formed to write Pakistan's constitution, and serve as its first parliament. It first convened on 11 August 1947, before the end of British rule on August 15, 1947. Quaid-i-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah was the first President of this Assembly until his death on...

, elected in December 1945 in undivided India, was assigned the task of framing the Constitution of Pakistan
Constitution of Pakistan
The Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan is the supreme law of Pakistan. Known as the Constitution of 1973, it was drafted by the government of Zulfikar Ali Bhutto and, following additions by the opposition parties, was approved by the legislative assembly on April 10, 1973...

. This Assembly passed the Objectives Resolution
Objectives Resolution
The Objectives Resolution was a resolution adopted on 12 March 1949 by the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan. The resolution, proposed by the Prime Minister, Liaquat Ali Khan, proclaimed that the future constitution of Pakistan would not be modelled entirely on a European pattern, but on the...

 on 12 March 1949, laying down principles which later became substantive part of the Constitution of Pakistan. However, before it could accomplish the task of framing the constitution, it was dissolved in October, 1954. Thereafter, the Governor General, convened the Second Constituent Assembly in May, 1955, which framed and passed the first Constitution of Pakistan on 29 February 1956. That Constitution was promulgated on 23 March 1956, which provided for a parliamentary form of Government with a unicameral legislature. However, from 14 August 1947 to 1 March 1956 the Government of India Act 1935
Government of India Act 1935
The Government of India Act 1935 was originally passed in August 1935 , and is said to have been the longest Act of Parliament ever enacted by that time. Because of its length, the Act was retroactively split by the Government of India Act 1935 into two separate Acts:# The Government of India...

, was retained as the Constitution of Pakistan.

On October 7, 1958, Martial Law was promulgated and the Constitution abrogated. The Military Government appointed a Constitution Commission in February, 1960 which framed the 1962 Constitution. That Constitution provided for a Presidential form of Government with a unicameral legislature. The 1962 Constitution was abrogated on 25 March 1969. The Civil Government, which came to power in December 1971 pursuant to 1970 elections, gave the nation an interim Constitution in the year 1972.

The 1970 Assembly framed the 1973 Constitution which was passed on 12 April and promulgated on 14 August 1973. The 1973 Constitution provides for a parliamentary form of Government with a bicameral legislature, comprising the National Assembly
National Assembly of Pakistan
The National Assembly of Pakistan is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also compromises the President of Pakistan and Senate . The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad...

 and the Senate.

The membership of the Senate, which was originally 45, was raised to 63 in 1977 and to 87 in 1985. The government of Gen. Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf
Pervez Musharraf , is a retired four-star general who served as the 13th Chief of Army Staff and tenth President of Pakistan as well as tenth Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee. Musharraf headed and led an administrative military government from October 1999 till August 2007. He ruled...

 raised the membership of the Senate from 87 to 100 through the Legal Framework Order (LFO), 2002, enforced on 21 August 2002.

Purpose and role


The main purpose for the creation of the Senate of Pakistan was to give equal representation to all the federating units
Subdivisions of Pakistan
The administrative units of Pakistan consist of four provinces, one federal capital territory, and a group of federally-administered tribal areas...

 since the membership of the National Assembly was based on the population of each province. Equal provincial membership in the Senate, thus, balances the provincial inequality in the National Assembly.

The role of the Senate is to promote national cohesion and harmony and to prevent domination by any one province because of its majority, in the National Assembly.

The Senate is a body which represents the provinces and territories of the country and promotes a feeling of equality, peace and good understanding between them, which is so essential for the growth and prosperity of a nation. Thus, the Senate in Pakistan, over the years, has emerged as an essential organ and a stabilizing factor of the federation.

There are one hundred senatorial seats. There are 18 women Senators; Pakistani Law requires that there be at least 17 women Senators.

Members of the Senate are elected according to Article 59 of the Constitution.

Appointment


(1) The Senate shall consist of 100 members, of whom: 14 shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly; eight shall be elected by direct and free vote from the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, in such manner as the President may, by Order, prescribe; two on general seats, and one woman and one technocrat including aalim shall be elected from the Federal Capital in such manner as the President may, by Order, prescribe; four women shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly; four technocrats including ulema
Ulema
Ulama , also spelt ulema, refers to the educated class of Muslim legal scholars engaged in the several fields of Islamic studies. They are best known as the arbiters of shari‘a law...

 shall be elected by the members of each Provincial Assembly. two seats in the senate are reserved for minorities in each province."
(2) Election to fill seats in the Senate allocated to each Province shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote.

(3) The Senate shall not be subject to dissolution but the term of its members, who shall retire as follows, shall be six years:- of the members referred to in paragraph (a) of clause (1), seven shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and seven shall retire after the expiration of the next three years. of the members referred to in paragraph (b) of the aforesaid clause, four shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and four shall retire after the expiration of the next three years; of the members referred to in paragraph (c) of the aforesaid clause,-
(i) one elected on general seat shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and the other one shall retire after the expiration of the next three years, and
(ii) one elected on the seat reserved for technocrat shall retire after first three years and the one elected on the seat reserved for woman shall retire after the expiration of the next three years; of the members referred to in paragraph (d) of the aforesaid clause, two shall retire after the expiration of the three years and two shall retire after the expiration of the next three years; and of the members referred to in paragraph (e) of the aforesaid clause, two shall retire after the expiration of the first three years and two shall retire after the expiration of the next three years: Provided that the term of office of a person elected to fill a casual vacancy shall be the unexpired term of the member whose vacancy he has filled.

Current party position in Senate


After the 2008 Senate elections, the current party position in Senate stands like this.

2008-present


Seats in the Senate of Pakistan
Senate of Pakistan
The Senate of Pakistan is the upper house of the bicameral Parliament of Pakistan. Elections are held every three years for one half of the senate and each senator has a term of six years...

Party Number
Pakistan Peoples Party
Pakistan Peoples Party
The Pakistan Peoples Party , is a democratic socialist political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International. Pakistan People's Party is the largest political party of Pakistan...

 
27
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)
Pakistan Muslim League (Q)
The Pakistan Muslim League or officially Pakistan Muslim League is a centrist, modern political party in Pakistan. The present form of PML-Q was formed prior to 2002 general elections....

 
21
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam (F)
Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam
The Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam is a political party in Pakistan. It formed a combined government in national elections in 2002 and 2008...

 
10
Pakistan Muslim League (N)
Pakistan Muslim League (N)
The Pakistan Muslim League is a conservative political party in Pakistan, affiliated with Western conservatism...

 
7
Muttahida Qaumi Movement
Muttahida Qaumi Movement
Muttahida Qaumi Movement generally known as MQM, is a liberal-secular political party of Pakistan. It is generally known as a party which holds immense mobilizing potential in province of Sindh...

 
6
Awami National Party
Awami National Party
The Awami National Party is an Pashtun nationalist, socialist, centre-left political party in Pakistan affiliated with Socialist International...

 
6
FATA
Federally Administered Tribal Areas
The Federally Administered Tribal Areas are a semi-autonomous tribal region in the northwest of Pakistan, lying between the province of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Balochistan, and the neighboring country of Afghanistan. The FATA comprise seven Agencies and six FRs...

 
8
Independents 4
Jamaat-e-Islami
Jamaat-e-Islami
This article is about Jamaat-e-Islami Pakistan. For other organizations of similar name see Jamaat-e-Islami The Jamaat-e-Islami , is a Pro-Muslim political party in Pakistan...

 
3
Balochistan National Party (Awami)
Balochistan National Party
The Balochistan National Party or Balochistan National Party is a political party in Balochistan, Pakistan...

 
2
National Party
National Party (Pakistan)
National Party is a democratic, centre-left Baloch nationalist political party. It is one of the largest Baloch nationalist parties active in the province of Balochistan, Pakistan along with Balochistan National Party...

 
2
Pakistan Muslim League (F)
Pakistan Muslim League (F)
The Pakistan Muslim League is a political party in Pakistan. It is one of the factions of the original Pakistan Muslim League. The letter 'F' in its name stands for functional. It is primarily associated with the Sindhi religious leader Pir Pagara...

 
1
Jamhoori Watan Party
Jamhoori Watan Party
The Jamhoori Wattan Party is a political party in Balochistan, Pakistan. In legislative elections, held on 20 October 2002, the party won 0.3 % of the popular vote and 1 out of 272 elected members....

 
1
Pakistan Peoples Party (Sherpao)  1
Pakhtun-khwa Milli Awami Party
Pakhtun-khwa Milli Awami Party
Pukhtunkhwa Milli Awami Party / ) is a Pashtun democratic political party in Pakistan. The moto of PkMAP is to unite Pushtuns of Balochistan, Sindh, Punjab and Khyber Pukhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan.Mahmood Khan Achakzai is the current party chairman...

 
1
Total 100

See also

  • Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan
    Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan
    The current Chairman of the Senate of Pakistan is Farooq Naek since 12 March, 2009.The first Chairman of the Senate was Justice Khan Habibullah Khan Marwat.-History:...

  • National Assembly of Pakistan
    National Assembly of Pakistan
    The National Assembly of Pakistan is the lower house of the bicameral Majlis-e-Shura, which also compromises the President of Pakistan and Senate . The National Assembly and the Senate both convene at Parliament House in Islamabad...

  • Pakistan Bar Council
    Pakistan Bar Council
    Pakistan Bar Council was established by the Parliament in 1973 under the Legal Practitioners and Bar Councils Act. It is the highest elected body of lawyers. it has twenty members elected throughout the country representing each province. The Members of the Pakistan Bar Council are elected on the...

  • Punjab Assembly
    Provincial Assembly of the Punjab
    The Provincial Assembly of the Punjab is a unicameral legislature of elected representatives of the province of Punjab, which is located in Lahore in eastern Pakistan...

  • Punjab Bar Council
    Punjab Bar Council
    The Punjab Bar Council is a supreme statutory & Deliberative assembly of lawyers in Punjab for safeguarding the rights, interests and privileges of practicing lawyers, regulating their conduct and helping in the administration of justice and it is also 1st biggest Bar Council of Pakistan...

  • List of Senators of Pakistan

External links