refers to a community of people who had their original homes in Gujarat
and presently settled almost in all major Towns of Tamil Nadu and are concentrated more in Madurai which is considered as their cultural Headquarters.They have also settled in Bangalore Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...
,in Tirupati Andhra Pradesh
Andhra Pradesh , is one of the 28 states of India, situated on the southeastern coast of India. It is India's fourth largest state by area and fifth largest by population. Its capital and largest city by population is Hyderabad.The total GDP of Andhra Pradesh is $100 billion and is ranked third...
. Some families are settled in Mumbai, New Delhi etc. places for employment purpose. Some have settled in foreign countries like USA, UK, Dubai, Singapore etc.
The origin of the name date backs to the time when the ancestors of theses people inhabited the kingdom of Saurashtra in Gujarat State.
The Tamil name by which these people is known in Southern India is Patnūlkarar
Patnūlkaras are a Hindu community of weavers from the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. They are generally of Gujarati origin.- History :The word Patnūlkaran means "silk-thread people". These people are first mentioned as Pattavayaka, the Sanskrit equivalent of Patnulkaran in the Mandasor inscriptions of...
, that is silk-thread workers or weavers who speak "Pattunuli" or "Khatri", a dialect of Gujarati.
The details about Sourashtra community is discussed by A.J. Saunders.
Sourashtra, also known as Palkar. Sowrashtra, Saurashtram, is an Indo-Aryan language derived from Sauraseni Prakrit.The Ethnologue
Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International , a Christian linguistic service organization, which studies lesser-known languages, to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language and support their efforts in language development.The Ethnologue...
puts the number of speakers at 510,000 (1997 IMA), although the actual number could be double this figure or even more.
"Equivalent of Saurashtra in the Linguistic Survey has been recorded as Saurashtri which is yet another name of Patnuli dialect of Gujarati spoken by the silk weaving community of Madurai who are considered to have migrated from Gujarat to the south several centuries ago. On the basis of current preference for the name of their mother tongue, we have, however, adopted the name ‘Saurashtra’ and not Saurashtri. On account of several generations of association in the Dravidian Language area, the speech is supposed to have been strongly affected by Dravidian traits. We preferred to call that dialect of Gujarati with such traits as Saurashtra. …
Regarding Saurashtra, however, some interest has been shown, of late, on the technical aspects of this variety while the inclination to affiliate it with Marathi is also visible among some scholars.
In any case, some authoritative work on this variety of language remains to be done.
Pending the same, however, we have to keep it under Gujarati according to the Linguistic Survey." vide Census of India 1961 Vol.I INDIA Part II –C (ii) Language Tables, Published by the Manager of Publications, Civil Lines, Delhi, pp. CCXLIV + 554, (1967).
Oral tradition says that they have migrated on the fall of 'Somanath Temple' when Gazni Mohammed invaded and plundered Hindu Temples. It is said they lived for about two centuries in Devagiri and later moved to Vijayanagar Empire at the invitation of the Kings. They manufactured fine silk garments for the use of Kings and their families and were engaged in Silk trade.
When Nayak Kings started to rule Madurai, they were invited by the Madurai Nayak Kings and were given accommodation around Thirumalai Nayak Palace, Madurai, where even now there are many Sourashtra families living. The migration might have taken place in various groups at different times and they settled in many places in Tamil Nadu. Later Hyder Ali invited some families from Thanjavur to settle in Srirangapattanam in Karnataka. Those people are now in Bangalore after the fall of Srirangapattanam and they are called as 'Jamkhaanadavaru'. Similarly some families went to Andhra and settled in Tirupati. Because of lack of frequent communications, there are so many dialect variations in this Language. The majority of people (a sizeable number) are settled in Madurai.Other major Towns of their settlement are Ambur, Ammapettai, Ammaiyappan, Arani, Arantangi, Ariyalur, Ayyampettai, Banglore, Bhuvanagiri, Chennai,Chamarajanagara,Dindigul, Darasuram, Kanchipuram,Kanya kumari,Kottar,Kumbakonam,Kurinjipadi,Madras (Chennai),Melamangalam,Mysore, Namakkal, Nilakottai, Palani, Palayamkottai,Paramkudi,Parampur,Parmathi,Pasikkadai, Periyakulam,Pondicherry,Pudukottai,Pudukudi, Ramanathapuram,Rasipuram,Salem,Shevvapet,Thanjavur, Tiruchi,Tiruvappur,Tirubhuvanam,Tuvarankurichi,Uraiyur, Vathalakundu.Vellankuzh,Vellore, Viravanallur, Walajapettai,Yamaneswaram etc.
In history they are referred to as Patkar, Pattegar, Patvekar and Patnulkarar. In Tamil the weaving community is referred to as ‘Kaikkolar’.
In Tamil Nadu State they are called Sourashtra (Patnulkarar) or merely Palkar. Edgar Thurston refers this Community as Pattunulkaran. The details about Sourashtra community are discussed by A.J. Saunders .
A History of the Sourashtras in Southern India by the Sourashtra Literary Societies of Madura and Madras was published on 17 January 1891 under the Chairmanship of Sri T.M.Ramaswamaiyo, the Secretary being Sri K.V.Subbaiyo. In that book, it is stated that the following books were consulted:
Dr.Balfour Encyclopedia of India, Ramesh Chander Dutt's Ancient India, Alexander Cunnigham's Ancient Geography of India, Tod's Rajasthan, Professor Lassen on Prakrita Languages, Bombay Gazeteer, Researches of the Asiatic Society, A Grammar of the Gondian Languages.
The Ethnologue puts the number of speakers at 310,000 (1997 IMA), although the actual number could be double tor even three times this figure or even more because many people wrongly stated their mother tongue as Tamil in census enumeration as it is not taught in school and it remained mainly a spoken language, though Literature are available in Sourashtra, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Roman and Devanagari Scripts. Now Journals in Sourashtra script are published, such as Bhashabhimani, Zeek, Jaabaali, and Sourashtra Mithran.
Sourashtram is classified under Indo-European Family – Aryan Sub Family -Indo-Aryan Branch – Inner Sub Branch Central Group-and pending some authoritative work, is tentatively grouped under Gujarati according to Linguistic Survey of India. vide Census of India 1961 Volume I INDIA Part II-C (ii) Language Tables p.ccxvii,published by The Manager of Publications, Civil Lines, Delhi, 1967.
"Saurāshtra is, through and through, an Indo-Aryan language.
Sourāshtran publications are sufficient proof that it is an adequate medium for literary
expression" vide The Saurashtrans of South India, By Dr.H.N.Randle, Plate VIII, published in the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, London October, 1944.
"sou" in Hindi means 100 and "rashtra" refers to region so in general sourashtra refers to a province of 100 regions. Another meaning for Sourashtram is WEALTHY KINGDOM. That is why
Mohamed Gazni invaded Saurashtra and looted Somanath Temple and carried away the treasures.
"Sourashtra Brahamanargal Sarithiram" is a well renowned book in tamil which descirbes about their ancestery, how they descended south during ghazini's invasion. Mostly they are categorized as Brahmins and when there was argument between them and tamil brahmins during "Upakarma" at vaigai river, madurai, they were arrested and presented in nayakkar's court. Local Brahmins claimed that Sourashtra people were doing same kind of rituals as Brahmins and they want to understand how ritual they were. Thirumalai Nayakar ordered a debate to test their knowledge on Vedas and Upanishads. Without any doubt, Sourashtra Brahmins were able to answer all questions with rich explanations and Nayakar ordered a "Pattayam" stating that Sourashtras are considered as Brahmins and they have right to use Iyers and Iyengars surname. This "Pattayam" is still found evident in Sourashtra Club, Madurai.
The speakers of the Saurashtra language, known as Saurashtrians, maintain a predominant presence in Madurai
Madurai is the third largest city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world. It served as the capital city of the Pandyan Kingdom. It is the administrative headquarters of Madurai District and is famous for its temples built by Pandyan and...
, a city, also known as 'Temple City' in the southern part of Tamil Nadu. Though official figures are hard to come by, it is believed that the Saurashtra population is anywhere between one-fifth and one-fourth of the city's total population.
Also Saurashtrians, maintain a predominant presence throughout the Tamilnadu Starting from Salem
, a city, To be believed to have derived its name from the Tamil word Selai(Sari) (a traditional Dress worn by Women) because of the Saurashtrians weavers used to weave Silk sarees (Pattu Selai). Still many of the Saurashtrians residing in main land Salem (Areas including Ponnamapet, Ammapet) Used to weave Silk Dhoties. They also present in the Districts of Namakkal, Dindigul, Vellore.
It is not known how many groups migrated from North India to South India. But because of absence of contact among the groups for a long time, dialect variations have emerged based on the place of their settlement.
The alternate name of Sourashtra is PALKAR which term is used colloquially among themselves.
But all Associations are named as Sourashtra Sabha/Association only.
Though there is little historical evidence available to support the argument that the Saurashtrians lived in the Saurashtra region of Gujarat
in Western India, folklore, and recent linguistic and genetic researches have been able to establish, that this region was indeed once the habitat of the Saurashtrians. However, their language has more similarities with Marathi
Marathi is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Marathi people of western and central India. It is the official language of the state of Maharashtra. There are over 68 million fluent speakers worldwide. Marathi has the fourth largest number of native speakers in India and is the fifteenth most...
KonkaniKonkani is a name given to a group of several cognate dialects spoken along the narrow strip of land called Konkan, on the west coast of India. This is, however, somewhat an over-generalisation. Geographically, Konkan is defined roughly as the area between the river Damanganga to the north...
, both Indo-Aryan languages of Western India, than it does with Modern Gujarati, the language of present-day Gujarat. Linguists have been able to explain why it is so: Both Saurashtra and Gujarati branched off from a common parent, and have since taken completely different paths to modernity. Gujarati came under the influence of Hindi, Persian, and Arabic, whereas Saurashtra, taking off from Gujarat before it had made any Muslim contact, was influenced by Marathi, Konkani, Kannada
Kannada or , is a language spoken in India predominantly in the state of Karnataka. Kannada, whose native speakers are called Kannadigas and number roughly 50 million, is one of the 30 most spoken languages in the world...
Telugu is a Central Dravidian language primarily spoken in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India, where it is an official language. It is also spoken in the neighbouring states of Chattisgarh, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Orissa and Tamil Nadu...
, and finally, Tamil
Tamil is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamil people of the Indian subcontinent. It has official status in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and in the Indian union territory of Pondicherry. Tamil is also an official language of Sri Lanka and Singapore...
. It has been acknowledged that Persian and Arabic have had only limited influence on Marathi and Konkani, and this is why they still retain a good amount of vocabulary and grammar derived from Sanskrit
Sanskrit , is a historical Indo-Aryan language and the primary liturgical language of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism.Buddhism: besides Pali, see Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Today, it is listed as one of the 22 scheduled languages of India and is an official language of the state of Uttarakhand...
, as compared to other daughter languages of Sanskrit. It is possible that the vocabulary and grammar shared between Modern Saurashtra and Marathi is what was originally derived from Sanskrit.
The southward flight of the Saurashtrians seems to have been triggered by the frequent Muslim invasions, most notably by Mahmud of Ghazni
Mahmud of Ghazni , actually ', was the most prominent ruler of the Ghaznavid dynasty who ruled from 997 until his death in 1030 in the eastern Iranian lands. Mahmud turned the former provincial city of Ghazni into the wealthy capital of an extensive empire which covered most of today's Iran,...
, of their homeland and the instability caused by it. No details are available whether it was a mass migration and when it took place. They found safe haven in the Vijayanagar
The Vijayanagara Empire , referred as the Kingdom of Bisnaga by the Portuguese, was an empire based in South Indian in the Deccan Plateau region. It was established in 1336 by Harihara I and his brother Bukka Raya I of the Yadava lineage. The empire rose to prominence as a culmination of attempts...
Kingdom, with its capital at Hampi in present-day Karnataka
Karnataka , the land of the Kannadigas, is a state in South West India. It was created on 1 November 1956, with the passing of the States Reorganisation Act and this day is annually celebrated as Karnataka Rajyotsava...
, which was then expanding southwards. Weaving being their traditional occupation, they were able to win the attention of the Emperor and were soon elevated to the position of royal weavers. Telugu and Kannada were the court languages, though other languages such as Sanskrit and Tamil were also in use. It was during this period that Saurashtra started absorbing Telugu and Kannada words into its lexicon.
Vijayanagar rulers had the practice of appointing Governors, known as Nayaks, to manage far-flung regions of the empire. When Madurai and Thanjavur were annexed to the empire, Governors were appointed to administer the new territories. A part of the Saurashtra community may have moved to Madurai and Thanjavur at the time to serve the Governors.
The Vijayanagar empire collapsed after more than two centuries of rule, in 1565, after the Sultans of Deccan Confederacy won the battle of Talikota, thus opening up southern India for Muslim conquest. Soon afterwards, the Governors of Madurai and Thanjavur declared themselves the new rulers of the respective territories.
The Saurashtrians had to migrate again since they no longer enjoyed the royal patronage they were used to, and so, once again, were on the move. As there were Saurashtrians already present in Madurai and Thanjavur, it was only natural that they migrated further south to join their folks living there. The language would undergo one last alteration, this time influenced by Tamil, to bring it to its modern form. To this day, Saurashtrians are densely populated around the Royal Palace of Thirumalai Nayak, the greatest of the Nayak Rulers that ruled Madurai. There are good number of people staying in Mumbai(Maharashtra) in a place called Cheeta Camp and also in other parts of the city, but they all migrated from Salem etc. places within a period of a century.
It is important to note that the Marathi-speaking community in Thanjavur should not be mistaken for Saurashtrians. The Marathi community arrived in Thanjavur during King Serfoji's reign and they are culturally and linguistically distinct from Saurashtrians.
The greatest of the Nayak Rulers had great liking for silk wears and as the Saurashtrians were specialists in the weaving trade, they were invited by the King for weaving special silk clothings for the palace dwellers and that is how they settled around the palace of Thirumalai Nayak.
Sourashtra Vijayaaptham denotes the era of Sourashtra Migration.
It commences from Tamil Calendar Chitrai 1st.
It is derived from subtracting 1312 from the Gregorian Calendar year.
It is 697 from 14 April 2009 to 13 April 2010.
It is not known how the Era started. But currently it is stated in the Almanac Panchangam
A panchāngam is a Hindu astrological almanac, which follows traditional Indian cosmology, and presents important astronomical data in tabulated form. It is sometimes spelled Pancanga, Panchanga, Panchaanga, or Panchānga, and is pronounced Panchānga...
and people are using it.
The language has had its own script for centuries,the earliest one available from 1880.
Dr. H.N. Randle has written an article 'An Indo-Aryan Language of South India—Saurashtra Bhasha' in the Bulletin of School of Oriental and African Studies (BSOAS) 11 Part 1 p. 104-121 and Part II p. 310-327 (1943–46)Published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of School of Oriental and African Studies.
This language is not taught in schools and hence had been confined to being merely a spoken language. But many great works like Bhagavath Gita and Tirukkural were translated into Sourashtram. It is now a literary language. Sahitya Akademi has recognized this language by conferring Bhasha Samman awards to Sourashtra Scholars.
Most Saurashtrians are bilingual in their mother tongue and Tamil and are more comfortable using their second language for all practical written communication though of late, some of them started writing in Sourashtram using Sourashtra script.
There is an ongoing debate within the Saurashtra community regarding the use of the script for the Sourashtra language right from 1920 when a resolution was passed to adopt Devanagari Script for Sourashtra Language.
Though some of the books were printed in Devanagari script, it failed to register the growth of the language.
But in practice because of lack of printing facilities, books are continued to be printed in Tamil Script with diacritic marks with superscript number for the consonants ka, ca, Ta, ta and pa and adding a colon to na, ma, ra, and la for aspirated forms, which are peculiar to the Sourashtra language.
For writing Sourashtram using Devanagari Script, we require seven additional symbols to denote the short vowels 'e' and 'o' and four symbols for aspirated forms viz. nha, mha, rha and lha. We also require one more symbol to mark the sound of 'half yakara' which is peculiar to the Sourashtra language.
The books printed in Devanagari Script were discarded because they did not represent the sounds properly.
The Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities, Allahabad by his letter No.123/5/1/62/1559 dated November 21, 1964 Communicated to Sourashtra Vidya Peetam, Madurai that the State Government were of the view that as only one book in Sourashtra Language had so far been submitted by Sourashtra Vidya Peetam for scrutiny, there was no point in examining the merits of only one book specially when the question regarding the usage of script - Hindi or Sourashtram, was still unsettled, and that the question of text books in Sourashtram might well lie over till a large number of books is available for scrutiny and for being prescribed as text books in Schools.
The Leaders in the Community could not realize the importance of teaching of mother tongue in schools and did not evince interest in production of textbooks in Sourashtram for class use.
Now an awareness has arisen in the Community, and Sourashtra Vidya Peetam wants to teach the Sourashtra language through multimedia as suggested by Commissioner for Linguistic Minorities in his 42nd Report for the year (July 2003 to June 2004).
Of late in internet, many Sourashtra Yahoo groups in their website use the Roman script for the Sourashtra language.
Now the Sourashtra font is available in computers and this enabled the supporters of Sourashtra Script to print books in its own script. An electronic journal, printed in the Sourashtra Script, VISHWA SOURASHTRAM has been started http://sourashtra.info Another website http://palkarblogs.com is available for practicing the Sourashtra Script.
One journal, Bhashabhimani, is published from Madurai, in Sourashtra Script. Another journal, 'Jaabaali', is also published by the same Editor of Bhashabhimani from Madurai. The 'Zeeg' Sourashtra script practice Magazine is also published from Madurai only. All the three journals support the Sourashtra
script only. There is no journal in Devanagari.
Sourashtra Alphabets with equivalents of Tamil and Devanagari.
ꢂஅअ ꢃஆआ ꢄஇइ ꢅஈई ꢆஉउ ꢇஊऊ
ꢈர்ருररु ꢉர்ரூररू ꢊல்லுल्लु ꢋல்லூल्लू ꢌஎऎ ꢍஏए
ꢎஐऐ ꢏஒऒ ꢐஓओ ꢑஔऔ ꢂꢀஅம்अं ꢂꢁஅஹअ:꣎
ꢒகक ꢓக2ख ꢔக3ग ꢕக4घ ꢖஙङ
ꢗசच ꢘச2छ ꢙஜज ꢚஜ2झ ꢛஞञ
ꢜடट ꢝட2ठ ꢞட3ड ꢟட4ढ ꢠணण
ꢡதत ꢢத2थ ꢣத3द ꢤத4ध ꢥநन(ன)
ꢦபप ꢧப2फ ꢨப3ब ꢩப4भ ꢪமम
ꢫயय ꢬரर ꢭலल ꢮவव ꢯஸ்யश
ꢰஷष ꢱஸस ꢲஹह ꢳளळ *க்ஷक्ष
ꢥꢴந:न्ह ꢪꢴம:म्ह ꢬꢴர:र्ह ꢭꢴல:ल्ह
Consonants +vowel markers
ꢒகक ꢒꢵகாका ꢒꢶகிकि ꢒꢷகீकी ꢒꢸகுकु ꢒꢹகூकू
ꢒꢺக்ருक्रु ꢒꢻக்ரூक्रू ꢒꢼக்லுक्लु ꢒꢼꢵக்லூक्लू
ꢒꢾகெकॅ ꢒꢿகேके ꢒꣀகைकै ꢒꣁகொकॊ ꢒꣂகோको
ꢒꣃகௌकौ ꢒꢀகம்कं ꢒꢁகஹक: ꢒ꣄க்क्
From 1880 onwards, printed books in Sourashtra Script are available. Medhavi Sri T.M.Rama Rai printed many books in the script during 1899-1905.
On seeing his book 'First Catechism of Sourashtra Grammar' which was printed entirely in Sourashtra Script, Dr.H.N.Randle, Librarian, India Office, White Hall, London S.W.1 wrote an article 'The Saurashtrans of South India' in 'The Journal Royal Asiatic Society, London' (October 1944.) With the kind permission of the Editors of the B.S.O.A.S and J.R.A.S., Sourashtra Viprabandhu Sri K.V.Padmanabha Iyer, Madurai published it in a book form in 1949 (Sourashtra Vijayabdham 637).
Slangs used in various Localities
| Place Used
|| English Equalient
|| Sourastra Word
|| Nearest phonetic Equalient
|| Read / Study
|| Chaduvu (Telugu)
|| Aavo (Hindi)
|| "Rasam" (Thor Dhal Juice)
|| Thor Ambti
|| "Rasam" (Thor Dhal Juice)
|| Dhaal Ambti
- Renowned Tamil Films Playback Singer: T. M. Soundararajan (Thoguluva Meenakshi Iyengar, Soundararajan)
- Tamil actress: "Venniraadai" Nirmala
- Tamil singer: A. L. Raghavan.
- Tamil actress: Seetha
- Tamil actress: M. N. Rajam
- Tamil actress: Kanaga (Daughter of Devika, a Telugu actress and father hails from Sourashtra Community)
- Tamil actor: P. V. Narasimha Bharathi
- Tamil actor: T.K.Ramachandran [Tiruchy Krishnan Ramachandran(Perform his acting in Parasakthi,Vanghikottai valiban and more)]
- Kuduva. K.L.N.Krishnan, madurai
- kuduva." Athama Gnani " K.L.N.Janakiram
- Chinna Konda. C.S.Ramachary [CSR ]Founder of Seethalakshmi Mills,madurai
Great Composers and Singers
- Sugantha dhoopa thirth
- VenkataRama Bhagavatar (Direct Shishya and Descendant of great sangeetha kirthana composer Thiagarajar Swamigal)
- Poornagiri Siri Sri Subramania Swami (Shisya of Ramana Maharishi)
Kali kala Sarvagna Hemchandracharya made extraordinary contribution for a long spell of seven decades to varied fields like poetry and grammar, history and puran, yoga and spiritual knowledge, lexicon and poetics, renunciation and penance, self-restraint and self-discipline and the state welfare and popular welfare. During the last 1000 years, there is no other personality that can match his saintliness and literary output.
- Narasimha Mehta @ Narsi Mehta
Considered to be the foremost poet-saint of Gujarat, Narsi Mehta’s (A.D. 1414-1480) songs (padas) are full of devotion of Lord Krsna. They describe in a most vivid and passionate manner the early life of Krsna, his love-play with the Gopis of Gokula and the basic philosophy of early bhakti cult. Narsi Mehta’s style is both simple and moving, and consequently the impact of his songs can still be felt in the villages of Saurashtra (Gujarat) where they have become part of the folk tradition.
“Besides being a poet, devotee and saint, Narsi Mehta was also a social reformer. Though born as an orthodox Nagar Brahmin, he was one of the strongest critics of the caste system and its evils. His naturally sensitive and loving nature revolted against the treatment of untouchables by his castemen. Narsi knew no caste distinctions; he looked upon all human beings as the children of Hari (Harijana).
”A hundred songs, representative of Narsi Mehta’s philosophy, social message and the portrayal of love-play between Radha and Krsna (Radha-Krsna lila) are for the first time translated into simple and direct English verse.”
Based on his literature work, Modern Gujarati language born from old dialects of Sourashtra.
Sursinhji Takthasinhji Gohel – A Renowned Gujarati Poet known as Kavi Kalapi, needs no introduction.
He was a King of Lathi-Gohilwad-Saurashtra- Gujarat and is alive in people’s heart as Kavi Kalapi.
Kavi Kalapi lived a short but memorable and valued life – Born on 26-01-1874, left the world on
09-06-1900 i.e. a life of 26 years, 5 months and 11 days.
Poet Kalapi’s life was short but his creation was immense and enormous. He penned down 259 poems including 15,000 verses in such a short span of life. Besides, he has also given us varied number of Prose’s. His 900 letters to his friends, and wives brings in front of us the facts and truth. He not only used Gujarati language as his medium to elaborate his own creation but also translated two great English Novels in Gujarati. More then 500 books in Gujarati, English, Farsi & Sanskrit were widely read by this great poet. All of this creation, reading, study and achievements were packed by him during the period of his age from 16 years to 26 years. i.e. in just a span of 10 years
Each of the traditional Saurashtrian settlements has its own dialect. Since there is not a central linguistic body governing the rules, and establishing what is standard and what is not, each dialect speaker considers his own the standard form.
Because people were not used to write their language, proper study of the dialect variations
were not undertaken.
Recently only an awareness has arisen and people are slowly practicing written Sourashtram.
Dictionaries have been compiled, but dialect variations are not properly noted.
One Saurashtra-English Dictionary by Uchida Norihiko is available. Saurashtra-Tamil-English Dictionary one by K.R.Sethuraman (in Tamil Script) and another by T.V.Kubendran (in Sourashtra, Tamil and Roman script) are available.
English-Saurashtra Dictionary is being compiled.
Sourashtra Vidya Peetam
Sourashtra Vidya Peetam is the oldest body which is working for the cause of the language by preserving the Script and the old literature. The earliest Sourashtra Book printed in Sourashtra Script available now is SOURASHTRANADHI by Pandit Lakshmanachariyar (1880).
T.M.Rama Rai is the doyen of the development of Sourashtra Script and Literature.He published many books in Sourashtra Script and wrote Grammar and Text books in Sourashtram.
A website is available to practice writing in Sourashtram. Visit http://www.palkarblogs.com
An E-Journal by name VISHWA SOURASHTRAM
was released on 28 May 2009. Visit http://www.sourashtra.info
First Sourashtra Language and Literacy Awareness Conference was held in Dindigul, Tamil Nadu, India on 31 May 2009. The photos taken in the Conference can be viewed by visiting the following link
Folk Music of Saurashtra
Those who want to study and do research on Sourashtra Language can go through the following books.
1. Pandit Lakshmanachariyar, Sourashtranadhi, Published by the Author, pp. 1–32 (1880).
2. Rama Rai, T.M., Sourashtra Niti Sambhu, Published by the Author, pp. 1–48, (1900)
3. Rama Rai, T.M., Sourashtra Primer, Published by the Author, pp. 1–47, (1899)
4. Rama Rai, T.M., Sourashtra Second Book, Published by the Author, pp 1–84, (1903).
5. Rama Rai, T.M., First Catechism of Sourashtra Grammar, Published by: the Author, pp. 1–48, (1905).
6. Rama Rai, T.M., Sourashtra Nandi Nighantu, Published by the Author, pp. 1–32, (1908).
7. Venkatachala Sarma, T.S., Sandhyavandana Bodhini, Published by Sourashtra Vidhya Bodhana Sala, Madura. pp. 1–19, (1915).
8. Rengayyar, N.A.S., Sourashtra Sulu Kriya Vallari, Published by the Author, pp. 1–10, (1916).
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