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Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario

Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario

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Sault Ste. Marie is a city on the St. Marys River
St. Marys River (Michigan-Ontario)
The St. Marys River , sometimes written as the St. Mary's River, drains Lake Superior, starting at the end of Whitefish Bay and flowing 74.5 miles southeast into Lake Huron, with a fall of ....

 in Algoma District, Ontario
Ontario
Ontario is a province of Canada, located in east-central Canada. It is Canada's most populous province and second largest in total area. It is home to the nation's most populous city, Toronto, and the nation's capital, Ottawa....

, Canada
Canada
Canada is a North American country consisting of ten provinces and three territories. Located in the northern part of the continent, it extends from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west, and northward into the Arctic Ocean...

. It is the third largest city in Northern Ontario
Northern Ontario
Northern Ontario is a region of the Canadian province of Ontario which lies north of Lake Huron , the French River and Lake Nipissing. The region has a land area of 802,000 km2 and constitutes 87% of the land area of Ontario, although it contains only about 6% of the population...

, after Sudbury and Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
-In Canada:Thunder Bay is the name of three places in the province of Ontario, Canada along Lake Superior:*Thunder Bay District, Ontario, a district in Northwestern Ontario*Thunder Bay, a city in Thunder Bay District*Thunder Bay, Unorganized, Ontario...

, with a population of 74,948. The community was founded as a French religious mission: Sault either means "jump" or "rapids" in French, and thus the entire name translates to "Saint Mary's Rapids" or "jump Saint Mary's". Although the word sault is pronounced like "so" in French, anglophone residents pronounce it as "soo". Residents of the city are called Saultites. With a mission established by French Jesuits in 1668, claiming of the area by Simon-François Daumont de Saint-Lusson
Simon-François Daumont de Saint-Lusson
Simon-François Daumont de Saint-Lusson was a military officer of New France and deputy of Jean Talon. Saint-Lusson was sent to Sault Ste...

, in the name of Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV of France
Louis XIV , known as Louis the Great or the Sun King , was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and Navarre. His reign, from 1643 to his death in 1715, began at the age of four and lasted seventy-two years, three months, and eighteen days...

, and fur trading posts soon after, this was one of the oldest European settlements in Canada.

Sault Ste. Marie is bordered to the east by the Rankin
Rankin Location 15D, Ontario
Rankin Location 15D is a First Nations reserve in Algoma District in northeastern Ontario, Canada. It is bounded on the north, west and south by the city of Sault Ste. Marie, and on the east by Garden River First Nations reserve. It is one of the reserve locations for the Batchawana First...

 and Garden River First Nation reserves, and to the west by Prince Township
Prince, Ontario
Prince is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario, located within the Algoma District northwest of Sault Ste. Marie. Although the township is not part of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, some municipal services are contracted to the city....

. To the north, the city is bordered by an unincorporated portion of Algoma District
Algoma, Unorganized, North Part, Ontario
Algoma Unorganized North Part is an unorganized area in northeastern Ontario, Canada, comprising all areas in Algoma District, north of the Sault Ste. Marie to Elliot Lake corridor, which are not part of an incorporated municipality or a First Nation...

, which includes the local services boards of Aweres
Aweres, Ontario
Aweres is a local services board in the Canadian province of Ontario. Located in the Algoma District, it encompasses and provides services to most of the geographic township of Aweres, including the communities of Island Lake and Heyden....

, Batchawana Bay
Batchawana Bay, Ontario
Batchawana Bay is a community with a local services board in the Canadian province of Ontario, consisting of parts of the unincorporated townships of Ryan, Herrick, Tilley and Fisher in the Algoma District. It is located north of Sault Ste...

, Goulais and District
Goulais and District, Ontario
Goulais and District is a local services board in the Canadian province of Ontario. Located in the Algoma District north of Sault Ste. Marie, it encompasses and provides services to the unincorporated townships of Dennis, Fenwick, Havilland, Kars, Ley, Pennefather, Tupper and Vankoughnet, including...

, Peace Tree
Peace Tree, Ontario
Peace Tree is a local services board in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Algoma District.The area administers the portion of the geographic township of Aweres located northwest of Heyden along the Trans-Canada Highway, including the suburban subdivision centred on Peace Tree Drive....

 and Searchmont
Searchmont, Ontario
Searchmont is a community with a local services board in the Canadian province of Ontario. The services board covers the unincorporated townships of Deroche, Gaudette, Hodgins and Shields in the Algoma District northeast of Sault Ste. Marie...

.

To the south, across the river, is the United States
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 and the city of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Sault Ste. Marie is a city in and the county seat of Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is in the north-eastern end of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, on the Canadian border, separated from its twin city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, by the St. Marys River...

. The two cities are joined by the International Bridge
Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge
The Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge, often known just as the International Bridge, spans the St. Marys River between the United States and Canada connecting the twin cities of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. It serves as the northern terminus of Interstate 75...

, which connects Interstate 75
Interstate 75
Interstate 75 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes and Southeastern regions of the United States. It travels from State Road 826 and State Road 924 in Hialeah, Florida to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, at the Ontario, Canada, border...

 on the Michigan side and Huron Street (and former Ontario Secondary Highway 550B) on the Ontario side. Shipping traffic in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
The Great Lakes are a collection of freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada – United States border. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total surface, coming in second by volume...

 system bypasses the Saint Mary's Rapids via the American Soo Locks
Soo Locks
The Soo Locks are a set of parallel locks which enable ships to travel between Lake Superior and the lower Great Lakes. They are located on the St. Marys River between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, between the Upper Peninsula of the US state of Michigan and the Canadian province of Ontario...

, the world's busiest canal in terms of tonnage that passes through it, while smaller recreational and tour boats use the Canadian Sault Ste. Marie Canal
Sault Ste. Marie Canal
The Sault Ste. Marie Canal is a National Historic Site of Canada in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. The canal is part of the shipping route from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Superior and includes a set of locks to bypass the rapids on the St. Marys River....

.

The city's census agglomeration, consisting of the townships of Laird
Laird, Ontario
Laird is a township and village in the Algoma District in Northern Ontario, Canada. The township had a population of 1,078 in the Canada 2006 Census.-Communities:The township includes the named communities of Laird and Neebish...

, Prince
Prince, Ontario
Prince is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario, located within the Algoma District northwest of Sault Ste. Marie. Although the township is not part of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, some municipal services are contracted to the city....

 and Macdonald, Meredith and Aberdeen Additional
Macdonald, Meredith and Aberdeen Additional, Ontario
Population trend:* Population in 2006: 1550* Population in 2001: 1452* Population in 1996: 1521* Population in 1991: 1548-External links:*...

 and the First Nations reserves
Indian reserve
In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a "tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band." The Act also specifies that land reserved for the use and benefit of a band which is not...

 of Garden River and Rankin
Rankin Location 15D, Ontario
Rankin Location 15D is a First Nations reserve in Algoma District in northeastern Ontario, Canada. It is bounded on the north, west and south by the city of Sault Ste. Marie, and on the east by Garden River First Nations reserve. It is one of the reserve locations for the Batchawana First...

, had a total population of 80,098 in 2006.

Sault Ste. Marie is the seat of the Algoma District.

History


This area was originally called Baawitigong, meaning "place of the rapids," by the Ojibwa
Ojibwa
The Ojibwe or Chippewa are among the largest groups of Native Americans–First Nations north of Mexico. They are divided between Canada and the United States. In Canada, they are the third-largest population among First Nations, surpassed only by Cree and Inuit...

, who used the site as a regional meeting place during whitefish
Freshwater whitefish
The freshwater whitefish are fish of the subfamily Coregoninae in the salmon family Salmonidae. Along with the freshwater whitefish, the Salmonidae includes the freshwater and anadromous trout and salmon species as well as graylings...

 season in the St. Mary's Rapids. (The anglicized
English language
English is a West Germanic language that arose in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of England and spread into what was to become south-east Scotland under the influence of the Anglian medieval kingdom of Northumbria...

 form of this name, Bawating, continues to be used in institutional and geographic names in the area.)

After the visit of Étienne Brûlé
Étienne Brûlé
Étienne Brûlé , was the first of European French explorers to journey along the St. Lawrence River with the Native Americans and to view Georgian Bay and Lake Huron Canada in the 17th century. A rugged outdoorsman, he took to the lifestyle of the First Nations and had a unique contribution to the...

 in 1623, the French
France
The French Republic , The French Republic , The French Republic , (commonly known as France , is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands located on other continents and in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans. Metropolitan France...

 called it "Sault de Gaston" in honour of Gaston, Duke of Orléans
Gaston, Duke of Orléans
Gaston of France, , also known as Gaston d'Orléans, was the third son of King Henry IV of France and his wife Marie de Medici. As a son of the king, he was born a Fils de France. He later acquired the title Duke of Orléans, by which he was generally known during his adulthood...

, the brother of King Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII of France
Louis XIII was a Bourbon monarch who ruled as King of France and of Navarre from 1610 to 1643.Louis was only eight years old when he succeeded his father. His mother, Marie de Medici, acted as regent during Louis' minority...

. In 1668, French Jesuit
Society of Jesus
The Society of Jesus is a Catholic male religious order that follows the teachings of the Catholic Church. The members are called Jesuits, and are also known colloquially as "God's Army" and as "The Company," these being references to founder Ignatius of Loyola's military background and a...

 missionaries renamed it Sault Sainte Marie, and established a settlement (present-day Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Sault Ste. Marie is a city in and the county seat of Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is in the north-eastern end of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, on the Canadian border, separated from its twin city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, by the St. Marys River...

) on the river's south bank. Both sides of the rapids became settlement related to a fur trading
Fur trade
The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur. Since the establishment of world market for in the early modern period furs of boreal, polar and cold temperate mammalian animals have been the most valued...

 post, and the area became one of the oldest European settlements in Ontario. It was at the crossroads of the 3,000-mile fur trade route, which stretched from Montreal
Montreal
Montreal is a city in Canada. It is the largest city in the province of Quebec, the second-largest city in Canada and the seventh largest in North America...

 to Sault Ste. Marie and to the North country above Lake Superior. A mixed population of Europeans, Native Americans and First Nations peoples, and Métis lived at the village spanning the river.

The city name originates from Saults de Sainte-Marie, archaic French for "Saint Mary's Falls", a reference to the rapid
Rapid
A rapid is a section of a river where the river bed has a relatively steep gradient causing an increase in water velocity and turbulence. A rapid is a hydrological feature between a run and a cascade. A rapid is characterised by the river becoming shallower and having some rocks exposed above the...

s of Saint Marys River. Etymologically, the word sault comes from an archaic spelling of saut (from sauter), which translates most accurately in this usage to the English word, cataract. This in turn derives from the French
French language
French is a Romance language spoken as a first language in France, the Romandy region in Switzerland, Wallonia and Brussels in Belgium, Monaco, the regions of Quebec and Acadia in Canada, and by various communities elsewhere. Second-language speakers of French are distributed throughout many parts...

 word for "leap" or "jump" (similar to somersault
Somersault
A somersault is an acrobatic exercise in which a person does a full 360° flip, moving the feet over the head. A somersault can be performed either forwards, backwards, or sideways and can be executed in the air or on the ground...

). Citations dating back to 1600 use the sault spelling to mean a cataract, waterfall or rapids. In modern French, however, the words chutes or rapides are more usual, and sault survives almost exclusively in geographic names dating from the 17th century. (See also Long Sault, Ontario, Sault St. Louis, Quebec, and Grand Falls/Grand-Sault, New Brunswick
Grand Falls, New Brunswick
Grand Falls is a Canadian town located in Victoria County, New Brunswick.Situated on the Saint John River, the town derives its name from a waterfall created by a series of rock ledges over which the river drops 23 metres.-Geography:Grand Falls is located in the valley of the St...

, three other place names where "sault" also carries this meaning.)

Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario was incorporated as a town in 1887 and a city in 1912. The town gained brief international notoriety in 1911 in the case of Angelina Napolitano
Angelina Napolitano
Angelina Napolitano or Angelina Neapolitano was an immigrant to Canada who murdered her abusive husband in 1911, igniting a public debate about domestic violence and the death penalty. She was the first woman in Canada to use the battered woman defence on a murder charge...

, the first person in Canada to use the battered woman defence
Battered woman defence
The battered woman defense is a defense used in court that the person accused of an assault / murder was suffering from battered person syndrome at the material time. Because the defense is most commonly used by women, it is usually characterised in court as battered woman syndrome or battered wife...

 for murder.

During World War II
World War II
World War II, or the Second World War , was a global conflict lasting from 1939 to 1945, involving most of the world's nations—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis...

, and particularly after the US
United States
The United States of America is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district...

 was attacked at Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor, known to Hawaiians as Puuloa, is a lagoon harbor on the island of Oahu, Hawaii, west of Honolulu. Much of the harbor and surrounding lands is a United States Navy deep-water naval base. It is also the headquarters of the U.S. Pacific Fleet...

 in 1941, concern turned to the locks and shipping channel at Sault Ste. Marie. A substantial military presence was established to protect the locks from a possible attack by Nazi German
Nazi Germany
Nazi Germany , also known as the Third Reich , but officially called German Reich from 1933 to 1943 and Greater German Reich from 26 June 1943 onward, is the name commonly used to refer to the state of Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a totalitarian dictatorship ruled by...

 aircraft from the north. The new development of long-range bombers created fears of a sudden air raid. Military strategists studied polar projection maps which indicate that the air distance from occupied Norway
Norway
Norway , officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic unitary constitutional monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, Jan Mayen, and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard and Bouvet Island. Norway has a total area of and a population of about 4.9 million...

 to the town was about the same as the distance from Norway to New York. That direct route of about 3000 miles is over terrain where there were few observers and long winter nights.

A joint Canadian and US committee called the "Permanent Joint Board on Defence" drove the installation of anti-aircraft defence and associated units of the United States Army Air Forces
United States Army Air Forces
The United States Army Air Forces was the military aviation arm of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II, and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force....

 and Royal Canadian Air Force
Royal Canadian Air Force
The history of the Royal Canadian Air Force begins in 1920, when the air force was created as the Canadian Air Force . In 1924 the CAF was renamed the Royal Canadian Air Force and granted royal sanction by King George V. The RCAF existed as an independent service until 1968...

 to defend the locks. An anti-aircraft training facility was established 100 kilometres (62.1 mi) north of Sault Ste. Marie on the shores of Lake Superior
Great Lakes
The Great Lakes are a collection of freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada – United States border. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total surface, coming in second by volume...

. Barrage balloon
Barrage balloon
A barrage balloon is a large balloon tethered with metal cables, used to defend against low-level aircraft attack by damaging the aircraft on collision with the cables, or at least making the attacker's approach more difficult. Some versions carried small explosive charges that would be pulled up...

s were installed, and early warning radar bases were established at 5 locations in northern Ontario (Kapuskasing, Cochrane
Cochrane, Ontario
Cochrane is a town in northern Ontario, Canada. It is located east of Kapuskasing, northeast of Timmins, south of Moosonee, and north of Iroquois Falls. It is about a one-hour drive from Timmins, the major city of the region. It is the seat of Cochrane District...

, Hearst
Hearst, Ontario
Hearst is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario. It is located in Northern Ontario, approximately west of Kapuskasing, approximately north of Toronto and east of Thunder Bay on Highway 11...

, Armstrong (Thunder Bay District)
CFS Armstrong
Canadian Forces Station Armstrong is a closed General Surveillance Radar station. It is located east of Armstrong, Ontario. It was closed in 1974.It was operated as part of the Pinetree Line network controlled by NORAD.-Origins:...

, and Nakina) to watch for incoming aircraft. Military personnel were established to guard sensitive parts of the transportation infrastructure. A little over one year later, in January 1943, most of these facilities and defences were deemed excessive and removed, save a reduced military base at Sault Ste. Marie.

On January 29, 1990, Sault Ste. Marie became a flashpoint in the Meech Lake Accord
Meech Lake Accord
The Meech Lake Accord was a package of proposed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and ten provincial premiers. It was intended to persuade the government of the Province of Quebec to endorse the 1982 Canadian Constitution and increase...

 constitutional debate when council passed a resolution declaring English the city's official language and the sole language for provision of municipal services. The Sault Ste. Marie language resolution
Sault Ste. Marie language resolution
The Sault Ste. Marie language resolution was a government motion passed on January 29, 1990 by Sault Ste. Marie City Council, the governing body of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, which resolved that English was the sole working language of city government...

 was not the first of its kind in Ontario, but because Sault Ste. Marie was the largest municipality to have passed such a resolution and the first to do so although it had a sizable Franco-Ontarian
Franco-Ontarian
Franco-Ontarians are French Canadian or francophone residents of the Canadian province of Ontario. They are sometimes known as "Ontarois"....

 population, the council's action was very controversial. Many objections were raised by the French-speaking population.

The MS Norgoma
Norgoma
MS Norgoma was a Canadian package freighter and passenger ferry, that could also transport automobiles on a limited basis. Originally constructed as a steam-powered ship in 1950, the SS Norgoma primarily sailed the route from her home port of Owen Sound to Sault Ste. Marie, providing a five-day...

, a Canadian passenger ship, is a museum ship
Museum ship
A museum ship, or sometimes memorial ship, is a ship that has been preserved and converted into a museum open to the public, for educational or memorial purposes...

 in the Great Lakes
Great Lakes
The Great Lakes are a collection of freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada – United States border. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total surface, coming in second by volume...

 at Sault Ste. Marie.

Economy


The city has made a name for itself in steel-making, and Essar Steel Algoma (formerly Algoma Steel) is the largest single employer with 3500 employees at the main plant and approximately 553 (440 unionized and 113 non-unionized) at an adjacent tube mill operated by Tenaris
Tenaris
Tenaris is a global manufacturer and supplier of seamless and welded steel pipe products and provider of pipe handling, stocking and distribution services to the oil and gas, energy and mechanical industries...

. During the 1940s, the steel and chromium operations were of substantial importance to the war effort in Canada and the United States. Algoma Steel and the Chromium Mining and Smelting Corporation were key producers for transportation and military machines. The Huron Central Railway
Huron Central Railway
Huron Central Railway is a Canadian railway operating in northern Ontario, operated by Genesee & Wyoming Canada Inc., the Canadian subsidiary of Genesee & Wyoming Inc....

 is important to the operation of the steel operation, but Genesee and Wyoming, Inc., owner of the railway, has announced its intention to discontinue operations, but has continued to operate under an agreement which terminates on August 15, 2010.

In the early 1960s and 1970s, Sault Ste. Marie was a booming town. However, as time passed and foreign imports became a vital reality of business success, the demand for the town's steel industry diminished. Since the late 1980s, Algoma Steel (Currently Essar Steel Algoma) had declared bankruptcy twice and laid off large numbers of workers. Most recently, Algoma (Essar) was bailed out by the Ontario government, which promised interest-free loans.

The company experienced a swift turnaround in 2004 from its earlier financial troubles in the 1990s, largely due to the rising costs of steel and the high demand for steel in China. Denis Turcotte, CEO, was named Canadian CEO of the year in 2006 for his efforts. An offer to purchase ASI by the Essar Group (India) had been recommended by the ASI Board of Directors and was approved. The company was officially sold to the Essar Group in June 2007 for $1.6 billion. Essar Steel Algoma is currently the most profitable steel company per unit on a global scale.

Forestry is also a major local industry, especially at St. Mary's Paper
St. Mary's Paper
St. Marys Paper Ltd. is a manufacturer of pulp and paper, with its mill located in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. The mill is situated on the St. Marys River waterfront, just east of Essar Steel Algoma.-History:...

 which has been reopened as of June 2007 under new ownership. Also related to wood products is Flakeboard Ltd., which employs over 110 people in the community along with an adjacent melamine factory which manufactures products with Flakeboard's materials. Such examples of this are furniture and cupboards where a finish is added to the product. Together both of Flakeboard's factories employ about 150 people. The Huron Central Railway
Huron Central Railway
Huron Central Railway is a Canadian railway operating in northern Ontario, operated by Genesee & Wyoming Canada Inc., the Canadian subsidiary of Genesee & Wyoming Inc....

 is important to these local industries, too.

Furthermore, the business process outsourcing industry, with Three call centre
Call centre
A call centre or call center is a centralised office used for the purpose of receiving and transmitting a large volume of requests by telephone. A call centre is operated by a company to administer incoming product support or information inquiries from consumers. Outgoing calls for telemarketing,...

s, Nucomm, Cross Country and Sutherland Global Services located within city limits employ about 1500 people. The largest employer of the Three call centres is Sutherland Global Services. The call centre industry has become a large employer in Sault Ste. Marie which contributed to the economic turn around of the city in the late 1990s.

Another very large employer in the community is the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation
Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation
The Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation , known for corporate branding purposes simply as OLG since 2006, is a Crown Corporation of the Government of Ontario, Canada. It is responsible for the province's lotteries, charity and Aboriginal casinos, commercial casinos, and slot machines at...

 (OLG). The OLG has a corporate office located within the city on the waterfront and employs about 900 people in Sault Ste. Marie between the corporate office and OLG Casino Sault Ste. Marie. The prize centre used to reside within the city but was moved back to Toronto (York Mills) in 2009. Its role in Sault Ste. Marie has diminished, although only slightly; however, it is still the fourth largest employer next only to Essar Steel Algoma, Sault Area Hospital and the call centre industry.

Sault Ste. Marie is one of only a few cities in Ontario where a municipal bylaw prevents stores from opening on December 26. As in Sudbury, retail stores in Sault Ste. Marie instead begin their post-Christmas Boxing Day
Boxing Day
Boxing Day is a bank or public holiday that occurs on 26 December, or the first or second weekday after Christmas Day, depending on national or regional laws. It is observed in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and some other Commonwealth nations. In Ireland, it is recognized as...

 sales on December 27. A municipal referendum
Referendum
A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. This may result in the adoption of a new constitution, a constitutional amendment, a law, the recall of an elected official or simply a specific government policy. It is a form of...

 to determine whether voters favour allowing stores to open on Boxing Day was held concurrently with the 2010 municipal election
Ontario municipal elections, 2010
The 2010 municipal elections in Ontario were held on October 25, 2010.Voters in the province of Ontario elected mayors, councillors, school board trustees and all other elected officials in all of the province's municipalities....

. Although voter turnout was not high enough to make the referendum legally binding, meaning that Sault Ste. Marie City Council
Sault Ste. Marie City Council
The Corporation of the City of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario is run by a city council of 12 councillors, representing six wards, and a mayor.-Mayor:...

 is free to disregard the results if it chooses to revisit the issue in the future, 60.77 per cent of voters opposed allowing stores to open.

Transportation



Sault Ste. Marie is served by Highway 17
Highway 17 (Ontario)
King's Highway 17, more commonly known as Highway 17, is a provincially maintained highway and the primary route of the Trans-Canada Highway through the Canadian province of Ontario. It begins at the Manitoba border west of Kenora and ends south of Arnprior at the western terminus of Highway 417, ...

, which is a segment of the Trans-Canada Highway
Trans-Canada Highway
The Trans-Canada Highway is a federal-provincial highway system that joins the ten provinces of Canada. It is, along with the Trans-Siberian Highway and Australia's Highway 1, one of the world's longest national highways, with the main route spanning 8,030 km...

 in the region. The highway connects the city to Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
-In Canada:Thunder Bay is the name of three places in the province of Ontario, Canada along Lake Superior:*Thunder Bay District, Ontario, a district in Northwestern Ontario*Thunder Bay, a city in Thunder Bay District*Thunder Bay, Unorganized, Ontario...

 to the northwest and Sudbury to the east. The International Bridge
Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge
The Sault Ste. Marie International Bridge, often known just as the International Bridge, spans the St. Marys River between the United States and Canada connecting the twin cities of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan and Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. It serves as the northern terminus of Interstate 75...

 connects downtown Sault Ste. Marie to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan
Sault Ste. Marie is a city in and the county seat of Chippewa County in the U.S. state of Michigan. It is in the north-eastern end of Michigan's Upper Peninsula, on the Canadian border, separated from its twin city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, by the St. Marys River...

, becoming Interstate 75
Interstate 75
Interstate 75 is a major north–south Interstate Highway in the Great Lakes and Southeastern regions of the United States. It travels from State Road 826 and State Road 924 in Hialeah, Florida to Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, at the Ontario, Canada, border...

 on the American side. Interstate 75 continues south to Saginaw
Saginaw, Michigan
Saginaw is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the seat of Saginaw County. The city of Saginaw was once a thriving lumber town and manufacturing center. Saginaw and Saginaw County lie in the Flint/Tri-Cities region of Michigan...

, Flint
Flint, Michigan
Flint is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and is located along the Flint River, northwest of Detroit. The U.S. Census Bureau reports the 2010 population to be placed at 102,434, making Flint the seventh largest city in Michigan. It is the county seat of Genesee County which lies in the...

, and Detroit before crossing into Ohio
Ohio
Ohio is a Midwestern state in the United States. The 34th largest state by area in the U.S.,it is the 7th‑most populous with over 11.5 million residents, containing several major American cities and seven metropolitan areas with populations of 500,000 or more.The state's capital is Columbus...

, eventually terminating in Hialeah, Florida
Hialeah, Florida
Hialeah is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 226,419. As of 2009, the population estimate by the U. S...

, near Miami.

The International Bridge also directs traffic from the American side of the border via Sault Ste. Marie's new transport route that runs from the bridge to Second Line. This new limited-access roadway, known as "Carmen's Way" after the late MP Carmen Provenzano
Carmen Provenzano
Carmen Provenzano was a Canadian politician. He represented the Sault Ste. Marie electoral district in the Canadian House of Commons from 1997 to 2004. He was a member of the Liberal Party of Canada....

, will make it much easier for transport trucks to gain access to main roads. The route of Carmen's Way has a wide grassy right-of-way on both sides of the roadway, to facilitate future expansion of its lane capacity. Planning is underway to eventually connect Second Line East to the new four-lane section of Highway 17 that recently opened east of the city.

The city also plays an inherited role in marine transportation, with the locks in Michigan
Michigan
Michigan is a U.S. state located in the Great Lakes Region of the United States of America. The name Michigan is the French form of the Ojibwa word mishigamaa, meaning "large water" or "large lake"....

 being an integral component of the St. Lawrence Seaway. However, the city also holds a small-scale lock which is used by small boats and other pleasure craft in the summer. Also recently opened is a multi-modal terminal designed to take advantage of the Sault as a rail, road, and water transportation hub.

Sault Ste. Marie is also served by Sault Ste. Marie Airport
Sault Ste. Marie Airport
Sault Ste. Marie Airport, , is an international airport located west-southwest of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada at the far eastern end of Lake Superior and the beginning of the St. Mary's River.-History:...

 and Sault Transit Services
Sault Transit Services
Sault Transit Services is a local public transportation service serving the city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.It currently operates a fleet of 26 buses, as well as 7 para transit buses. It serves over 1.63 million passenger trips annually, and covers 1.6 million kilometers annually.The cash fare...

. The city is no longer linked to any other major cities by passenger rail, but is part of the Algoma Central Railway
Algoma Central Railway
The Algoma Central Railway is a railway in Northern Ontario that operates between Sault Ste. Marie and Hearst, with a branch line to Michipicoten. The area served by the railway is sparsely populated, with few roads...

 network, which runs north from the city to the small town of Hearst
Hearst, Ontario
Hearst is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario. It is located in Northern Ontario, approximately west of Kapuskasing, approximately north of Toronto and east of Thunder Bay on Highway 11...

. In 2006 the city's Member of Parliament, Tony Martin
Tony Martin (politician)
Anthony A. "Tony" Martin is a Canadian politician. He was a member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario from 1990 to 2003, representing the riding of Sault Ste. Marie for the Ontario New Democratic Party . He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons for the federal NDP in 2004, again...

, called for passenger rail service to be reinstated between Sault Ste. Marie and Sudbury.

Tourism



Area tourist attractions include the Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre
Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre
Canadian Bushplane Heritage Centre , located on the north bank of the St. Marys River in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, is dedicated to preserving the history of bush flying and forest protection in Canada...

, the Sault Ste. Marie Canal
Sault Ste. Marie Canal
The Sault Ste. Marie Canal is a National Historic Site of Canada in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. The canal is part of the shipping route from the Atlantic Ocean to Lake Superior and includes a set of locks to bypass the rapids on the St. Marys River....

 National Historic Site, boat tours of the Sault locks (which connect Lake Superior
Lake Superior
Lake Superior is the largest of the five traditionally-demarcated Great Lakes of North America. It is bounded to the north by the Canadian province of Ontario and the U.S. state of Minnesota, and to the south by the U.S. states of Wisconsin and Michigan. It is the largest freshwater lake in the...

 with the lower Great Lakes
Great Lakes
The Great Lakes are a collection of freshwater lakes located in northeastern North America, on the Canada – United States border. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total surface, coming in second by volume...

), Whitefish Island, the Ermatinger-Clergue National Historic Site, Casino Sault Ste. Marie
Casino Sault Ste. Marie
OLG Casino Sault Ste. Marie is a charity casino in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. Operated by the Ontario Lottery and Gaming Corporation, it was Northern Ontario's first full-time casino when it opened in 1999. The casino is located near the International Bridge which links the city to Sault Ste...

, the Art Gallery of Algoma
Art Gallery of Algoma
The Art Gallery of Algoma is an art museum located on the St. Marys River in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Featuring local, national, and international artists, it holds a collection of over 4,000 works of art.-External links:*...

 and the Algoma Central Railway
Algoma Central Railway
The Algoma Central Railway is a railway in Northern Ontario that operates between Sault Ste. Marie and Hearst, with a branch line to Michipicoten. The area served by the railway is sparsely populated, with few roads...

's popular Agawa Canyon
Agawa Canyon
The Agawa Canyon is a shallow canyon located deep in the sparsely populated Algoma District in the Canadian province of Ontario. It was created 1.2 billion years ago by faulting along the Canadian Shield and then enlarged by the erosive action of the Agawa River...

 Tour Train. Nearby parks include Pancake Bay Provincial Park
Pancake Bay Provincial Park
Pancake Bay is a sheltered, south-facing bay on the eastern shore of Lake Superior, north of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. A beautiful 3.5 km sand beach lines the bay, and ancient beach ridges are visible more inland. The ecology of the region is characteristic of the Great Lakes-St...

 and Batchawana Bay Provincial Park
Batchawana Bay Provincial Park
Batchawana Bay Provincial Park is a park in Ontario, Canada, located from Sault Ste. Marie on Batchawana Bay off Lake Superior. It is a day-park , and is operated by the Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources. Although located on an official Indian reserve, all are welcome to attend.It is known for...

 and Lake Superior Provincial Park
Lake Superior Provincial Park
Lake Superior Provincial Park is one of the largest provincial parks in Ontario, covering about along the northeastern shores of Lake Superior between Wawa and Sault Ste. Marie in Algoma District, Northeastern Ontario, Canada...

. Winter activities are also an asset to Sault Ste Marie's tourism industry with the annual Bon Soo Winter Carnival
Bon Soo Winter Carnival
The Bon Soo Winter Carnival is an annual winter carnival in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. The carnival, held every February, began in 1964, and has grown to become one of Ontario's top 50 festivals as well as Canada's second largest winter carnival next to the Montreal Carnivale in Quebec...

, Searchmont
Searchmont, Ontario
Searchmont is a community with a local services board in the Canadian province of Ontario. The services board covers the unincorporated townships of Deroche, Gaudette, Hodgins and Shields in the Algoma District northeast of Sault Ste. Marie...

 Resort as a great ski and snowboard destination, Stokely Creek Lodge (cross country ski resort) and Hiawatha a nearby cross country ski trails. The city also hosts a large snowmobile trail system that criss-crosses the province of Ontario.

A new non-motorized HUB trail is being created around the city (20 km) so that walkers, rollerbladers and cyclists (snowshoeing and cross country skiing in winter) can enjoy the beautiful and convenient circle tour around town. The Voyageur Hiking Trail
Voyageur Hiking Trail
The Voyageur Hiking Trail is a public hiking trail between Sudbury and Thunder Bay in Northern Ontario, Canada. The name honours the early European fur traders of the region who traveled largely by canoe and were known as 'voyageurs’ and ‘coureurs des bois’ The trail is used by all ages and levels...

, a long-distance trail that will eventually span from Sudbury to Thunder Bay
Thunder Bay
-In Canada:Thunder Bay is the name of three places in the province of Ontario, Canada along Lake Superior:*Thunder Bay District, Ontario, a district in Northwestern Ontario*Thunder Bay, a city in Thunder Bay District*Thunder Bay, Unorganized, Ontario...

, originated in Sault Ste. Marie in 1973. The Roberta Bondar Pavilion was created to commemorate the first female astronaut to go to the moon.

The city is also home to the Station Mall
Station Mall
The Station Mall in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario is the largest shopping mall in Northern Ontario, with 120 stores and of retail space . Built in 1973, the mall has since undergone two major expansions. Its major tenants include Sears, Zellers and a 12-screen Galaxy Cinemas movie theatre complex. The...

, one of the largest shopping malls in Northern Ontario.

Demographics

Census Population
1871 879
1881 780
1891 2,414
1901 7,169
1911 10,984
1921 21,092
1931 23,082
1941 25,620
1951 32,452
1961 43,088
1971 80,332
1981 82,697
1991 81,476
2001 74,566
2006 74,948

Similar to many other Northern Ontario
Northern Ontario
Northern Ontario is a region of the Canadian province of Ontario which lies north of Lake Huron , the French River and Lake Nipissing. The region has a land area of 802,000 km2 and constitutes 87% of the land area of Ontario, although it contains only about 6% of the population...

 municipalities, Sault Ste. Marie's population has declined sharply in the 1990s and early 2000s, with many individuals migrating to larger cities in southern Ontario. Since the early 1990s, the city had dropped from 84,000 to 74,566 residents, but in the 2006 census the city's population grew very slightly to 74,948. The city's census agglomeration, consisting of the townships of Laird
Laird, Ontario
Laird is a township and village in the Algoma District in Northern Ontario, Canada. The township had a population of 1,078 in the Canada 2006 Census.-Communities:The township includes the named communities of Laird and Neebish...

, Prince
Prince, Ontario
Prince is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario, located within the Algoma District northwest of Sault Ste. Marie. Although the township is not part of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, some municipal services are contracted to the city....

 and Macdonald, Meredith and Aberdeen Additional and the First Nations reserves
Indian reserve
In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a "tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band." The Act also specifies that land reserved for the use and benefit of a band which is not...

 of Garden River and Rankin
Rankin Location 15D, Ontario
Rankin Location 15D is a First Nations reserve in Algoma District in northeastern Ontario, Canada. It is bounded on the north, west and south by the city of Sault Ste. Marie, and on the east by Garden River First Nations reserve. It is one of the reserve locations for the Batchawana First...

, had a total population of 80,098, up from 78,908 in 2001.

The population has now increased with the improving economic climate. Some employers are currently reporting labour shortages in several job categories.

The population under 14 still continues to be greater than those over 65 years of age.

Ethnicity


Sault Ste. Marie was at one time a haven for Italian
Italy
Italy , officially the Italian Republic languages]] under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. In each of these, Italy's official name is as follows:;;;;;;;;), is a unitary parliamentary republic in South-Central Europe. To the north it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and...

 immigrants. The city has a large concentration of ethnic Italians for a community its size. The city also has a significant First Nations
First Nations
First Nations is a term that collectively refers to various Aboriginal peoples in Canada who are neither Inuit nor Métis. There are currently over 630 recognised First Nations governments or bands spread across Canada, roughly half of which are in the provinces of Ontario and British Columbia. The...

 population, with three reserves
Indian reserve
In Canada, an Indian reserve is specified by the Indian Act as a "tract of land, the legal title to which is vested in Her Majesty, that has been set apart by Her Majesty for the use and benefit of a band." The Act also specifies that land reserved for the use and benefit of a band which is not...

 nearby.

Those who are of Europe
Europe
Europe is, by convention, one of the world's seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally 'divided' from Asia to its east by the watershed divides of the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River, the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting...

an origin constitute 91.6% of the population, including those who are of Italian
Italian people
The Italian people are an ethnic group that share a common Italian culture, ancestry and speak the Italian language as a mother tongue. Within Italy, Italians are defined by citizenship, regardless of ancestry or country of residence , and are distinguished from people...

, French
French people
The French are a nation that share a common French culture and speak the French language as a mother tongue. Historically, the French population are descended from peoples of Celtic, Latin and Germanic origin, and are today a mixture of several ethnic groups...

, English
English people
The English are a nation and ethnic group native to England, who speak English. The English identity is of early mediaeval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Anglecynn. England is now a country of the United Kingdom, and the majority of English people in England are British Citizens...

 and Nordic
Northern Europe
Northern Europe is the northern part or region of Europe. Northern Europe typically refers to the seven countries in the northern part of the European subcontinent which includes Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Norway, Finland and Sweden...

 descent. Aboriginals or Native Canadians, constitute 7.8%, and those who are of Chinese
Han Chinese
Han Chinese are an ethnic group native to China and are the largest single ethnic group in the world.Han Chinese constitute about 92% of the population of the People's Republic of China , 98% of the population of the Republic of China , 78% of the population of Singapore, and about 20% of the...

, Asian
Asian people
Asian people or Asiatic people is a term with multiple meanings that refers to people who descend from a portion of Asia's population.- Central Asia :...

, African
African people
African people refers to natives, inhabitants, or citizen of Africa and to people of African descent.-Etymology:Many etymological hypotheses that have been postulated for the ancient name "Africa":...

, and Filipino
Filipino Canadian
Filipino Canadians are Canadians of Filipino ancestry. Filipino-Canadians are the fourth-largest subgroup of the Overseas Filipinos.Canada only had a small population of Filipinos until the late 20th century. To date, there are currently around 400,000 Filipino Canadians in Canada, most of them...

 ancestry make up the remainder of the population.

Religion


Christianity
Christianity
Christianity is a monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings...

 is the chief faith in the city, with Roman Catholicism being the largest denomination. This can be attributed to the large number of citizens with a traditional Italian-Catholic heritage. After Catholicism and Protestantism, those who identify as being non-religious make up the third largest portion of the city's population. The largest non-Christian religion is Buddhism
Buddhism
Buddhism is a religion and philosophy encompassing a variety of traditions, beliefs and practices, largely based on teachings attributed to Siddhartha Gautama, commonly known as the Buddha . The Buddha lived and taught in the northeastern Indian subcontinent some time between the 6th and 4th...

 numbering 125 members, with very small communities of Jews
Judaism
Judaism ) is the "religion, philosophy, and way of life" of the Jewish people...

, Muslims
Islam
Islam . The most common are and .   : Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~...

, Hindus
Hinduism
Hinduism is the predominant and indigenous religious tradition of the Indian Subcontinent. Hinduism is known to its followers as , amongst many other expressions...

, and Sikhs
Sikhism
Sikhism is a monotheistic religion founded during the 15th century in the Punjab region, by Guru Nanak Dev and continued to progress with ten successive Sikh Gurus . It is the fifth-largest organized religion in the world and one of the fastest-growing...

.

Government



The Corporation of the City of Sault Ste. Marie is run by a city council of 12 councillors (representing six wards) and a mayor. The most recent municipal election was held on October 25, 2010, and the mayoralty was won by Debbie Amaroso
Debbie Amaroso
Debbie Amaroso, née Jannison is a Canadian politician, who was elected mayor of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario in the 2010 municipal election....

.

The city's crest contains the words "Ojibwa Kitche Gumeeng Odena" (from Ojibwe gichi-gamiing oodena) which means "Town by the large body of water of the Ojibwe" (or simply "Town by Lake Superior") in the Ojibwe language
Ojibwe language
Ojibwe , also called Anishinaabemowin, is an indigenous language of the Algonquian language family. Ojibwe is characterized by a series of dialects that have local names and frequently local writing systems...

.

The city is served by the Sault Ste. Marie
Sault Ste. Marie (electoral district)
Sault Ste. Marie is a federal electoral district in Ontario, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1968.In 2004, due to population changes in boundary distribution, the riding expanded significantly to include a significant portion of the Algoma District, from...

 federal electoral district
Electoral district (Canada)
An electoral district in Canada, also known as a constituency or a riding, is a geographical constituency upon which Canada's representative democracy is based...

 and the Sault Ste. Marie provincial electoral district
Sault Ste. Marie (provincial electoral district)
Sault Ste. Marie is a provincial electoral district in the Legislative Assembly of Ontario since 1890 when it was created. The electoral district consists of the City of Sault Ste. Marie, bounded by Prince Township, and the Rankin Indian Reserve 15D....

. The boundaries of these two districts are not identical; the provincial district encompasses the city alone, while the federal district extends northerly to the Montreal River
Montreal River (Algoma–Sudbury, Ontario)
The Montreal River is a river in Algoma and Sudbury Districts, Ontario, Canada. It is a tributary of Lake Superior.-Course:The river begins at Montreal Lake at the community of Island Lake in northwest Sudbury District...

 and east to Bruce Mines
Bruce Mines, Ontario
Bruce Mines is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario, located on the north shore of Lake Huron in the Algoma District along Highway 17. The town of Bruce Mines has a population of 584 residents. The current mayor of Bruce Mines is Gordon Post.- History :...

 and St. Joseph Island
St. Joseph Island
St. Joseph Island is a Canadian island in Lake Huron, near the mouth of the St. Marys River which connects Lake Huron with Lake Superior. It is the second largest island in Lake Huron and the third largest in the Great Lakes overall, trailing Manitoulin and Lake Superior's Isle Royale.St...

. The city's current federal Member of Parliament is Bryan Hayes
Bryan Hayes
Bryan Hayes is a Canadian politician. He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons for the federal Conservative Party of Canada in the 2011 election, representing the Sault Ste. Marie riding.-Background:...

, and its Member of Provincial Parliament is David Orazietti
David Orazietti
David Michael Orazietti is a politician in Ontario, Canada. He is a member of the Legislative Assembly of Ontario, representing the riding of Sault Ste. Marie for the Ontario Liberal Party.-Background:...

.

See also Neighbourhoods in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
Neighbourhoods in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario
The city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada contains a significant number of named residential neighbourhoods, including Bayview, Broadview Gardens, Brookfield, Buckley, Carpin Beach, Cedar Heights, East Korah, Eastside, Fort Creek, Grandview Gardens, Korah, Manitou Park, McQueen, Meadow Park,...

.

Education


The city is home to Sault College
Sault College
Sault College of Applied Arts and Technology is one of 24 publicly funded colleges in Ontario. Sault College is located in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario and began in 1965 as the Ontario Vocational Centre...

, a college of applied arts and technology, and to Algoma University. While the vast majority of programs at Algoma University and Sault College are delivered on the respective campuses, both institutions also offer joint programs with Lake Superior State University
Lake Superior State University
Lake Superior State University is a small public university in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. It is Michigan's smallest public university with an enrollment around 3,000 students. Due to its proximity to the border, notably the twin city of Sault Ste...

 in Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. On June 18, 2008, Algoma University became an independent university, ending their longtime affiliation with Laurentian University
Laurentian University
Laurentian University , was incorporated on March 28, 1960, is a mid-sized bilingual university in Greater Sudbury, Ontario, Canada....

 in Sudbury. A new school, Shingwauk Kinoomaage Gamig
Shingwauk Kinoomaage Gamig
Shingwauk Kinoomaage Gamig is a proposed Anishinaabe university to be run in conjunction with a newly-independent Algoma University in Sault Ste. Marie and the Shingwauk Education Trust. In 2006, Shingwauk Kinoomaage Gamig and Algoma University signed a covenant that promised to assist each...

(University), is poised to launch as a federated school
Federated school
An affiliated school is an educational institution that operates independently, but also has a formal collaborative agreement with another, usually larger institution that may have some level of control or influence over its academic policies, standards or programs.While a university may have one...

 of Algoma University. It will offer courses in Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe
Anishinaabe or Anishinabe—or more properly Anishinaabeg or Anishinabek, which is the plural form of the word—is the autonym often used by the Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonquin peoples. They all speak closely related Anishinaabemowin/Anishinaabe languages, of the Algonquian language family.The meaning...

 culture and language.

Sault Ste. Marie is home to both the Algoma District School Board
Algoma District School Board
Algoma District School Board is a public school board in the Canadian province of Ontario. The school board is the school district administrator for the Algoma District.- Blind River :* W.C...

 and the Huron-Superior Catholic District School Board
Huron-Superior Catholic District School Board
The Huron-Superior Catholic District School Board is a separate school board for Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, and surrounding communities.-Sault Ste. Marie:* Holy Angels Learning Centre* St. Basil Secondary* St. Mary's College-Sault Ste. Marie:...

, and is part of the Conseil scolaire de district du Grand Nord de l'Ontario
Conseil scolaire de district du Grand Nord de l'Ontario
The Conseil scolaire de district du Grand Nord de l'Ontario manages the French-language schools in much of Northern Ontario. The area in which this school board operates covers 64,238 km² of Ontario....

 and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique du Nouvel-Ontario
Conseil scolaire de district catholique du Nouvel-Ontario
The Conseil scolaire catholique du Nouvel-Ontario is a school board in the Canadian province of Ontario. The board is the school district administrator for French language Roman Catholic separate schools in the city of Greater Sudbury and the districts of Sudbury, Manitoulin and Algoma.-Secondary:*...

. It is also home to the following high schools:
  • Alexander Henry High School (English, public, trade and adult education)
  • White Pines Collegiate & Vocational School (English, public)
  • Korah Collegiate & Vocational School
    Korah Collegiate & Vocational School
    Korah Collegiate and Vocational School is a public high school located on Goulais Avenue in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. It was established in 1967 by the Algoma District School Board...

     (English, public, offers the International Baccalaureate Programme)
  • École secondaire Notre-Dame-des-Grands-Lacs (French, Catholic)
  • St. Basil Secondary
    St. Basil Secondary
    St. Basil Secondary is a Canadian high school in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. It was established in September 1991 by the Huron-Superior Catholic District School Board on St. Georges Avenue. The school was renovated and was expanded soon after St. Mary's College moved locations...

     (English and some Italian Catholic)
  • St. Mary's College
    St. Mary's College, Sault Ste. Marie
    St. Mary's College is a high school in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. It was established in 1956 by Basilian priests as an all-boys Catholic high school on St. Georges Avenue. As the school grew in popularity and size, St. Mary's began admitting girls in September 1987...

     (English with French Immersion Program, Catholic)
  • Superior Heights Collegiate & Vocational School (new high school amalgamating of Sir James Dunn Collegiate and Vocational School and Bawating High School on the Bawating site (English and French Immersion, public)

Sports


The Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds
Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds
The Sault Ste. Marie Greyhounds are a major junior ice hockey team in the Ontario Hockey League. The Greyhounds play home games at the Essar Centre. The present team was founded in 1962 as a team in the Northern Ontario Hockey Association. The Greyhounds name has been used by several ice hockey...

 are the city's most recognized sports team having existed since the formation of the Northern Ontario Hockey Association
Northern Ontario Hockey Association
The Northern Ontario Hockey Association is minor and junior level ice hockey governing body. The NOHA is sanctioned by the Ontario Hockey Federation and Hockey Canada. The major league run by the NOHA is the Northern Ontario Junior Hockey League of the Canadian Junior A Hockey League...

 in 1919. The Hounds won national championships twice including the 1993 Memorial Cup
Memorial Cup
The Memorial Cup is a junior ice hockey club championship trophy awarded annually to the Canadian Hockey League champion. It is awarded following a four-team, round robin tournament between a host team and the champions of the CHL's three member leagues: the Ontario Hockey League , Quebec Major...

 and the 1924 Allan Cup
Allan Cup
The Allan Cup is the trophy awarded annually to the national senior amateur men’s ice hockey champions of Canada. It has been competed for since 1909. The current champion is the Clarenville Caribous hockey club of Newfoundland and Labrador.-History:...

. The Greyhounds play in the Essar Centre, a state-of-the-art downtown arena that replaced the Sault Memorial Gardens
Sault Memorial Gardens
The Sault Memorial Gardens was the focal point of ice hockey in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, for 57 years from 1949 to 2006. It was located in the heart of the downtown district at 169 Queen Street...

 in 2006. The current Hounds have retired four jerseys since joining the Ontario Hockey League
Ontario Hockey League
The Ontario Hockey League is one of the three Major Junior ice hockey leagues which constitute the Canadian Hockey League. The league is for players aged 15-20.The OHL also operates under the Ontario Hockey Federation of Hockey Canada....

 in 1972: #1 John Vanbiesbrouck
John Vanbiesbrouck
John "Beezer" Vanbiesbrouck is a retired professional ice hockey goaltender, who was inducted into the United States Hockey Hall of Fame in 2007. He played in the National Hockey League for the New York Rangers, Florida Panthers, Philadelphia Flyers, New York Islanders, and New Jersey Devils...

, #4 Craig Hartsburg
Craig Hartsburg
Craig William Hartsburg is a retired Canadian professional hockey player and associate coach in the National Hockey League for the Calgary Flames. He also coached in the Ontario Hockey League. He has previously been an NHL head coach with the Chicago Blackhawks, the Mighty Ducks of Anaheim and...

, #10 Ron Francis
Ron Francis
Ronald Michael Francis, Jr. is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey centre who played 23 seasons in the National Hockey League for the Hartford Whalers, Pittsburgh Penguins, Carolina Hurricanes and Toronto Maple Leafs...

 and #99 Wayne Gretzky
Wayne Gretzky
Wayne Douglas Gretzky, CC is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player and former head coach. Nicknamed "The Great One", he is generally regarded as the best player in the history of the National Hockey League , and has been called "the greatest hockey player ever" by many sportswriters,...

.

Sault Ste. Marie also had a team in hockey's first professional league. The Sault Ste. Marie Marlboros or 'Canadian Soo' team played in the International Professional Hockey League
International Professional Hockey League
The International Professional Hockey League was the first fully professional ice hockey league, operating from 1904 to 1907. It was formed by Jack 'Doc' Gibson, a dentist who played hockey throughout Ontario before settling in Houghton, Michigan. The IPHL was a five team circuit which included...

 from 1904 to 1907.

Sault Ste. Marie teams boast a number of Hockey Hall of Fame
Hockey Hall of Fame
The Hockey Hall of Fame is located in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Dedicated to the history of ice hockey, it is both a museum and a hall of fame. It holds exhibits about players, teams, National Hockey League records, memorabilia and NHL trophies, including the Stanley Cup...

 members including Sault natives Phil Esposito
Phil Esposito
Philip Anthony Esposito, OC is a former Canadian professional ice hockey centre who played 18 seasons in the National Hockey League for the Chicago Black Hawks, Boston Bruins and New York Rangers. He is an Honoured Member of the Hockey Hall of Fame and is considered to be one of the best to have...

, Tony Esposito
Tony Esposito
For the Italian musician, please see Tony Esposito .Anthony James "Tony O" Esposito is a retired Canadian-American professional ice hockey goaltender, who played in the National Hockey League, most notably for the Chicago Black Hawks. He was one of the pioneers of the now popular butterfly style....

 and Ron Francis
Ron Francis
Ronald Michael Francis, Jr. is a retired Canadian professional ice hockey centre who played 23 seasons in the National Hockey League for the Hartford Whalers, Pittsburgh Penguins, Carolina Hurricanes and Toronto Maple Leafs...

, as well as Sault team members Paul Coffey
Paul Coffey
Paul Douglas Coffey is a Canadian retired professional ice hockey defenceman in the National Hockey League. Known for his speed and scoring prowess, Coffey ranks second all-time among NHL defencemen in career goals, assists, and points, behind Ray Bourque.-Playing career:Coffey was drafted 6th...

, Bill Cook
Bill Cook
William Osser Xavier Cook was a Canadian professional ice hockey right winger who played for the New York Rangers in the National Hockey League and Saskatoon Crescents in the Pacific Coast Hockey Association....

, Bun Cook
Bun Cook
Frederick Joseph "Bun" Cook was a Canadian professional ice hockey forward who played for the New York Rangers and Boston Bruins in the National Hockey League and the Saskatoon Crescents in the Pacific Coast Hockey Association.Cook was part of the Bread Line with his brother Bill Cook and Frank...

, Wayne Gretzky
Wayne Gretzky
Wayne Douglas Gretzky, CC is a Canadian former professional ice hockey player and former head coach. Nicknamed "The Great One", he is generally regarded as the best player in the history of the National Hockey League , and has been called "the greatest hockey player ever" by many sportswriters,...

, Alex Bossio, Newsy Lalonde
Newsy Lalonde
Édouard Cyrille "Newsy" Lalonde was a Canadian professional ice hockey forward in the National Hockey League and a professional lacrosse player, regarded as one of hockey's and lacrosse's greatest players of the first half of the 20th century and one of sport's most colourful characters...

 and George McNamara
George McNamara
George Andrew McNamara was a Canadian professional ice hockey defenceman.When George was a youngster, his family moved to Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario and it was in the Soo that he first learned the game of hockey. McNamara made his professional hockey debut playing with The Sault Ste...

.

National Hockey League
National Hockey League
The National Hockey League is an unincorporated not-for-profit association which operates a major professional ice hockey league of 30 franchised member clubs, of which 7 are currently located in Canada and 23 in the United States...

 All-Stars
All-star
All-star is a term designating an individual as having a high level of performance in their field. Originating in sports, it has since drifted into vernacular and been borrowed heavily by the entertainment industry...

 Joe Thornton
Joe Thornton
Joseph Eric Thornton is a Canadian professional ice hockey centre and captain of the San Jose Sharks of the National Hockey League . He was selected first overall by the Boston Bruins in the 1997 NHL Entry Draft and went on to play seven seasons with the club, five as its Captain. During the...

, and Jeff Carter
Jeff Carter
Jeff Carter is a Canadian professional ice hockey centre, an alternate captain for the Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League...

 played their entire OHL careers as members of the Greyhounds. Chicago Blackhawks
Chicago Blackhawks
The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. They are members of the Central Division of the Western Conference of the National Hockey League . They have won four Stanley Cup championships since their founding in 1926, most recently coming in 2009-10...

 goalie Marty Turco
Marty Turco
Marty Turco is a Canadian professional ice hockey goaltender who is currently an unrestricted free agent. He has played professionally with the Dallas Stars and Chicago Blackhawks. Because of his puckhandling prowess, Canadian hockey personality Don Cherry named Turco: "the smartest goalie in the...

, Pittsburgh Penguins
Pittsburgh Penguins
The Pittsburgh Penguins are a professional ice hockey team based in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League . The franchise was founded in 1967 as one of the first expansion teams during the league's original...

 centre Tyler Kennedy
Tyler Kennedy
Tyler Kennedy is a Canadian professional ice hockey player, currently with the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League.-Playing career:...

 as well as Matt D'Agostini
Matt D'Agostini
Matthew D'Agostini is a Canadian professional ice hockey right winger currently playing for the St. Louis Blues of the National Hockey League...

 of the St.Louis Blues are also from Sault Ste. Marie.

Former Greyhound player and coach Ted Nolan
Ted Nolan
Theodore John Nolan is currently the Head Coach of Latvia men's national ice hockey team...

 won the Jack Adams Trophy as the NHL Coach of the Year in 1998. Paul Maurice
Paul Maurice
Paul Maurice is a former Canadian professional ice hockey player and twice head coach of the National Hockey League's Carolina Hurricanes. At age 43, Maurice became the youngest coach in NHL history to coach 1,000 games. Maurice reached this milestone on November 28, 2010...

, also of Sault Ste. Marie, is the current coach of the Carolina Hurricanes
Carolina Hurricanes
The Carolina Hurricanes are a professional ice hockey team based in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. They are members of the Southeast Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League , and play their home games at the 18,680-seat RBC Center...

.

The Sault has been host to many national and international sporting events including the 2003 Eco-Challenge North American Championship, an expedition-length (350–500 km) adventure race through unmarked wilderness by biking, trekking, paddling and using ropes.

Sault Ste. Marie was the host of the 1990 Brier
Tim Hortons Brier
The Tim Hortons Brier, or simply the Brier, is the annual Canadian men's curling championship, sanctioned by the Canadian Curling Association . The current event name refers to its main sponsor, the Tim Hortons coffee and doughnut shop chain.The Brier has been held since 1927, traditionally during...

, the Canadian men's curling championship. In 2010, it hosted the Scotties Tournament of Hearts
Scotties Tournament of Hearts
The Scotties Tournament of Hearts is an annual Canadian women's curling championship, sanctioned by the Canadian Curling Association. The winner goes on to represent Canada at the women's world curling championships. Since 1985, the winner also gets to return to the following year's tournament as...

, which serves as Canada's women's curling championship. The local curling clubs are the Soo Curlers Association and the Tarentorus Curling Club.

The 2007 and 2009 Sault Steelers captured the Canadian Senior Football Championship.

Walk of Fame




The Walk of Fame was created in 2006 as a joint project between the city of Sault Ste. Marie and its Downtown Association, and honours those from the city or the Algoma District who have made outstanding contributions to the community or significant contributions in their chosen field of work. Inductees are added on an annual basis.

Culture


Sault Ste. Marie is home to the Bon Soo winter carnival, held every February. The city also hosts the annual Algoma Fall Festival
Algoma Fall Festival
The Algoma Fall Festival is an annual arts festival, usually held in October, in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. The Algoma Arts Festival Association was incorporated in 1972 and the festival will celebrate its 40th anniversary in 2012. The festival was established to help promote the...

 which draws local and international performing artists. The Kiwanis Community Theatre and the landmark Central United Church are used for the performances. Both venues hold approximately 1,000 people. The Art Gallery of Algoma
Art Gallery of Algoma
The Art Gallery of Algoma is an art museum located on the St. Marys River in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada. Featuring local, national, and international artists, it holds a collection of over 4,000 works of art.-External links:*...

 features an extensive collection of local and international artists' work and presents regular exhibitions. Residents celebrate Community Day on the third weekend of July. The local Rotary International
Rotary International
Rotary International is an organization of service clubs known as Rotary Clubs located all over the world. The stated purpose of the organization is to bring together business and professional leaders to provide humanitarian service, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and help...

 club organizes a three-day event called Rotaryfest.

It is also the birthplace of the first youth police cadet group in Canada, the Sault Squires Police Cadet Corps. The rock band Treble Charger
Treble Charger
Treble Charger was a Canadian rock group, consisting of vocalist Greig Nori, bassist Rosie Martin and drummer Trevor MacGregor. Guitarist Bill Priddle, a founding member of the band, left in 2003. They began with a melodic indie rock style, but evolved into more of a pop punk band after signing to...

 was originally from Sault Ste. Marie.

Climate


Climate information is taken from the Sault Ste. Marie Airport
Sault Ste. Marie Airport
Sault Ste. Marie Airport, , is an international airport located west-southwest of the city of Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada at the far eastern end of Lake Superior and the beginning of the St. Mary's River.-History:...

 (YAM):

External links